♪ Estonian runo-song (Estonian: regilaul) has been extensively recorded and studied, especially those sung by women. They can come in many forms, including work songs, ballads and epic legends. Much of the early scholarly study of runo-song was done in the 1860s by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald, who used them to compose the Estonian national epic, Kalevipoeg. By the 20th century, though, runo-song had largely disappeared from Estonia, with vibrant traditions existing only in the locations of Setumaa and Kihnu.
1. Image: http://travelpostcard.blogspot.com/2009/03/map-postcard-from-estonia.htmlThe Culture of ESTONIA Kathryn Ryan (Kathi) Cheryl Kelly (Kelly) Sue Meister Anna Masolva Natalia Jelezoglo March 6th, 2012 Group 3
2. Presenting The Estonian Culture In The Following Order: Geography - Kathi Ryan History - Cheryl L Kelly The Politics - Anna Maslova The Lifestyle - Kathi Ryan The Music - Sue Meister The Religion - Natalia V. JelezogloThis presentation introduces you to the culture of Estonia.We will show that the geography of Estonia greatlyinfluenced its history, politics, and people. We will sharehow the Arts, Literature, Music, and Religion played a partin shaping this diverse country, and continue to influence ittoday.
3. Geography of Estonia The two largest islands are Saaremaa (literally, island land), at 2,673 square kilometers, and Hiiumaa, at 989 square kilometers. The countrys highest point, Suur Munamägi (Egg Mountain), is in the hilly southeast and reaches 318 meters above sea level. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/europe/estonia/ Estonia is covered by about 1.8 million hectares of forest. Meadows cover about 252,000 hectares, and pastureland covers about 181,000 hectares http://countrystudies.us/estonia/6.htm
4. Geography of Estonia 1,400 natural and artificial lakes in Estonia The largest, Lake is Peipsi (3,555 square kilometers) Võrtsjärv is the second- largest, lake (270 square kilometers) The Narva and Emajõgi are among the most important of the countrys many rivers http://www.expatify.com/estonia/exploring-the-lakes-and-reservoirs-of-estonia.html http://www.expatify.com/estonia/exploring-the-lakes-and-reservoirs-of-estonia.html
5. Geography of Estonia Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland between Latvia and Russia. Area total: 45,226 sq. km (smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined. Land Boundaries: 633 km Border countries: Latvia and Russia. Climate: wet, moderate winters, cool summers. Terrain: Marshy, lowlands: flat in the north, hilly in the south. Natural Hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the spring. Geography-note: the mainland terrain is flat, boggy and partly wooded offshore lie more than 1,500 islands. Population: 1,340,194 est. ( July 2011)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Estonia#Population http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Estonia
6. Geography Communication Concept AppliedThe communication concept applied for geography is territorial marker according toBeebe, S.A., Beebe,S.J., & Ivy,D.K (2010).The Blue Book of Communication Studies (TCC CustomEdition ed., PP.104-105).Boston: Allyn and Bacon. “A thing or action that signifies an area has beenclaimed.” The territory of Estonia covers 45,227 km2 (17,462 square mi), and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate Estonia is a democratic parliamentary republic divided into 15 counties. Autonomy declared 12 April 1917 Independence Declared officially recognized 24 February 1918 1st Soviet occupation 1940-1941 2nd occupation 1944-1991 Independence restored 20 August 1991 Area total 45,225 KM2 (132) 17,413 Sq. miles Water (%) 4.45%
7. History of EstoniaMesolithic Neolithic Period Bronze Age Iron Age Early Middle The Middleperiod Ages ages 1st centuries10,000 BC 1227 BC 1800 BC 500 BC AD 1193The earliest trace Marked by the ceramics The development of Settlement sites Two larger Last corners ofof human of the Narva Culture borders between the were build around subdivisions Europe to besettlement Finnic people and the natural protection. appeared: the Christianized. Balts begin Fortress were built. parish (Kilelkond) Pope Celestine III and county called for a (Maakind) crusade against pagans. http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Estonia
8. History of Estonia Ruled by Germans, Danes, Swedes (1632), and Russians In 1237 the Knights of the Sword were absorbed into a crusading order called the Teutonic Knights The Teutonic Knights ruled southern Estonia while the Danes ruled the north Estonia prior to the 13th century resisted the attacks of the Vikings, the Danes, Swedes, and Russians Text:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Estoniahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutonic_Knights http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutonic_Knights http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutonic_Knights
9. History of Estonia Joined the Europe Region May 1, 2004. Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940. The last Russian troops left in 1994. Regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcestonia.htmImage:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Estonia
