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  1. 1. IBR Journal homepage: www.ifrsa.org Entrepreneurial Motivation An Empirical Study with reference to Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh * Dr. G. Malyadri, Associate Professor, Dept of MBA Sreenivasa Institute of Technology and Management Studies (SITAMS), Chittoor, A.P. **B. Sudheer Kumar, Assistant Professor, Dept of MBA, Sreenivasa Institute of Technology and Management Studies (SITAMS), Chittoor, A.P. ABSTRACT In the world of competition, Entrepreneur needs motivation in order to survive during Allocations. Right from the stage of setting of the enterprise he needs to be motivated. Entrepreneur may be motivated to sort the enterprise based on the three factors, those are ambitious factors, compelling factors and facilitating factors. Entrepreneurs are motivated based on the experienced gained in the poster or the demand for a particular product or availability of government support. Some entrepreneurs come with achievement motive or with a strong passion. Entrepreneurs may also be developed through training and education in this study, an attempt has been to understand the dynamics of motivation among entrepreneurs of small and tiny sectors in the chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. KEY WORDS: - Entrepreneurial Motivation, Entrepreneurial Core, Work Core Social Core, Individual Core, Economic Core INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. Entrepreneurship is after a difficult undertaking, as a majority of new business fail. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. Ronstadt C. Robert(1985) states that entrepreneurs have bought making out of the bark age. Entrepreneurs sparked the industrial revolution. They have defeated maxim and will continue to do so. Decentralized, socially responsive forms of entrepreneurial capabilities have been placing stagnant, IFRSA Business Review|Vol 3|issue 2|June 2013 bureaucratic capitalism increasingly in these times. The nations, which have witnessed entrepreneurial renaissance, have experienced a golden age and those that lacked in entrepreneurship retarded economically, socially and politically. ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION “The People are poor because they prefer it that way” observes Galbraith(1969) for the backwardness of many Asian and African nation. He further states that lack of ambition makes then to log behind others in development. Ambitions and Aspirations create motives. Motives are felt needs or desires, internal to the organisms”(1980). Besides the motivation, the availability of opportunites to advance, accessibility to the financial and technical support with assistance of infrastructure, social realities like political interference and corruption and quite likely other factors also influence the spirit of entrepreneurship. However, these issues are beyond the contains of this paper owing to the extensive and exhaustive nature of such social problems and their impact on the lives of entrepreneurs. The present paper examines the degree of motivation among the entrepreneurs engaged in small and tiny enterprises in the chittor district of Andhra Pradesh. For the purpose of study the following dimensions of the motivation are considered. ENTREPRENEURIAL CORE One cannot become an entrepreneur unless he or she has got the basic entrepreneurial qualities. Therefore, statements were trained to check whether the entrepreneur competencies are present or not. The 123
  2. 2. motivation to become entrepreneur starts from this dimension. Some of the items included in this category are the need to take calculated risk and the confidence to deal with it effectively, the need to be independent, the need to provide good products and services to people, the need to proceed employment and to feel competent. WORK CORE A person innate entrepreneurial skill must be manifested in the form of work core. Therefore, various statements pertaining to the examination of work core are included in the instrument same of them include the statements like the motivation to use one’s skill of decision-making and problem solving in a career the need to be creative and innovative in their ventures, and use of one’s innate talent and potential in profession, and doing something or achieving something that others usually do not. SOCIAL CORE One of the aspects that aspects that help the entrepreneur to shine and come up in life is the social core. This helps him to attain high social status, to become leasder and