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Gaps model of services iims

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  • 1. Gaps Model of Services
  • 2. The Gaps Model
  • 3. Provider Gap 1CUSTOMER Expected Service GAP 1 ManagementCOMPANY Perceptions of Consumer Expectations
  • 4. Provider Gap 2CUSTOMERCOMPANY Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards GAP 2 Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations
  • 5. Provider Gap 3CUSTOMERCOMPANY Service Delivery GAP 3 Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards
  • 6. Provider Gap 4CUSTOMERCOMPANY Service Delivery External Communications GAP 4 to Customers
  • 7. Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 1 Customer ExpectationsGAP  Inadequate Marketing Research Orientation Insufficient marketing research 1 Research not focused on service quality Inadequate use of market research  Lack of Upward Communication Lack of interaction between management and customers Insufficient communication between contact employees and managers Too many layers between contact personnel and top management  Insufficient Relationship Focus Lack of market segmentation Focus on transactions rather than relationships Focus on new customers rather than relationship customers Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations
  • 8. Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2 Customer-Driven Service Designs and StandardsGAP  Poor Service Design Unsystematic new service development process 2 Vague, undefined service designs Failure to connect service design to service positioning  Absence of Customer-Driven Standards Lack of customer-driven service standards Absence of process management to focus on customer requirements Absence of formal process for setting service quality goals  Inappropriate Physical Evidence and Servicescape Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations
  • 9. Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 3 Customer-Driven Service Designs and StandardsGAP  Deficiencies in Human Resource Policies Ineffective recruitment 3 Role ambiguity and role conflict Poor employee-technology job fit Inappropriate evaluation and compensation systems Lack of empowerment, perceived control and teamwork  Failure to Match Supply and Demand Failure to smooth peaks and valleys of demand Inappropriate customer mix Over-reliance on price to smooth demand  Customers Not Fulfilling Roles Customers lack knowledge of their roles and responsibilities Customers negatively impact each other  Problems with Service Intermediaries Channel conflict over objectives and performance Channel conflict over costs and rewards Difficulty controlling quality and consistency Tension between empowerment and control Service Delivery
  • 10. Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 4 Service Delivery  Lack of Integrated Services Marketing CommunicationsGAP Tendency to view each external communication as independent 4 Not including interactive marketing in communications plan Absence of strong internal marketing program  Ineffective Management of Customer Expectations Not managing customer expectations through all forms of communication Not adequately educating customers  Overpromising Overpromising in advertising Overpromising in personal selling Overpromising through physical evidence cues  Inadequate Horizontal Communications Insufficient communication between sales and operations Insufficient communication between advertising and operations Differences in policies and procedures across branches or units External Communications to Customers
  • 11. • Gaps 01 to 04 should be closed to finally bring down the gap between the expected service and the consumers perception of the service.• Services Marketing is all about designing and implementing strategies to identify and fill these gaps.