Dr (Gp Capt retd) Suchitra Mankar                            MD
Economics - definition• Best use of available resources against  competing demands - attain given goals.• Resources- six M...
Economics• Macro - GDP; percentage expenditure; policy;  universal coverage; national programs; fund  allocation; budgetin...
Health Economics-Defn• A branch of economics concerned with issues  related to allocation of resources for health  and hea...
Why study Health Economics?• Benefits of economic growth-well known• Determinants of economic growth  – labour force  – Ph...
• Healthier workers -work longer, more  productive• Healthy children better learning abilities &  better educational outco...
• A thousand rupee increase in per capita  health expenditure would lead to a 1.3%  increase in LEB• A 10% increase in per...
Why is health so important?Prevention     Nutrition       DyingTreatment     Health          TechnologyPayment            ...
What is human development?• Difference between development and growth• Development for us to achieve goals of humanity,  o...
Scope of Health economics•   Factors influencing health (other than health care)•   Definition of health and its value•   ...
Macro HE•   Who is covered•   What services are covered;•   How much of the cost is covered.•   How funds are to be raised...
Data on Macroeconomic Health     Expenditure Indicators-India• Data now easily available  – Enables better understanding  ...
Total Health Expenditure as % of GDP              India Total health expenditure (THE) % Gross Domestic Product           ...
Year wise Government vs Private         expenditure as % of THE90807060                                               Indi...
Total/Govt/Pvt expenditure on Health300000025000002000000                                   Total expenditure on          ...
Financing Agents140,000.00120,000.00100,000.00 80,000.00 60,000.00                                                        ...
Indian Scenario•   Total Health expenditure increasing•   Private sector 70-80%•   Insurance and Social security increasin...
Micro HE• Study of how individual units of production  consumption and industry act and react to  change in the macro pict...
Characteristics of Health Care Industry•   Capital Intensive•   Long gestation periods•   Dynamic, interactive, intangible...
Managerial economics•   Resources- Highest output•   Objectives- Minimum Resources•   Objectives and resources-Highest uti...
Costs•   Opportunity Cost•   Sunk Costs•   Life cycle costs•   Incremental costs•   Marginal Costs•   Variable Costs, fixe...
Analysis Tools•   Cost effectiveness•   Cost benefit•   Production Curves•   Equi marginal utility•   Indifference curves•...
Managerial Health Economic Evaluations•   Cost Minimization Analysis•   Cost Effectiveness Analysis•   Cost Benefit Analys...
Cost Minimization Analysis• It is based on prior epidemiological findings.  The technique identifies the least cost  inter...
Cost Effectiveness Analysis• Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a technique  for selecting among competing wants whereve...
Cost Effectiveness Analysis• A new strategy is compared with current  practice (the "low-cost alternative") in  calculatio...
Cost Effectiveness Analysis• Cost effective does not mean that the strategy  saves money• CEA is only relevant if the new ...
Cost Effectiveness Analysis• To lengthen life in patients with heart disease-  aspirin and blockers vs the more  complex, ...
Cost Benefit Analysis• CBA estimates and totals up the  equivalent money value of the benefits  and costs to the community...
Cost Benefit Analysis• All aspects of the project- positive or negative  must be expressed• If benefits not expressable in...
Cost Benefit Analysis• In cost benefit analysis objectives can be  questioned.• Establishing a service, a department, full...
Cost Utility Analysis• It is a form of cost effectiveness analysis• Preferred when there are multiple objectives of a  pro...
Cost Utility Analysis• Limitation- QALY is partly subjective• QALY should be  meaningful, valid, reliable, relevant to the...
UTILITY ANALYSIS•Marginal utility•Diminishing Marginal utility•Equi Marginal utility•Indifference Curves
PRODUCTION ANALYSIS• LAW OF VARIABLE PROPORTIONS• LAW OF RETURN TO SCALE• PRODUCTION ANALYSIS   – PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY A...
Problems of Economic Evaluation• “Efficient is not always sufficient” as the sole  criterion for decision making.• The eco...