employer. Among the items that are covered under social core are the need to assume a leadership role where one has access to power and influence over others to attain high social status and to earn the respect of people. INDIVIDUAL CORE luxuries of life and getting over monotony and experiencing a change in life. ECONOMIC CORE Normally an entrepreneur desires that his entrepreneurial abilities must result in the betterment of economic life. Therefore, the economic core is considered. The economic core measures the aspects like getting over shortage or money, becoming rich, supplementing family income, clearing debts and ensuing financial stability for the family. OBJECTIVES The present paper examines the entrepreneur’s motivation among small entrepreneurs. The present study is undertaken to examine the motivation among entrepreneurs who are engaged in small and tiny enterprises. METHODOLOGY A sample of so entrepreneurs is considered for the purpose of study. Further, the data collected from 30 Entrepreneurs was chosen using convenient sampling method. The data is collected with the help of a structured questionnaire which consists of personal back ground variables, and standardized scale to measure motivation level of entrepreneurs. This scale is developed to treat entrepreneurial motivation as a separate entity and objective measure and classify different types of motivation to draw meaningful inferences. Yet another dimension which has been considered measured is individual core. This lays emphasis of acquiring wealth, work and life style, enjoying the best Table 1 Relationship between Age and Motivation Age Entrepreneurial Core Work Core Social Core Individual Core (Years) Low High Low High Low High Low High 20 to 40 2 3 3 2 (40%) (60%) (60%) (40%) 40 to 50 5 7 4 8 (41.7%) (58%) (34%) (66%) 50 to 60 2 7 4 5 (22.2%) (77%) (45%) (55%) Above 60 2 2 2 2 (50%) (50%) (50%) (50%) Total 11 19 (63%) 13 17 (37%) (44%) (56%) Source: Primary Data Table 1 gives the motivation of entrepreneur based on age group. It can be seen that majority have high entrepreneurial core. More than 60 percent of the entrepreneurs in the sample fall in this category. Further it may be seen that in the age group of 50 to 60 years, an absolute majority constituting 78 percent fall IFRSA Business Review|Vol 3|issue 2|June 2013 3 (60%) 7 (59%) 3 (34%) 3 (75%) 16 (54%) 2 (40%) 5 (41%) 6 (66%) 1 (25%) 14 (46%) 1 (20%) 2 (16%) 4 (45%) 2 (50%) 9 (30%) Economic Core Low 4 2 (80%) (40%) 10 5 (84%) (42%) 5 2 (55%) (23%) 2 3 (50%) (75%) 21 12 (70%) (40 %) High 3 (60)% 7 (58)% 7 (77)% 1 (25)% 18 (60%) in the high entrepreneurial core category and the lowest being, in the age group of above 60 years category. Age group and work core relationship indicates that majority of the entrepreneurs constituting 56% have high work core. It could be seen that a vast majority constituting 67 percent from the age group of 40 to 50 124
  3. 3. years fall in the high work core and less number of in high individual core. If is also seen that an absolute entrepreneurs (40%) from the category of 20 to 40 years majority 84% of the entrepreneurs in the category of 40 fall in the low work case category. to 50 years have high individual core. This is low in the Age group and social core reveal that the entrepreneur age group of above 60 years. in the sample falls short in it. Majority of them 57 % Economic case based on age group indicates that fall in the category of low social core. Further it may be majority of entrepreneurs (60%) in the sample fall in the seen that except in the age group of 50 to 60 years, in all category of high economic core. Further, more than other categories they fall in the low social core group. 77% of the entrepreneurs in the age group of 50 to 60 Individual core based on the age shows that a majority years have high economic core. Lowest being in the age constituting 70 % of the entrepreneurs in the sample fall group of above 60 years. Table 2 Relationship between Entrepreneur’s Generation and Motivation Age (Years) Entrepreneurial Core Work Core Social Core Individual Core Economic Core Total Low High Low Low Low First Generation 11 (38%) 18 (62%) 12 17 16 13 9 20 12 17 (42%) (58%) (55%) (45%) (31%) (69%) (42%) (58)% Others Nil 1 (100%) 1 Nil (100%) Total 11 (37%) 19 (63%) 13 17 16 14 9 21 12 18 (37%) (63%) (54%) (46%) (30%) (70%) (40%) (66%) High Nil Source: Primary Data In the above table, it could be observed that almost all the entrepreneurs belong to the first generation Entrepreneurial motivation based on