saving and investment theory


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saving and investment theory

  1. 1. By Sudarshan Kadariya JMC
  2. 2. Saving is the part of personal income that is neither consumed nor paid out in taxes. The income saved is canalise to business firms in two different ways. (I) Households buy bonds and stocks issued by business firms, and the firms then use the money to buy investment goods. (II) Households deposit saving into the banks. The banks then lend the money to the firms, which use it to buy investment goods.
  3. 3. Investment is the portion of final products that adds to the nation's stock of income yielding physical assets or that replaces old, worn-out physical assets. Final goods that business firms keep for themselves are called private investment or private capital formation. Private investment consists of inventory investment and fixed investment.
  4. 4. (I) Inventory investment means goods purchased by the business firms but not resold to consumers in the current period, stays in the stock raise the level of inventories. Inventories of raw materials, parts and finished goods are essential forms of income yielding assets for business. (II) Fixed investment includes all final goods purchased by business firms other than addition to inventory. It includes all final goods purchased by business firms that are not intended to resale. The main types of fixed investment (investment on capital goods) are structures (factories, office building, plants and machinery).
  5. 5.  First of all coined by Thomas Tooke in 1844.  Further explained by classical economist who believe on monetarism. This theory is also called as Income Theory  Elaborate and explained by J. M. Keynes in the name of Saving-Investment Theory  The major objective of this theory is to explain the changes in price level or the value of money
  6. 6. The classical view states that the economy is always at full-employment equilibrium. This theory is termed as “Income Theory.” The saving and investment are always equal. The classical economists believe that equality between saving and investment brought by interest rate. When, saving exceeds investment, the rate of interest falls to discourage saving and encourage investment and vice versa.
  7. 7. Saving and Investment
  8. 8.  Effect on price:  If AY>AO, Price increase  If AY<AO, Price decrease  Therefore, the major cause of change in price is money income or money supply or the interest rate in the economy. Price = AY/AO Where, AY = Aggregate Income AO = Aggregate Output
  9. 9. It shows that there is positive relationship between interest rate/money supply and price. S I1 I2 IR1 R R2 Price high Price Low Saving and Investment Normal price Interestrate
  10. 10.  Keynes disagree with equilibrium of saving and investment is brought by the rates of interest rather, it is the changes in the level of income which play a role in equalization of saving and investment.  Equilibrium (S=I) below full employment in the economy.  Keynes established this equality by using the economy's equilibrium situation, the economy is said to be in equilibrium when aggregate expenditure ( AE) is equal to income of the economy. That is, Y = AE or AD = f(Y)
  11. 11. (Y+ =purchasing power + = AD +)  Effect on price: ◦ If factor of production/resources constraint, increase in price ◦ If no constraint, price level remains same  Therefore, the major cause of change in AD is income rather than interest rate.
  12. 12.  Assuming two sector model, aggregate expenditure equals to consumption plus investment (I), AE = C + I and national income (Y) equals to consumption plus saving (S). This gives saving (S) equals to Investment (I), i.e., S = I.  Equilibrium situation is the situation where S=I.  From income perspective, Y = C + S ………. (1)  From expenditure perspective, Y = C + I ……(2) So that S = I i.e. state of equilibrium
  13. 13.  The changes in Y makes S = I  If I>S, Y increases unless S=I, leads to increase in price. (when I+, Y also +)  If I<S, Y decreases unless S=I, leads to decrease in price. (when I-, Y also -) Note: The state of disequilibrium in the economy does not last long
  14. 14. It shows the equilibrium of S and I (S = I) at point L.
  15. 15. S I’ I Increase in price Income Normal price SavingandInvestment When, I>S, increase in price level at new equilibrium S I’ I Decrease in price Income Normal price SavingandInvestment When, I<S, decrease in price level at new equilibrium
  16. 16.  When investment is greater than saving, the level of income will also be increased by multiplier process. This causes to rise saving and equality between then takes place.  Similarly, when saving is greater than investment opposite will occur, i.e. level of income will decrease which causes saving to decrease. The equality between saving and investment can exist at below full employment level.
  17. 17.  Saving-Investment theory explain the disequilibrium between saving and investment causes fluctuation in price or the value of money by affecting the level of income. If saving and investment are equal, the price level is stable.  If the saving exceeds investment price level falls and if investment exceeds saving, price level increases.  Thus, the price level is the consequence of the change in income rather than the quantity of money