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- 1. DIFFERENT PWM CONTROLLED BASED FSTPI FED IM DRIVE PRESENTED By SUDHAKAR AKKI Reg.No:1610910044 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. NALINKANT MOHANTY ASST.PROF( Sr.G )
- 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Semiconductor switches mainly determine the overall price of power converters. </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective of this project is to prove 2leg inverters are the best option for low power applications for getting the good performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Two leg inverter produces the square wave or quasi-square wave. but low power applications allow the two leg inverter output. </li></ul><ul><li>In many industrial applications, it is often required to vary the output voltage of the inverter due to the following reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To cope with the dc I/p voltage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To regulate the voltage of inverters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To satisfy the constant voltage & frequency for control requirement. </li></ul></ul>
- 3. Pulse-Width Modulated For VSI <ul><li>Disadvantages of PWM </li></ul><ul><li>semiconductor devices must have low turn-on and turn-off times. so, they are very expansive </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of available voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of switching losses due to high PWM frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Control of inverter output voltage with out any additional components </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of lower harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>The most common PWM approach is sinusoidal PWM . In this method a triangular wave is compared to a sinusoidal wave of the desired frequency and the relative levels of the two waves is used to control the switching of devices in each phase leg of the inverter. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of PWM </li></ul>
- 4. <ul><li>Amplitude modulation ratio (m a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency modulation ratio (m f ) </li></ul><ul><li>m f should be an odd integer </li></ul><ul><li>if m f is not an integer, there may exist sub harmonics at output voltage </li></ul><ul><li>if m f is not odd, DC component may exist and even harmonics are present at output voltage </li></ul><ul><li>m f should be a multiple of 3 for three-phase PWM inverter </li></ul><ul><li>An odd multiple of 3 and even harmonics are suppressed </li></ul>
- 5. Space vector modulation <ul><li>In sinusoidal PWM, the inverter can be thought of as three separate push-pull driver stages, which create each phase waveform independently. </li></ul><ul><li>SVM, however treats the inverter as a single unit </li></ul><ul><li>The space vector method is a d,q model PWM approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation index is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SVM produces 15% higher then the sinusoidal PWM in output voltages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, inherently digital calculation of the switching times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SVPWM has been gaining more attention in the industry. </li></ul></ul>
- 6. Block diagram of the project
- 7. Space Vector PWM for 3leg inverter Where, upper transistors: S 1 , S 3 , S 5 lower transistors: S 4 , S 6 , S 2 switching variable vector: a, b, c <ul><li>Eight possible combinations of on and off patterns for the three upper transistors (S 1 , S 3 , S 5 ) </li></ul>
- 8. <ul><li>The eight combinations, phase voltages and output line to line voltages </li></ul>
- 9. <ul><li>Basic switching vectors and Sectors </li></ul><ul><li>6 active vectors (V 1 ,V 2 , V 3 , V 4 , V 5 , V 6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Axes of a hexagonal </li></ul><ul><li>DC link voltage is supplied to the load </li></ul><ul><li>Each sector (1 to 6): 60 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>2 zero vectors (V 0 , V 7 ) </li></ul><ul><li>At origin </li></ul><ul><li>No voltage is supplied to the load </li></ul>
- 10. Voltage Space Vector and its components in (d, q). <ul><li>Step 1. Determine V d , V q , V ref , and angle ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate transformation </li></ul><ul><li>: abc to dq </li></ul>
- 11. <ul><li>Step 2. Determine time duration T 1 , T 2 , T 0 </li></ul>
- 12. <ul><li>Switching time duration at any Sector </li></ul>
- 13. Space Vector PWM switching patterns at each sector. Sector 1. Sector 2. <ul><li>Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S 1 to S 6 ) </li></ul>
- 14. Switching Time Table at Each Sector
- 15. Simulation Diagram of SVM 3leg inverter
- 16. Time durations T 1 , T 2 , T 0
- 17. Switching Times
- 18. Line voltages