the generation of the entrepreneur shows that the first generation entrepreneurs have high individual core and high entrepreneurial core. They constitute 69% and 63% Source: Primary Data. High 1 Nil (100%) High Low 1 Nil (100%) High 1 (100%) respectively. They are low in work core and social core. The table shows that the percentage being 42 and 55 falling in the category of low core. This highlights the need for imparting there cores among the first generation entrepreneurs. Gender Entrepreneurial Core Work Core Social Core Low High Low High Low High Male 9 17 12 14 15 11 (35%) (65%) (46%) (54%) (58%) (42%) Female 2 (30%) 2 1 3 1 3 (50%) (25%) (75%) (25%) (75%) Total 11 19 13 17 16 14 (37%) (63%) (43%) (57%) (53%) (47%) Table 3 reveals that Entrepreneurial motivation based pertaining on gender is deposited. If may be seen that more and social number of females fall in the category of high individual Individual Core Economic Core Total Low High Low High 7 19 12 14 (27%) (73%) (46%) (54)% 2 2 Nil 4 (50%) (50%) (100%) 9 21 12 18 (30%) (70%) (40%) (60%) to economic core (100%) work core (75%) core(73%). More number of men have high core (73%) and Entrepreneur core (65%). Table 4 Relationship between Community and Motivation Entrepreneurial Core Community Work Core Social Core Individual Core Economic Core Low Low Low Low High High IFRSA Business Review|Vol 3|issue 2|June 2013 High High Low High 125
  4. 4. SC/ST 7 (44%) BC 9 (56%) 6 10 (38%) (62%) 7 4 (44%) (25%) 12 (75%) 5 (32%) 4 (34%) 8 (66%) 5 7 (58%) 6 (50%) 6 (50%) 5 (42%) (42%) 7 (58%) 6 (50%) 6 (50%) OTHERS NIL 2 (100%) 2 NIL (100%) 1 (50%) 1 (50%) NIL 2 1 (50%) 1 (50%) (100%) Total 11 (36%) 19 (64%) 13 17 (44%) (56%) 16 (54%) Source: Primary Data Motivation based on community is presented in Table 4 the sample consists entrepreneurs mostly from ST/ST and BC Communities. It may be observed that more number of entrepreneurs from SC/ST communities fall in high core pertaining to individual core (75%) Economic core (68%) and work core (62%) where as entrepreneurs from BC communities have high entrepreneurs core (66%). Further it may be noted that in both the categories considerable number o entrepreneurs have low social core. CONCLUSION The Indian economy is undergoing through a paradox of growth and unemployment. The only solution to tackle this paradox is in calculate the spirit of entrepreneurship among the educated youth. Entrepreneurship brings prosperity both to the entrepreneur and to the nation. The dimension of entrepreneurial motivation seems to be quite assuming and has been receiving growing importance. Therefore, the present study examined the degree of motivation among the entrepreneurs engaged in small and tiny enterprises in chittor district the motivation of entrepreneurs was examined in terms of five cores viz., entrepreneurial core, work core, social core, individual core and economic core. Secondly it attempted to assess perceived success of the entrepreneurs. In the age group of 50 to 60 years majority of them have high entrepreneurial core, social core and economic core. This group has more number of high motivational core compared to other age groups. The first generation entrepreneurs are high individual [8] IFRSA Business Review|Vol 3|issue 2|June 2013 9 (56%) 14 9 (30%) 21 (46%) (70%) 12 (40%) 11 (68%) 18 (60%) core and entrepreneurial core and low in work core and social core. Gender wise it was observed that men are high on individual and entrepreneurial cores whereas women are high on the other three cores. Community wise it was observed that entrepreneurs in all the categories have low social core. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Galbraith : Economic Development, Harvard press, 1969 Eleni Apospori, Nancy papatexandris, Eleanna Golanak; Entreprenerial and professional CEO’s difference in motive and responsibility profile, leadership organization development Journal March 2005, volume 26 Katerina sari, Anna trihopoulou Female entrepreneur’s personal characteristics and motivation; a review of grfeek situation, women in management review Jan 2005, volume :20 Marco Van Gendered, Paul Jonson.; Autonomy as a star-up motive, Journal if small business and enterprise development, 2006 volume 13 Ronstad C. Robert: Entrepreneurship, Lord Publishing 1985 Sing: Relatonship among projective and Direct verbal measures of achievement motivation, journal of personality assessment, 1978. Vijaya ad Mamdanabhan: A scale to assess entrepreneurs Motivation the Journal of entrepreneurship 7.2(1998). 126