Conclusion• Study of Health Economics essential for  planning and evaluation• While complex problems may be worked out  by...
Questions
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Health economics what is it

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students wonder exactly what health economics is. is it about money in health, more health for the same money ? about health in hospitals or health of the country.

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Health economics what is it

  1. 1. Dr (Gp Capt retd) Suchitra Mankar MD
  2. 2. Economics - definition• Best use of available resources against competing demands - attain given goals.• Resources- six Ms• Economics –macro; micro; managerial.
  3. 3. Economics• Macro - GDP; percentage expenditure; policy; universal coverage; national programs; fund allocation; budgeting; equality; equity; access etc• Micro- cost per unit; utility; break even point; cost of package etc• Managerial tools to analyze for microeconomics
  4. 4. Health Economics-Defn• A branch of economics concerned with issues related to allocation of resources for health and health care• Also referred to as health financing• Manpower, time and money key issues• More money for health; more health for the money!
  5. 5. Why study Health Economics?• Benefits of economic growth-well known• Determinants of economic growth – labour force – Physical capital – technological change – the quality and quantity of labour (human capital) • extent of education • level of its health
  6. 6. • Healthier workers -work longer, more productive• Healthy children better learning abilities & better educational outcomes• Higher incomes permit better nutrition, better health care and, presumably, achieve better health• Health Economy
  7. 7. • A thousand rupee increase in per capita health expenditure would lead to a 1.3% increase in LEB• A 10% increase in per capita income is required to increase the LEB by about 2%.
  8. 8. Why is health so important?Prevention Nutrition DyingTreatment Health TechnologyPayment Sanitation Fertility
  9. 9. What is human development?• Difference between development and growth• Development for us to achieve goals of humanity, our own ambitions and what we are all about.• For this we need education, health, social security, comfort etc.• HDI –more to life than income..GDP and HDI position is not the same
  10. 10. Scope of Health economics• Factors influencing health (other than health care)• Definition of health and its value• The demand for health care• The supply of health care• Microeconomic evaluation at Treatment level• Market Equilibrium• Evaluation at whole system level; and,• Planning, Budgeting and monitoring mechanisms.
  11. 11. Macro HE• Who is covered• What services are covered;• How much of the cost is covered.• How funds are to be raised and administered• Broad picture –for direction• Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems, US$ 44 per capita (unweighted) in 2009, ; US$ 60 per capita by 2015
  12. 12. Data on Macroeconomic Health Expenditure Indicators-India• Data now easily available – Enables better understanding – Policy direction – Weightage – Comparison across years and across ccountries
  13. 13. Total Health Expenditure as % of GDP India Total health expenditure (THE) % Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 4.8 4.6 4.4 India Total health 4.2 expenditure (THE) % Gross Domestic Product 4 (GDP) 3.8 3.6 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009http://apps.who.int/nha/database/ChoiceDataExplorerRegime.aspx
  14. 14. Year wise Government vs Private expenditure as % of THE90807060 India General government50 expenditure on health (GGHE) as % of THE40 India Private expenditure on health (PvtHE) as % of THE3020100 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
  15. 15. Total/Govt/Pvt expenditure on Health300000025000002000000 Total expenditure on health1500000 General government expenditure on health1000000 Private expenditure on health 500000 0 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
  16. 16. Financing Agents140,000.00120,000.00100,000.00 80,000.00 60,000.00 2001 2009 40,000.00 20,000.00 0.00 Ministry of Health Social security Private insurance Non-profit funds institutions serving households (e.g. NGOs)
  17. 17. Indian Scenario• Total Health expenditure increasing• Private sector 70-80%• Insurance and Social security increasing• Equity, access, responsiveness of care• Microeconomic policies can be planned
  18. 18. Micro HE• Study of how individual units of production consumption and industry act and react to change in the macro picture.• Hospitals, patients, processes, machines, drug s etc
  19. 19. Characteristics of Health Care Industry• Capital Intensive• Long gestation periods• Dynamic, interactive, intangible• Manpower Shortage• High Obsolescence Costs• Complex Business Model – high risk environment involving human lives – managing doctor &-corporate management interface
  20. 20. Managerial economics• Resources- Highest output• Objectives- Minimum Resources• Objectives and resources-Highest utility• Utility- capacity to satisfy human need.• Tools to aid decision making – Cost analysis – Production analysis – Utility Analysis
  21. 21. Costs• Opportunity Cost• Sunk Costs• Life cycle costs• Incremental costs• Marginal Costs• Variable Costs, fixed Costs• Direct costs, Indirect costs
  22. 22. Analysis Tools• Cost effectiveness• Cost benefit• Production Curves• Equi marginal utility• Indifference curves• Time dimension – Decisions in time – Money value over time
  23. 23. Managerial Health Economic Evaluations• Cost Minimization Analysis• Cost Effectiveness Analysis• Cost Benefit Analysis• Cost Utility Analysis
  24. 24. Cost Minimization Analysis• It is based on prior epidemiological findings. The technique identifies the least cost intervention.• If health effects are known to be equal, only costs are analyzed and the least costly alternative is chosen.