- 19. <ul><li>Principle of Space Vector PWM </li></ul><ul><li>Treats the sinusoidal voltage as a constant amplitude vector rotating </li></ul><ul><li>at constant frequency </li></ul><ul><li>This PWM technique approximates the reference voltage V ref by a combination </li></ul><ul><li>of the Four switching patterns (V 1 to V 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate Transformation (abc reference frame to the stationary d-q frame) </li></ul><ul><li>: A three-phase voltage vector is transformed into a vector in the stationary d-q coordinate </li></ul><ul><li>frame which represents the spatial vector sum of the three-phase voltage </li></ul><ul><li>The vectors (V 1 to V 4 ) divide the plane into Four sectors (each sector: 90 degrees) </li></ul><ul><li>V ref is generated by two adjacent non-zero vectors and zero vectors </li></ul>
- 20. <ul><li>Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM </li></ul><ul><li>Space Vector PWM generates less harmonic distortion </li></ul><ul><li>in the output voltage or currents in comparison with sine PWM </li></ul><ul><li>Space Vector PWM provides more efficient use of supply voltage </li></ul><ul><li>in comparison with sine PWM </li></ul><ul><li>Switching losses also reduced by space vector modulation </li></ul> Voltage Utilization: Space Vector PWM = 2/ 3 times of Sine PWM <ul><li>Realization of Space Vector PWM </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1. Determine V d , V q , V ref , and angle ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Determine time duration T 1 , T 2 , T 0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S 1 to S 4 ) </li></ul></ul>
- 21. SPACE VECTOR PWM FOR 2-LEG INVERTER
- 22. <ul><li>Space vectors representation </li></ul>
- 24. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S 1 to S 4 )
- 25. Switching Time for Each Sector of two-leg inverter
- 26. Simulation of 3phase to 2phase
- 27. Simulation for Sector Identification
- 28. Angle& Sectors Sector Angle Sector
- 29. Simulation circuit for 2 leg inverter by SVM
- 30. Switching time duration for two leg inverter
- 31. Connotative Modulation Functions for 2leg
- 32. Line Voltages
- 33. Third Harmonic Injection
- 34. Third Harmonic Injection to Switching Times
- 35. Third Harmonic Switching Times
- 36. Line voltages for 2 leg Inverter
- 37. Rotor & Stator currents
- 38. Speed& Torque Characteristics
- 39. SVPWM APPLIED TO THE 2-LEG INVERTER UNDER DC-LINK VOLTAGE RIPPLE CONDITIONS The phase-to zero voltages under balanced load conditions
- 40. phase-to-neutral voltages VAN, VBN andVCN The phase-to-neutral output voltages can be transformed into space vector
- 41. Phase-to-zero and phase-to-neutral output voltages Voltage vectors in αβ plane
- 42. Unbalanced dc-link voltages The Time Durations In sector 1: 0≤ α≤π
- 43. (a) Timing of gate pulse of space vector PWM (b) Timing of gate pulse of carrier–based PWM In sector 2: π≤α≤2π V t is the instantaneous carrier signal .
- 44. Simulation Circuit of proposed method
- 45. Reference signals V refb and V refc
- 46. Line voltages
- 47. Speed & Torque Characteristics
- 48. FFT analysis
- 49. Comparison of Different PWM techniques for FSTPIs Sine PWM SV PWM Scalar PWM Carrier PWM Calculation Burden Low Very High Medium Low THD 20.08% 1.86% 14.79% 4.07% Output Voltage Normal Normal Maximum Normal DC-link voltage ripple Resolved Switching loss high low low high
- 50. CONCLUSION <ul><li>In this work, it is shown that two-leg inverters are the best option for high performance low power applications. It can be resolved by comparing the no of semiconductor switches usage in 2-leg and 3-leg inverters and moreover two leg inverters allow the asymmetrical voltages </li></ul><ul><li>To enable this, space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique, Scalar PWM & Modified SVPWM of FSTPIs is presented. </li></ul>
- 51. BIBLIOGRAPHY Journals [1]. “Adaptive Carrier-based PWM for a Three-Phase Inverter under DC-link Voltage Ripple Conditions” Tuyen D. Nguyen*, Hong-Hee Lee† and Hoang M. Nguyen* Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 290~298, 2010 [2]. Jae Hyeong Seo; Chang Ho Choi; Dong Seok Hyun, “A New Simplified space-Vector PWM Method for Three-Level Inverters”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Volume 16, Issue 4, Jul 2010, Pages 545 - 550 [3]. “the adaptive space vector pwm for four switch three phase inverter fed induction motor with dc – link voltage imbalance” by Hong Hee Lee*, Phan Quoc Dzung**, Le Dinh Khoa**, Le Minh Phuong**, Huynh Tan Thanh***School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan Ulsan, Korea. [4]. Hind Djeghloud and Hocine Benalla, “Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Applied to The Three-Level Voltage Inverter”, 5th International Conference on Technology and Automation ICTA’05, Thessaloniki, Greece, Oct 2010. Books [5]. P.S.Bimbhra, “Power Electronics”, Khanna publications. [6]. Muhammad H.Rashid “Power Electronics Circuits, devices, and Applications”, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, Third Edition, 2004. Thesis References [7]. Jin-woo Jung, “Space Vector PWM Inverter”, The Ohio State University, February, 2008. Website references [8]. www.ieeexplore.com
- 52. THANK YOU

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