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Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
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Chapter 6

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  1. Routed Protocols CMC Limited
  2. Objectives • Understand IP addressing, it’s architecture and representation. • Understand conversion between decimal, hexadecimal and binary number system. • Understand different classes of IP address. • Explain network mask. • Understand different types of TCP/IP application layer, Internet layer and transport layer protocols. CMC Limited
  3. IP Addressing An IP address uniquely identifies a node or host on an IP network. An IP address is a software address, not a hardware address. The two basic components of the IP Addressing architecture are: • Network ID • Host (or Node) ID CMC Limited
  4. IP Addressing contd..General IP Addressing Architecture IP Address consists of 32-bit value. Each Physical Network has its own unique network address. Each host has one or more unique addresses.IP Address Representation An IP address consists of 32 bits of information. These bits are divided into four sections, referred to as octets or bytes, each containing one byte i.e., 8 bits. CMC Limited
  5. IP Addressing contd..IPv4 and IPv6The IP system in widespread use today is also known asIPv4 ("version four").IPv4 can only represent a finite number of computers onthe Internet – approximately 4,294,967,296, or 2 raisedto the 32nd power. CMC Limited
  6. Number SystemMany number systems are in use in digital technology. Themost common are the decimal, binary, octal andhexadecimal systems.Decimal SystemThe decimal system is composed of 10 numerals orsymbols. These 10 symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.The decimal system is also called the base-10 systembecause it has 10 digits. CMC Limited
  7. Number System contd..Binary SystemIn the binary system, there are only two symbols or possibledigit values, 0 and 1. This base-2 system can be used torepresent any quantity that can be represented in decimalor other number system.Hexadecimal SystemThe hexadecimal system uses base 16. It uses the digits 0through 9 plus the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F CMC Limited
  8. Number System contd..Converting Decimal to BinaryLets express a decimal number 1341.25 in binary notation.Note that in the first part the desired base is 2, so werepeatedly divide the number by 2 until the quotient is 0.Converting Binary to Decimal (10100111101.01)2 = 1x(210)+0x(29)+1x(28)+0x(27)+0x(26)+1x(25)+1x(24)+1x(23)+ 1x(22)+0x(21)+1x(20)+0x(2-1)+ 1x(2-2) = 1024+0+256+0+0+32+16+8+4+0+1+0+0.25 = (1341.25)10 CMC Limited
  9. Number System contd..Converting Decimal to HexadecimalWe repeatedly divide the integer part of the decimal number by162 until the quotient is 0 and multiply the fraction part by 16. Thus, (3315.3)10 = (CF3.4CCC)16Converting Hexadecimal to Decimal24.616 = 2 x (161) + 4 x (160) + 6 x (16-1) = 36.37510Converting Hexadecimal to Binary HEX 5 3 D BIN 0101 0011 1101 Thus, (53D)16 = (010100111101)2 CMC Limited
  10. Classes of IP Addresses IP addresses can be subdivided into classes. There are five different classes of networks.Class A In a Class A network address, the first byte is assigned to the network address and the remaining bytes are used for node (or host) addresses. CMC Limited
  11. Classes of IP Addresses contd..Class B In a Class B network address, the first two bytes are assigned to the network address and the remaining two bytes are used for node address.Class C The first three bytes of a Class C network address are dedicated to the network portion of the address, with only one byte remaining for the node address.Class D The IPv4 networking standard defines Class D addresses as reserved for multicast. CMC Limited
  12. Classes of IP Addresses contd..Class E The IPv4 networking standard defines Class E addresses as reserved, meaning that they should not be used on IP networks.Special Forms of Internet AddressLimited Broadcast A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address 255.255.255.255.IP Loopback Address 127.0.0.1 is the loopback address in IP. Loopback is a test mechanism of network adapters. CMC Limited
  13. Classes of IP Addresses contd..Zero AddressesAs with the loopback range, the address range from 0.0.0.0through 0.255.255.255 should not be considered part of thenormal Class A range.Private AddressesThe IP standard defines specific address ranges withinClass A, Class B and Class C reserved for use by privatenetworks (intranets). CMC Limited
  14. Network MasksA network mask helps you know which portion of theaddress identifies the network and which portion of theaddress identifies the node. CMC Limited
  15. Subnetting IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called subnetworks (or subnets). Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID, with every node on that link being a member of the same network.Subnet Masks Perhaps the most recognizable aspect of subnetting is the subnet mask. A subnet mask neither works like an IP address, nor does it exist independently from them. CMC Limited