  25. 25. Cost Effectiveness Analysis• Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a technique for selecting among competing wants wherever resources are limited.• Developed in the military, CEA was first applied to health care in the mid-1960s and was introduced to clinicians by Weinstein and Stason in 1977• CEA compares alternatives and measures (in natural units) the primary objective of the program (i.e. morbidity reduction, life years saved, functional ability on a scale).
  26. 26. Cost Effectiveness Analysis• A new strategy is compared with current practice (the "low-cost alternative") in calculation of the cost-effectiveness ratio• CE ratio = Cost of new strategy- cost of existing strategy/ effectiveness of new- effectiveness of old
  27. 27. Cost Effectiveness Analysis• Cost effective does not mean that the strategy saves money• CEA is only relevant if the new strategy is both more effective and more costly• For simplicity, we will assume that doing nothing has no cost and no effectiveness.
  28. 28. Cost Effectiveness Analysis• To lengthen life in patients with heart disease- aspirin and blockers vs the more complex, more expensive, and more effective (e.g., medication plus cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, stents, and bypass).• CEA is about marginal/ incremental) costs and benefits.
  29. 29. Cost Benefit Analysis• CBA estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community of projects.• Jules Dupuit, a French engineer proposed this in an article in 1848
  30. 30. Cost Benefit Analysis• All aspects of the project- positive or negative must be expressed• If benefits not expressable in rupees, some value that the beneficiaries consider as good must be considered• Money must be expressed with time
  31. 31. Cost Benefit Analysis• In cost benefit analysis objectives can be questioned.• Establishing a service, a department, full time employees etc
  32. 32. Cost Utility Analysis• It is a form of cost effectiveness analysis• Preferred when there are multiple objectives of a program, when quality of life is an important outcome, and when quality of life and quantity of life are both important outcomes.• Allows comparison of different health outcomes (prolongation of life, relief of suffering, blindness) by measuring them all in terms of a single unit — QALY.
  33. 33. Cost Utility Analysis• Limitation- QALY is partly subjective• QALY should be meaningful, valid, reliable, relevant to the population in question
  34. 34. UTILITY ANALYSIS•Marginal utility•Diminishing Marginal utility•Equi Marginal utility•Indifference Curves
  35. 35. PRODUCTION ANALYSIS• LAW OF VARIABLE PROPORTIONS• LAW OF RETURN TO SCALE• PRODUCTION ANALYSIS – PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY ANALYSIS – ISO-COST / ISO-QUANT ANALYSIS
  36. 36. Problems of Economic Evaluation• “Efficient is not always sufficient” as the sole criterion for decision making.• The economic evaluation techniques are used inappropriately to impose judgments of specialists on the whole community.
  37. 37. Conclusion• Study of Health Economics essential for planning and evaluation• While complex problems may be worked out by experts, decision makers require a sound understanding of health economics fundamentals• More health from the money and more money for health- Economic Imperative
  38. 38. Questions
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