Routing Protocols               CMC Limited
Objectives•   Understand basic concepts of routing.•   Explain the difference between routed protocols and    routing prot...
RoutingRouting is the act of moving information across aninternetwork from a source to a destination.Routers don’t care ab...
IP Routing in a Large NetworkRouter configuration is a fairly simple process, since you justneed to add IP addresses to yo...
IP Routing in a Large Network contd..2501A Configuration To configure 2501A, two interfaces need to be configured: Etherne...
Configure IP Routing The different types of routing are as follows:   •   Static Routing   •   Default Routing   •   Dynam...
Configure IP Routing contd..Default Routing We use default routing to send packets with a remote destination network not i...
Routing Protocols Routing is the process of determining where to send data packets destined for addresses outside the loca...
Routing Components Routing involves two basic activities: determining optimal routing paths and transporting information g...
Router for Inter-VLAN Communication Network devices in different VLANs cannot communicate with one another without a route...
Interior Routing ProtocolsAn interior protocol is a routing protocol used inside -interior to - an independent network sys...
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)The RIP, as it is more commonly called, is one of the mostenduring of all routing protoc...
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) contd..RIP Routing MetricRIP uses a single routing metric (hop count) to measure thedis...
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) contd..RIP TimersRIP uses three different kinds of timers to regulate itsperformance:  ...
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) contd..Configure RIP To configure RIP routing, just turn on the protocol with the route...
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(IGRP) The IGRP is a routing protocol that was developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco System...
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) contd..Timers IGRP maintains a number of timers and variables containing time int...
Verify IP Routing The following list includes the commands you can use to verify the routed and routing protocols configur...
Verify IP Routing contd..The Show IP Protocol Command The show ip protocol command shows you the routing protocols that ar...
Enhanced Interior Gateway RoutingProtocol (EIGRP) EIGRP is an enhanced version of IGRP. In a well designed network, EIGRP ...
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) contd..  Configuration    It is recommended that you configure all rout...
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) OSPF is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) developed by the OSPF working group of the Inte...
Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) The ability to specify a different subnet mask for the same network number on different...
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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Routing Protocols CMC Limited
  2. 2. Objectives• Understand basic concepts of routing.• Explain the difference between routed protocols and routing protocols.• Configure IP routing in a large network.• Understand different types of routing protocols.• Understand interior and exterior routing protocols.• Understand and configure RIP and IGRP.• Understand how to verify IP routing.• Explain EIGRP, OSPF, VLSM, and VPN. CMC Limited
  3. 3. RoutingRouting is the act of moving information across aninternetwork from a source to a destination.Routers don’t care about hosts – they only care aboutnetworks and the best path to each network.• Destination address• Neighbor routers from which it can learn about remote networks• Possible routes to all remote networks• The best route to each remote network• How to maintain and verify routing information CMC Limited
  4. 4. IP Routing in a Large NetworkRouter configuration is a fairly simple process, since you justneed to add IP addresses to your interfaces and thenperform a no shutdown on the interfaces.2621A ConfigurationTo configure the 2621A router, you just need to add an IPaddress to interface FastEthernet 0/0. CMC Limited
  5. 5. IP Routing in a Large Network contd..2501A Configuration To configure 2501A, two interfaces need to be configured: Ethernet 0 and Serial 0.2501B Configuration The configuration of 2501B is more of the same, except that you also need to add the clock rate command to the data communication equipment (DCE) interfaces connected to both serial interfaces.2501C Configuration The configuration of 2501C is the same as 2501A except that it has different network lDs. CMC Limited
  6. 6. Configure IP Routing The different types of routing are as follows: • Static Routing • Default Routing • Dynamic RoutingStatic Routing Static routing protocols are hardly protocols at all. Before routing begins, the network administrator establishes static routing table mappings. static routing systems are generally considered unsuitable for todays large, constantly changing networks. CMC Limited
  7. 7. Configure IP Routing contd..Default Routing We use default routing to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing table to the next-hop router. To configure a default route, you use wildcards in the network address and mask locations of a static route.Dynamic Routing Dynamic routing protocols adjust to changing network circumstances. They do this by analyzing incoming routing update messages. CMC Limited
  8. 8. Routing Protocols Routing is the process of determining where to send data packets destined for addresses outside the local network. Routing protocols allow a router to create and maintain routing tables dynamically and to adjust to network changes as they occur.Types of Routing Protocols • Distance Vector • Link State • Hybrid CMC Limited
