Transcript of "Comparison of Mountain bikers’ expenditures "
Comparison of Mountain bikers’expenditures atBukit Kiara, Kuala Lumpur andPutrajaya Challenge Park, PutrajayaByNur Syuhada Binti Che Ibrahim(email@example.com)Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Selangor
RECREATIONTake accounts of any kindof activities like visitingareas such as parks,wilderness areas, lakes,rivers, and forest as wellas engaging in differentactivities (Kara & Demirci,2010).The activity that peoplechoose to engage in whenat leisure, and it may bemultifaceted, comprisingphysical, cognitive,emotional and socialcomponents (Broadhurst,2001).
MountainBiking(MTB)Cycling focusing primarily onoff-road travel and it is anenvironmentally sustainableand gives the rider a physicaland enjoyable outdoorexperience (Mountain Bikersof Santa Cruz, 2007).Originated in MarinCounty, California and it iswidely acknowledged thatGary Fisher and Joe Breezewere its original founders(Mountain Bike Hall of Fame2008, Worland 2003).
Events of Mountain Biking in MalaysiaProgramme Date/Year Venue OrganiserMalaysian Mountainbike DownhillSuper Series! (MDHSS)Annually since 2010 Around MalaysiaMalaysian Downhill Association(MDHA)Putrajaya Inter Park Ride (PIPR) Monthly activity PutrajayaPerbadanan Putrajaya & ChemicalCompany Of Malaysia Berhad1 Belia 1 Malaysia Mountain BikeChampionship 201128 & 29 May 2011Taman Cabaran Putrajaya,Presint 5, PutrajayaPerbadanan PutrajayaPakan Mountain Bike Cross-Country Endurance1 October 2011 – 31December 2011Pakan, SarawakDepartment of Youth and SportsSarawakPutrajaya MTB Jamboree 21 April 2012 Putrajaya Ministry of Tourism MalaysiaMTB Challenge Perlis 19 May 2012Felda Rimba Mas, PadangBesar, PerlisPerlis Youth Council & theDepartment of Youth and SportsKarnival MTB DH & XCO 26-27 May 2012Taman Cabaran Putrajaya,Presint 5, PutrajayaMinistry of Youth and SportsKL Mountain Bike Carnival(KLMBC)7 & 8 July 2012Taman Lembah Kiara, KualaLumpurQuick Release AdventuresLangkawi International MountainBike Challenge (LIMBC)15 - 20 October 2012 Langkawi Island, Malaysia Human Voyage
MOUNTAIN BIKING and ECONOMY• Cycling can provide a variety of social and economicbenefits to local areas and the community bystimulating tourism and recreational expenses (IMBA2004, Faulks et al. 2007).• MTB activity was able to provide economic benefits tothe local economy and country (Mountain Bikers ofSanta Cruz, July 2007).
Expenditure?• Expenditure can be defined as the total consumptionexpenses/spending made by a visitor/user or on behalf ofa visitor/user for and during his/her trip and stay atdestination (UNWTO, 1993).• For most trips, majority of the visitors/users spending isfor lodging, meals, transportation and shopping (Bowkeret al., 2007; Crompton et al., 2001; and USDI Fish andWildlife Services and USDC Census Bureau, 2007).• According to White and Stynes (2008), spending forservices and goods were mostly influenced by the type ofrecreation trip and the distance travelled.
Importance of Expenditures Pattern• Visitors’ expenditures is one possible segmentation basiswithin travel behaviour and has been used in severalstudies, demonstrating its usefulness and validity as abasis for segmenting the tourist market.• Help in describing the size of each travel market ineconomic terms, and destinations can better benefit frommarketing efforts (Regan and Damonte, 1999).• Leads to the identification of attributes influencing travelexpenditure characteristics among market segments(Fredman, 2008).
The Study• MTB contributes to economic growth through therequired costs of the activity.• Due to this advantage generated from MTB, it isbeneficial to estimate the recreational spendingof MTB by using Bukit Kiara (BK) and PutrajayaChallenge Park (PCP) as the study sites.• The purpose of this research is to assessmountain bikers spending profiles at both sites.This paper reports their expenditures during theirtrips and determines the type of expenditureincurred by the mountain bikers.
Study area: Bukit Kiara (BK)• BK (formerly known as West Valley Park) located atresidential area and it is a popular site for jogging andrecreational activities to both residents and outsiders• It also a popular recreational spot in the middle of the citywidely visited during weekdays and weekends. It is alsofamous for its natural trails and fresh air especially forjungle trekkers and mountain bikers.• The area was once a rubber estate until it was acquired bythe Federal territory of Kuala Lumpur in 1980.• Currently, BK is under the authority of the NationalLandscape Department.
Study area: Putrajaya Challenge Park(PCP)• PCP is well-equipped with facilities for recreationalactivities particularly Mountain Biking (MTB).• It covers an area of about 30.33 hectares and is locatedin Precint 5, Putrajaya. It has a network of MTB trailsthat passes through an oil palm and rubber plantation,secondary forests as well as bushes and grassy areas onhilly slopes.• It was developed by Putrajaya Holdings with the cost ofRM38 million and is currently operated by PutrajayaCorporation in collaboration with the Extreme SportsAssociation Malaysia (ESAM).
Map of Putrajaya Challenge Park( PCP)Source: Google Maps, 2012(https://maps.google.com.my)
MethodologyA questionnaire was designed to obtain theinformation regarding on their expenditures forMTB trip participation.The questionnaire included questions onparticipants’ backgrounds and also their type ofexpenditures in MTB trip participation.A total of 287 questionnaires were distributed,137 for BK and 150 for PCP.Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version20.0.