  16. Subnetting contd..Subnetting Class C Address To subnet a network, extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a subnetwork ID.Subnetting Class B Address If you have network 172.16.0.0, then you know that its natural mask is 255.255.0.0 or 172.16.0.0/16. CMC Limited
  17. Configure IP AddressesTo configure IP addresses on an interface, use the ipaddress command from interface configuration mode. CMC Limited
  18. Troubleshoot IP Address Schemes When users start to complain about not being able to get to their services and applications, you need to quickly be able to resolve what’s causing the issue. Test Methodology • Check physical connectivity • Verify connectivity from local LAN • Carry out layer 3 network testing • Prove name resolution • Test application layers CMC Limited
  19. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols The application layer includes the following protocols: • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) • Telnet • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) • Domain Name Service (DNS) • Line Printer Daemon (LPD) • Network File System (NFS) • X Window CMC Limited
  20. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols contd..File Transfer Protocol (FTP) FTP permits files to be transferred from one computer to another using a TCP connection.Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) TFTP is an Internet software utility for transferring files that is simpler to use than the FTP but less capable. CMC Limited
  21. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols contd..File Transfer Protocol (FTP) FTP permits files to be transferred from one computer to another using a TCP connection.Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) TFTP is an Internet software utility for transferring files that is simpler to use than the FTP but less capable.Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) SMTP specifies the format of messages that an e-mail client on one computer can use to send (or receive) electronic mail to and from an SMTP server on another computer. CMC Limited
  22. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols contd..Simple Network Management Protocol(SNMP) SNMP is the protocol governing network management and the monitoring of network devices and their operations.Telnet TELNET is the terminal emulation protocol of TCP/IP. TELNET uses the TCP transport protocol to achieve a virtual connection between server and client. CMC Limited
  23. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols contd..Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) DHCP is a communications protocol that lets network administrators manage centrally and automate the assignment of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in an organizations network. DHCP is an alternative to another network IP management protocol, Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP). CMC Limited
  24. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols contd..Domain Name Service (DNS)On a network as vast as the Internet it would be impracticalto identify each system solely by its numeric IP address.Line Printer Daemon (LPD)LPD is a printer protocol that uses TCP/IP to establishconnections between printers and workstations on anetwork. CMC Limited
  25. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols contd..Network File System (NFS)Suppose the NFS server software is running on a NT serverand the NFS client software is running on a Unix host.X Window The X-Window protocol provides a remote windowing interface to distributed network applications. CMC Limited
  26. TCP/IP Internet Layer ProtocolsIP layer is also referred as Network Layer. Internet layerprotocols, that are less visible but play equally importantroles in TCP/IP networks.Internet Protocol (IP)IP is a connectionless, unreliable datagram protocolprimarily responsible for addressing and routing packetsbetween hosts. CMC Limited
  27. TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols contd..Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is used forerror and control messages within the IP world and isvery much integrated with IP.Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)ARP finds the hardware address of a host from a known IPaddress.If IP does not find the destination host’s hardware addressin the ARP cache, it uses ARP to find this information. CMC Limited
  28. TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols contd..Reverse Address Resolution Protocol(RARP)RARP discovers the identity of the IP address for disklessmachines by sending out a packet that includes its MACaddress and a request for the IP address assigned to thatMAC address. CMC Limited
  29. TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols Transport layer (also known as the Host-to-Host Transport layer) is responsible for providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) TCP is a reliable, connection-oriented delivery service. The data is transmitted in segments.User Datagram Protocol (UDP) UDP provides a connectionless datagram service that offers unreliable, best-effort delivery of data transmitted in messages. CMC Limited

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