  9. 9. Routing Components Routing involves two basic activities: determining optimal routing paths and transporting information groups (typically called packets) through an internetwork .Path Determination Routing protocols use metrics to evaluate what path will be the best for a packet to travel. To aid the process of path determination, routing algorithms initialize and maintain routing tables, which contain route information. CMC Limited
  10. 10. Router for Inter-VLAN Communication Network devices in different VLANs cannot communicate with one another without a router to route traffic between the VLANs. In an IPX network, each VLAN is mapped to an IPX network number. CMC Limited
  11. 11. Interior Routing ProtocolsAn interior protocol is a routing protocol used inside -interior to - an independent network system.Exterior Routing Protocols Exterior routing protocols are used to exchange routing information between autonomous systems. Moving routing information into and out of these monoliths is the function of exterior routing protocols. Exterior routing protocols are also called exterior gateway protocols. CMC Limited
  12. 12. Routing Information Protocol (RIP)The RIP, as it is more commonly called, is one of the mostenduring of all routing protocols. It is a true distance-vectorrouting protocol.Routing UpdatesRIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals andwhen the network topology changes.RIP routers maintain only the best route (the route with thelowest metric value) to a destination. CMC Limited
  13. 13. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) contd..RIP Routing MetricRIP uses a single routing metric (hop count) to measure thedistance between the source and a destination network.RIP Stability FeaturesRIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely byimplementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a pathfrom the source to a destination. CMC Limited
  14. 14. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) contd..RIP TimersRIP uses three different kinds of timers to regulate itsperformance: • Route update timer • Route invalid timer • Route flush timerPacket Formats There are 2 packet formats: • RIP Packet Format • RIP 2 Packet Format CMC Limited
  15. 15. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) contd..Configure RIP To configure RIP routing, just turn on the protocol with the router rip command and tell the RIP routing protocol which networks to advertise.Verifying the RIP Routing Tables Each routing table should now have the routers’ directly connected routes as well as RIP-injected routes received from neighbor routers. CMC Limited
  16. 16. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(IGRP) The IGRP is a routing protocol that was developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco Systems, Inc. Ciscos principal goal in creating IGRP was to provide a robust protocol for routing within an autonomous system (AS).IGRP Protocol Characteristics IGRP is a distance vector Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Distance vector routing protocols mathematically compare routes using some measurement of distance. CMC Limited
  17. 17. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) contd..Timers IGRP maintains a number of timers and variables containing time intervals. These include an update timer, an invalid timer, a hold-time period, and a flush timer.Configuring IGRP Routing The command used to configure IGRP is the same as the one used to configure RIP routing with one important difference – you use an autonomous System (AS) number.Verifying the IGRP Routing Tables Once the routers are configured, you need to verify the configuration with the show ip route command. CMC Limited
  18. 18. Verify IP Routing The following list includes the commands you can use to verify the routed and routing protocols configured on your Cisco routers: • show ip route • show protocols • show ip procotol • debug ip rip • debug ip igrp events • debug ip igrp transactionsThe Show Protocols Command The show protocols command is useful because it displays all the routed protocols and the interfaces on which the protocol is enabled. CMC Limited
  19. 19. Verify IP Routing contd..The Show IP Protocol Command The show ip protocol command shows you the routing protocols that are configured on your router.The Debug IP RIP Command The debug ip rip command sends routing updates as they are sent and received on the router to the console session.The Debug IP IGRP Command With the debug ip igrp command, there are two options, events and transactions. CMC Limited
  20. 20. Enhanced Interior Gateway RoutingProtocol (EIGRP) EIGRP is an enhanced version of IGRP. In a well designed network, EIGRP scales well and provides extremely quick convergence times with minimal network traffic.Basic Theory A typical distance vector protocol saves the following information when computing the best path to a destination. CMC Limited
  21. 21. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) contd.. Configuration It is recommended that you configure all routers on a network segment with primary IP addresses on the same subnet . Verify This section provides information you can use to confirm your configuration is working properly CMC Limited
  22. 22. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) OSPF is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) developed by the OSPF working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).Configure with IP Addresses On point-to-point links such as High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and PPP, Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) runs as a point-to-point network type. CMC Limited
  23. 23. Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) The ability to specify a different subnet mask for the same network number on different subnets is called VLSM. RIPv1 and IGRP are classful protocols and are incapable of carrying subnet mask information in their updates.Virtual Private Networks (VPN) One of the most popular approaches to establishing a secure computing and network environment is the virtual private network (VPN). CMC Limited

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