Results anddiscussion• Socio- Demographic of mountain bikers.• Expenditures profiles of mountain bikers.
Socio- Demographic of mountainbikers.• USERS BACKGROUND– Gender– Age group– Education level– Occupation– Income group– State of origin
Most of the mountain bikers (97.1% for BK, 95.3 for PCP) were malewhile the remaining were female.It is generally accepted that mountain bikers are predominantly male(Cessford, 1995; FCS, 2005; Green, 2003; Reiter and Blaha, 2002).Male Female Male FemaleBK PCP97.12.995.34.7Gender
AGE GROUPAGE GROUP BUKIT KIARA (%) PCP (%)20 and below 5.2 2.021 to 30 27.7 52.031 to 40 54.7 36.041 to 50 10.2 9.3Over 50 2.2 .7In regards to mountain bikers’ age, most bikers (54.7%) were in the age groupof 31 to 40 years old for BK while for PCP, mostly (52%) were in the age groupof 21 to 30 years old.This is consistent with previous studies where most bikers were in their mid-20s to mid-40s (Green, 2003; Koepke, 2005; Reiter and Blahna, 2002).
EDUCATION LEVELEDUCATION LEVEL BK (%) PCP (%)Primary school 0.7 1.3Secondary school 36.5 34.7University/college 62.8 64.0Majority of them (62.8% for BK, 64% for PCP) attained university orcollege education (n= 86).In another research, it was also found that mountain bikers werehighly educated, with as many as two-thirds having at least collegeeducation (Koepke 2005, Reiter and Blahna 2002).
OCCUPATION STATUSOCCUPATION BK (%) PCP (%)Full Time 89.1 86.0Part Time 6.6 7.3Student 3.6 6.0Retired 0.7 .7Most of the mountain bikers (89.1% for BK, 86% for PCP) were fulltime working.
INCOME GROUPINCOME GROUP BK (%) PCP (%)RM1000 and below 7.3 9.3RM1001 to 2000 16.1 27.3RM2001 to 3000 18.2 26.7RM3001 to 4000 15.3 14.7RM4001 to 5000 13.9 10.0RM5001 and above 29.2 12.0This study shows that mountain bikers’ income was mostly in the rangeof RM5001 and above for BK (29.2%) while for PCP, most of the income inthe range of RM2001 to 3000 (26.&%) It is generally accepted that mountain bikers’ income were consistentlyhigh (FCS 2005, Greens 2003, Koepke 2005, Reiter and Blahna 2002).
STATE OF ORIGINSTATE OF ORIGIN BK (%) PCP (%)Kuala Lumpur 24.8 15.2Pahang 1.5 0.7Penang 2.2 0.0Negeri Sembilan 0.0 2.7Putrajaya 0.7 8.0Melaka 0.0 1.4Selangor 64.2 72.0Johor 0.7 0.0Singapore 5.8 0.0•Mountain bikers from Selangor form the largest percentage of users to PCPand BK (64.2% for BK and 72% for PCP).•It was followed by mountain bikers from Kuala Lumpur (24.8% for BK and15.2% for PCP).•There were no foreign mountain bikers at PCP. In contrast, there was a few(5.8%) of mountain bikers came from Singapore at BK.
Expenditures profiles of mountainbikers.TYPE OF EXPENDITURES DESCRIPTIONFood And BeveragesTotal cost of food and beverages duringtravel to the location from residencePetrol Cost Total cost of petrol (2 ways: one trip)Toll ChargeToll charge during travelling (2 ways: onetrip)Accommodation Cost for lodging during their trip (one trip)Equipment/AccessoriesCost for MTB equipments (Bicycle, helmet,glove, shoes and others)Total Costs for MTB Upgrades Total cost for bicycle upgradesMaintenance Per Month Total cost for monthly bicycle maintenance
The Spending Averages for MountainBikers at BK and PCP.Type of Cost(RM)Mean Median Std. Deviation Min MaxBK PCP BK PCP BK PCP BK PCP BK PCPFood AndBeverages27.95 10.39 10 10 64.22 10.40 0 0 500 60Petrol Cost 21.01 15.18 10 10 34.44 11.19 0 0 200 60Toll Charge 10.52 5.55 3 4.7 24.07 6.55 0 0 100 40Accommodation 23.72 0 0 0 83.32 0 0 0 500 0Equipment/Accessories2103.28 1709.73 1000 500 3328.29 3225.43 60 0 25,000 20,000Total Costs forMTB Upgrades3881.75 1922.33 2000 1000 4496.46 2308.78 0 0 20,000 10,000MaintenancePer Month213.14 98.87 100 50 334.44 147.56 0 0 2000 1000
CONCLUSION• Expenditures on equipment/accessories were found to be highcompared to the others, showing that most of the mountainbikers were committed in MTB participation.• They willingness to spend high on equipment/accessories onMTB shows their commitment level.• This high expenditure on equipment may have significant impacton retailing business particularly in bicycle-related industry sinceall bicycles are imported.• A methodical study on the business chain of this sport issuggested to observe the economy it generates at macro level.• Additional research is proposed to better understand on thedeterminants of mountain bikers’ in making purchases . Thiskind of study identify the factors motivating MTB expenditures.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT• The authors would like to thank the research assistantswho gathered and helped in data collection.• This study was financed by a grant from ResearchUniversity Grant Scheme (RUGS) Project Number 03-01-11-1158RU.