10. History of Estonia In the 16th century both Sweden and Russia wanted Estonia. The Swedes captured Tallinn in 1561. 1721, Russians defeated the Swedes and they became the ruling power under the “Peace of Nystad”. 1940,Many Jewish and Estonians were deported to Siberia. “Conformation” of independence August 20th 1991 and still celebrated to this day. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Estonia Jaan Anvelt IMAGE http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_RevolutionImage-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JaanAnvel http://www.galenfrysinger.com/estonia_tallinn_old_town.htm
11. History Communication Concept Applied Image:http://www.chicagopianos.com/estoniahistory.htmAccording to Historys Communication concept isindividual culture according toBeebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J., & Ivy,D.K(2010).The Blue Book of Communication Studies (TCC Custom Editioned., PP.32-35).Boston: Allyn and Bacon. “Individual culture is a culturethat values individual achievement and personal accomplishment.”Which I have demonstrated in the pervious slides by going back intothe history of Estonia.A country that has been defeated several times,resisted the attacks of the Vikings, Danes, Swedes, and Russianstaking away from their homes, thrown into camps by the USSR.Estonia is now a very strong and independent country.
12. Politics and Government of Estonia A democratic republic with parliamentary representative of a multi-party system. Declared independence from Soviet Union in 1991,the new constitution came into effect in 1992. Andrus Ansip is the prime minister since April 2005. Legislative power is vested in the parliament. Executive and legislature. A member of European union and NATO. http://www.mapsofworld.com/estonia/politics-and-government Image from : www.travelblog.org Image: http://www.valitsus.ee/en/government/prime-minister-and-ministers/andrus-ansip
13. Politics and Government of EstoniaThe Main Parts in the Parliament Include: Estonian Centre Party Estonian Reform Party Union of Pro Patria and Res Public Estonia Greens People’s Union of Estonia http://www.kookynet.net/10-baltics.html(http://www.mapsofworld.com/estonia/politics-and-government/
14. Politics and Government of Estonia The President is elected by the Parliament. The presidency is a five-year term. If he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting. An electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes. http://www.president.ee/en Current president Hendrik Ilvesh was re-elected in the first round of presidential elections in Parliament His second five-year term in office was beginning October 10, 2011.Text:http://www.president.ee/en http://www.president.ee/en http://www.president.ee/en
15. Lifestyle of EstoniaEstonia historically kept the same very traditional gender roles asthey did in the past:Women’s Disadvantages: Woman make considerably smaller wages. Woman have limited opportunities in the labor market. http://www.jewishfilm.org/filmfest/09/calendar.htm Woman have limited access to power and management. http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Estonia.html Woman have a hard time combing work life and home life.Men’s Disadvantages: Men have low life expectancy Men have low educational level Men have limited opportunities in the labor market http://shaan.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8341c774753ef0154337083d1970c-popup http://wikigender.org/index.php/Gender_Equality_in_Estonia http://www.flickr.com/photos/9teen87/page65/ http://wikigender.org/index.php/Gender_Equality_in_Estonia
16. Lifestyle of Estonia Festive Celebrations: Traditional weddings are two or three-day events which include large amounts of food, drink, and games. Birthdays are celebrated with large parties. Christenings and confirmations are also celebrated with large parties. The most important holiday is Christmas. Just like a America they have Christmas trees that are decorated, and a traditional dinner is served. New Years Eve is a part of the Christmas holiday, they go into sauna before midnight to cleanse the body and spirit for the upcoming year. http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Estonia.html http://www.folk.ee/kultuurilaegas/en/aai_index/rti_rahvatants_ja_tantsupidu/rti_m6iste
17. Lifestyle of EstoniaClothing in the 19th century was divided into three parts: Festive-which were only worn during festival and handed down from generation to generation. Styles varied by region. Visiting clothes- that were worn for errands in town such as business in less festive manner. Work clothes-are worn every day, made of poorer material.Clothing in Estonia today: Traditional woman wear wide skirts, long sleeve blouse with embroidery on the cuffs. Traditional woman wear aprons and cover their head, if they are married. Traditional woman unmarried wears no apron and only ribbons in their hair. Non traditional men, some woman wear western clothing. http://wayback.archive- it.org/2217/20101208164759/http://www.albertasource.ca/abestonians/cultural/customs_clothing.html
18. Lifestyle Of Estonia Communication Concepts Applied According to the blue book of communication studies, TCC custom Edition ed,pp.20).Boston: Allyn and Bacon, "Nonverbal Communication communicating by the means other than written and spoken language.”The following slides demonstrated Nonverbal language by: Celebration of song and dance. Celebrations of dressing up and having fun. Decorating for holiday events. Celebrating with family and friends.
