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Curriculum

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Curriculum Studies and Design/UPM3

Curriculum Studies and Design/UPM3

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  • 1. CURRICULUM: AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION BY EVELYN J. SOWELL CH 5 STUDIES OF SOCIETY AND CULTUREPresented by:Tam Suet YetSantha Devi Arumugam
  • 2. LITERACY ISSUES FOR THE 21STCENTURY Society dictates purposes of education for the school curricula. How do society and culture relate to curriculum? To what extent can society affect curriculum? How do societal-cultural changes affect curriculum processes and choices of learning emphases?
  • 3. WHAT IS LITERACY? Once referred solely to one’s language abilities. Ability to use one’s native language, closely related to culture. In the U.S. defined as one’s English language ability. Other forms of literacy required today due to economic changes eg cultural, science and information.
  • 4. TYPES OF LITERACY Language literacy - definition open to interpretation (Sowell,1996). - if one does not speak English/Malay is he/she considered illiterate? Cultural literacy - social groups gather according to language, ethnic background, religion.
  • 5. - shared beliefs or culture create norms.- subjects like civics and content based syllabus for language to learn about other cultures, reduce prejudice, foster tolerance and understanding in a multicultural society (CDC).
  • 6.  Science literacy - knowledge of a variety of techniques for approaching and working on problems - understanding of scientific-mathematical features of a problem - ability to work with others on a problem - ability to cope with real world problem situations
  • 7.  Information literacy - ability to assemble, analyse, interpret and draw inferences and conclusions about information from a variety of sources (Adams & Bailey, 1993, Lenox & Walker, 1994)
  • 8. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR LEARNERS’LITERACY?Initially : Families Schools Religious organisationsNow : Schools play a major role Economic need and changing social values, busy and absentee parents an accepted phenomena Social institutions still important
  • 9. ECONOMY AND THE MALAYSIANLABOUR MARKET Employment - graduates (high pay for highly eduated, upward mobility) - non-graduates(working-class status,either white collar/blue-collar skilled or semi-skilled positions, repetitive tasks, upward mobility limited)(JobsMalaysia, 2010, Ministry of Human Resources)
  • 10. EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC CHANGES ONTHE WORKFORCE Changes are due to development and advances in information technology mostly affects unskilled workers, less manufacturing jobs Loss of jobs Retrenchment Need for spouses to work, take up additional jobs
  • 11.  Literacy in the workplace -jobs that pay well require special training or education. Strong relationship between literacy skill and occupation.
  • 12. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS :FAMILY, RELIGION AND EDUCATION Family, religion and education - handle concerns and problems related to physical, emotional and intellectual needs of children & youth. - influenced by changes in economy - rising standard of living, people aware of inequalities in living standards (communication)
  • 13. 2 million foreign workers in Malaysia Locals unwilling to work in construction sites, pumping fuel, cleaning toilets, working in restaurants. Low pay? Demeaning? Malaysian employers do not want to hire fresh graduates - poor command of English - unrealistic expectations of salary - poor character, attitude, personality..
  • 14. - frequent job switching Influence of higher educational institutions - producing graduate manpower, not nurturing talent and building intellectual capital.(Tneh, David, 2010, National University of Singapore)
  • 15. WHAT IS REQUIRED? A more holistic and flexible education system Realising that the co-relation and interdependence between education, employment and the economy cannot be disregarded, important for the moral and social wellbeing of the people (Tneh, 2010).
  • 16. Child care and socialization practicesFAMILY-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS• Initially, an economic organization depends on household ie: raising a family, good and production demand• Transferred to private sector business TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Ie: taxation• Parents who work affects children – stress between spouses & stress between children/parents bond - divorce - remarried families co-exist - violence: child/spouse abuse - grandparentsTHE SITUATION IN MALAYSIACan the curriculum do something to children who are victims ofsuch circumstances?Can they still sit for SPM/ PMR/ UPSR?
  • 17. FAMILY-RELIGION-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS• School was at first not compulsory• Up until WW2. religion, school and family are social institutions• Social capital – social networks that display concern for children ie: volunteer group family members youth group leaders TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 adults religious organizations• However, at present, adults continue self-pursuits instead of childbearingresponsibilities.• Solely left to educators and schooling
  • 18. DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND OF LEARNERS(MALAYSIA) Population: 25,715,819 (July 2009 est.) Ethnic groups: Malay 53.3%, Chinese TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 26.0%, Indigenous 11.8%, Indian 7.7%, Others 1.2% Religions: Islam (60.4%), Buddhism (19.2%), Christianity (9.1%), Hinduism (6.3%), Other/None (5.0%). Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), Chinese (various dialects), English, Tamil, Indigenous. (taken from US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2777.htm)
  • 19. LIVING CONDITIONS Peninsular vs Sabah Sarawak Urban vs Rural Areas TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Exposure Living means for extra coaching  Tuition  Musical/ Art Lessons  Games/ Sports  Books/ Television Programmes Malaysia Literacy Rate: 91.9 %
  • 20. SOCIETY & CULTURE APPLIED IN CURRICULUMPROCESSES All children after 6 should go to school. Educational and curriculum development: TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 independence to 1990 The National Education System of Malaysia was inherited from the British colonial government. Education Act of 1961 achieving national unity and development through education Reforming Society – purpose of education (schools actually shape changes society) Uses societal problems, issues and concerns as content – set goal for betterment of society
  • 21. KBSM + KBSR KBSR -reducing the previously heavily content- oriented curriculum, to concentrate on the three Rs. TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Specifies a child-centered approach-more student participation and focuses on individual differences of students. Teaching activities are designed to especially encourage participation and verbal communication Learning is to be gained through a variety of experiences
  • 22.  KBSM - a continuation of the KBSR Enable them to make choices in selecting subjects of their interest. KBSM aims to continue providing general education (taken from Educational development and reformation in Malaysia: past, present and future Rahimah Haji Ahmad Professor and Dean, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia) TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Projected roles for classroom users of curricula – interactive methods in delivering the curriculum.The question is: Our we doing it right?As we think about….
  • 23.  Social demands Culture effect Scope and complexity of curriculum Professional development of teachers Effective communication in a classroom TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Resources – time, people Evaluation – cultivating cognitive achievement through tests, scales & portfolios Acknowledge consistency in social & cultural realities
  • 24. TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 The End ……QUESTIONS????????