NPT/NNPT – Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) is a treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons, opened for signature on July 1, 1968.
All signatories, including nuclear weapon states, are committed to : ◦ the goal of total nuclear disarmament. ◦ non proliferation,
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty This treaty bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not yet entered into force
In response to a growing Chinese nuclear arsenal, India conducted a nuclear test in 1974. Following this, other
Since India conducted 5 more tests in May’1998, it was subject to international sanctions and isolation for its civil program.
And, Indias estimated reserve of uranium represents only 1% of the worlds known uranium
But why the sudden love ? To keep a check on Russia. A counterweight to China. A reliable partner in a conflicted part of Asia. Partner in the war against terrorism Exploiting the billion dollar Indian market. To restrict Indian support to Iran 12
In July 2005, President Bush and Prime MinisterManmohan Singh issued a joint statement announcingtheir intent to negotiate a civil nuclear pact. 13
* The agreement not to hinder or interfere with Indias nuclear programme formilitary purposes.* US will help India negotiate with the IAEA for an India-specific fuel supplyagreement.* Washington will support New Delhi develop strategic reserves of nuclear fuel toguard against future disruption of supply.* In case of disruption, US and India will jointly convene a group of friendly suppliercountries to include nations like Russia, France and the UK to pursue such measuresto restore fuel supply.* Both the countries agree to facilitate nuclear trade between themselves in theinterest of respective industries and consumers.•India and the US agree to transfer nuclear material, non-nuclear material, equipmentand components.* Any special fissionable material transferred under the agreement shall be lowenriched uranium.* Low enriched uranium can be transfered for use as fuel in reactor experiments andin reactors for conversion or fabrication.* The ambit of the deal include research, development, design, construction,operation, maintenance and use of nuclear reactors, reactor experiments anddecommissioning.
* The US will have the right to seek return of nuclear fuel and technology but it willcompensate for the costs incurred as a consequence of such removal.* India can develop strategic reserve of nuclear fuel to guard against any disruptionof supply over the lifetime of its reactors.* Agreement provides for consultations on the circumstances, including changedsecurity environment, before termination of the nuclear cooperation.* Provision for one-year notice period before termination of the agreement.* The US to engage Nuclear Suppliers Group to help India obtain full access to theinternational fuel market, including reliable, uninteruppted and continual access tofuel supplies from firms in several nations.•The US will have the right to seek return of nuclear fuel and technology.* In case of return, Washington will compensate New Delhi promptly for the "fairmarket value thereof" and the costs incurred as a consequence of such removal.* Both the countries to set up a Joint Committee for implementation of the civilnuclear agreement and development of further cooperation in this field.* The agreement grants prior consent to reprocess spent fuel.* Sensitive nuclear technology, nuclear facilities and major critical components canbe transferred after amendment to the agreement.* India will establish a new national facility dedicated to reprocessing safeguardednuclear material under IAEA safeguards.* Nuclear material and equipment transferred to India by the US...
What are the terms of the deal ? India agrees to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities. Agreed to place its civil facilities under IAEA safeguards. India cannot use the technology for military purpose. The companies from U.S and NSG countries will be allowed to build nuclear reactors in India and provide nuclear fuel for its civilian energy program. 16
Who opposed it in India and why? The national Communist Party The Right wing Bharatiya Janata Party, the countrys principal opposition party. A principal Left wing party. 17
India has to support all the International laws which the American parliament has approved. India should allow US battle ships to utilize the Indian waters for its needs if any.
Nuclear fuel reprossesing technology was not guarenteed in the deal.In case the deal is cancelled in the future
Nuclear Liability Bill 2010 The bill deals with the liabilities in case of a possible nuclear mishap. The bill is necessary to activate Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Agreement. The U.S. companies require the liability bill to get insurance in their home state.
Clause 6 According to this clause, the maximum financial liability in case a nuclear accident occurs has been set at the rupee equivalent of 300 million special drawing rights (SDRs) which is equal to $458 million (Rs. 2,087 crore). A same kind of law in U.S. has set the financial liability for such accident at $10.5 billion.
Clause 7 The maximum amount payable by the foreign companies will be limited to a meagre sum of Rs. 500 crore. Remaining amount will be paid by the Indian government.
Number of persons dead = 15,000 Total compensation = 500000 lakhs Compensation per person = 3.3 lakh approx. A train accident = 5 lakhs In recent manglore flight accident = 93 lakhs Mumbai terrorist attack = 5.25 lakhs
Clause 17 It allows only the operator (NPCIL) to sue the manufacturers and suppliers. Victims will not be able to sue anyone
Clause 35 The operator or the responsible persons in case of a nuclear accident will undergo the trial under Nuclear Damage Claims Commissions. No civil court is given the authority.
Clause 18 Limits the time to make a claim within 10 years. This is considered to be too short as there may be long term damage due to a nuclear accident.
Is Nuclear Power THE cheapest ?Cost per unit of :- Thermal power : Rs. 1.05 to 1.75 Gas based power : Rs. 1.35 to 2.35 Nuclear power : Rs. 2.80 Hydro electricity : one third those of either fossil-fueled (coal or oil) or nuclear power plants, Less than one fourth the cost of gas turbine electricity production
We have 1,50,000 MW of untapped hydroelctricity . Instead of making the deal for 40,000 MW , if we co- operate with Nepal we can generate 80,000 MW of hydroelectric power.
The country has vast reserves of thorium in the beaches of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa. They are the 25 %in the world.