19. The Music of Estonia The Music of Estonia: How Verbal Communication through Music andSong Influenced the People of Estonia:Music has been an important part in preserving Estonian nationality.Songs have been handed down from generation to generation. This lookat the music of Estonia, especially through their use of songs will showthe importance of verbal communication among people. As stated in TheBlue Book of Communication Studies (Beebe S, A., Beebe S, J., & Ivy2010 p. 61) “Words are powerful”.Also from The Blue Book of Communication Studies (Beebe et al., 2010p.62-63) we learn in The Nature of Language that “People use Words asSymbols”, and also that “People Attach Meanings to Words” I will showthat through their music and songs, the people of Estonia created strongsymbols that brought them together as a nation with one sharedidea, their deep desire for national freedom from Soviet Occupation.These symbols went on to create a deeper meaning to all of them. Image: http://tobreatheasone.wordpress.com/2009/06/
20. Early Music of Estonia The earliest mentioning of Estonian singing and dancing dates backto Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum (c.1179). Saxo speaks ofEstonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for an epic battle. TheEstonian folk music tradition is broadly divided into 2 periods. Theolder folksongs are also referred to as runic songs, songs in the poeticmetre regivärss the tradition shared by all Baltic-Finnic peoples.Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18thcentury, when it started to be replaced by rhythmic folksongs.Professional Estonian musicians emerged in the late 19th-century at thetime of Estonian national awakening. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Estonia http://palun.blogspot.com/2008/03/regilaul.html
21. Music Of EstoniaEstonian Culture and the Importance of Music: Estonian culture is that of a nation of a little more than one million people. Along with the language, this culture is the main vehicle for Estonian identity, hence the respect which Estonians feel for it. The most striking example of the culture of ancient Estonians is their regivärss, i.e. rhythmic verse, as well as their aural tradition of folk song where each line is repeated several times with variations on a theme. Nowadays, such ancient culture is rarely encountered, exceptions being the island of Kihnu and the Setu border region, but such culture is nonetheless preserved and research is carried out on it. Estonians have one of the biggest collections of folk songs in the world, with written records of about 133,000 folk songs. Written for the MFA by Mihkel Mutt, writer and columnist http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/culture-a-science/estonian-culture.html
22. Music Of Estonia The Song Festival Becomes a Role Model: The term “the singing nation” expresses well the Estonian identity that hasunited the nation in its struggle for national independence before 1918 and duringthe period of the Soviet occupation. (1941-1991) In 1988 began the so-called“Singing Revolution”, based on the Song Festival tradition, when hundreds ofthousands of people gathered in the Song Festival Grounds to make politicaldemands and sing patriotic songs.More than 300,000 people participated in the huge event entitled “The Song ofEstonia” in September 1988, and for the first time the re-establishment of Estonia’sindependence was openly demanded. There is a belief that the Estonian’s sang themselvesfree from the Soviet Occupation. http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/culture-a- science/song-and-dance-festivals.html http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/culture-a-science/song-and-dance-festivals.html
23. Religion of Estonia The dominant religion in Estonia is Evangelical Lutheranism. Estonians were Christianized by the Teutonic Knights in the thirteenth century. During the Reformation, Lutheranism spread, and the church was officially established in Estonia in 1686. Among other religions in Estonia in the early 1990’s there were eighty-three Baptist congregations with about 6,000 adult members, as well as about fifteen Methodist, and several Seventh-Day Adventist congregations. In 1992 there were 153 Lutheran congregations in Estonia with an estimated 200,000 members. Aleksiy II, who had been born in Estonia and had served there as a metropolitan. However, in April 1993, he agreed to grant the Estonian Orthodox Church autonomy. John Paul II during a tour of the Baltic states in September 1993, and the Dalai Lama came to Estonia soon after independence, in October 1991. The Jewish community has a synagogue in Tallinn. Immediately after the hostilities in Estonia ended in November 1944, the EAOC Synod, who stayed in their country, appealed to the Patriarchal Locum Tenens, Metropolitan Alexis of Leningrad and Novgorod, to accept them and all the clergy and laity of the Estonian Orthodox Church in canonical communion with the Mother Church http://www.photius.com/countries/estonia/society/estonia_society_religion.html Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_Evangelical_Lutheran_Church
24. Religion of EstoniaAccording to the 2001 Estonia Census the following are a list of Estonia’sreligious denominations and the number of followers of eachcongregation. Evangelical Lutheran 13.6% Orthodox 12.8% Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4% Unaffiliated 34.1% Other and unspecified 32% None 6.1% (2000 census) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_Evangelical_Lutheran_Church http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_Evangelical_Lutheran_Church
25. Religion of EstoniaThe Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church (EELC) was constituted in 1949, when theprevious church hierarchy, Eesti Evangeeliumi Luteriusu Kirik, headedby bishop Johan Kõpp, had escaped to Swedenin 1944. When the Soviet Union invaded Estoniain 1940, most Christian organizations weredissolved, church property was confiscated,theologians were exiled to Siberia, andreligious education programs were outlawed.World War II later brought devastation to manychurch buildings. It was not until 1988 that churchactivities were renewed when a movement forreligious tolerance began in the Soviet Union.Although women had studied theology at TartuUniversity in the 1920s and some had sought ordination http://www.indexmundi.com/estonia/religions.htmlas priests, it was not until 1967 that the first woman,Laine Villenthal, was ordained.
26. Religion Of Estonia Communication Concepts AppliedMy Communication concept is expert poweraccording to Beebe, S.A., Beebe,S.J., & Ivy,D.K(2010).The Blue Book of CommunicationStudies (TCC Custom Editioned., PP.153).Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Cultural Values is a given group of peoplevalues or appreciates, with such a rich diverseculture Estonia has several types of religionand through my research I have demonstratedthis in the previous slides. http://www.photius.com/countries/estonia/society/estonia_society_religion.html
27. ConclusionWe hope that through our presentation on Estonia you have a betterunderstanding about this small but diverse country. Our goal was to share how itsculture has been strongly influenced by its geography, history, politics, and themixtures of religious beliefs; we also shared how the Arts, Literature, and mostimportantly Music has helped shape this country, and continue to influence it stilltoday.The main points were presented by: Geography - Kathi Ryan (slides 3-7) History - Cheryl L Kelly (Slides 7-11) The Politics - Anna Maslova (Slides 12-14) The Lifestyle - Kathi Ryan (Slides 15-18) The Music - Sue Meister (Slides 19-22) Estonia Coat of Arms The Religion - Natalia V. Jelezoglo (Slides 23-26) http:www.flagshag.com
28. Questions1. What was the “Singing Revolution” in Estonia, and how didsinging unite the people of Estonia?2. Name some of the countries that ruled Estonia, and when didthey regain their freedom? 3. Where is Estonia located, and what countries border it both byland, and sea?4. Who elects the President, how is the election decided if noperson gets a majority vote, and how long is the term served?
29. ReferencesText reference:Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., & Ivy, D. K. (2010) The Blue Book of Communication Studies (TCC Custom Edition, pp.20-153)Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Website reference’shttp://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcestonia.htmhttp://countrystudies.us/estonia/6.htmhttp://www.expatify.com/estonia/exploring-the-lakes-and-reservoirs-of-estonia.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Estonia#Populationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Estoniahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Estoniahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutonic_Knightshttp://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcestonia.htmhttp://www.7is7.com/otto/estonia/ruhnu_lighthouse.htmlhttp://www.galenfrysinger.com/estonia_tallinn_old_town.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_Revolutionhttp://www.chicagopianos.com/estoniahistory.htmhttp://www.mapsofworld.com/estonia/politics-and-governmenthttp://www.valitsus.ee/en/government/prime-minister-and-ministers/andrus-ansipwww.travelbog.comhttp://www.kookynet.net/10-Baltics.html