Afghanistan and Pakistan - From Abd ur Rehman to the Taliban

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  • 1. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban Oct 30, 2009
  • 2. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • Religious Environment
      • Hanafi Sunni with Qadriyah & Naqshbandi influences mostly from India. Great influence by Sirhindi’s family.
      • Shi’a Jafari
      • By mid-20 th Century, also influenced by Abu Ala Al Mawdudi and Syed Qutb
  • 3. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • Foundations of modern Afghanistan laid by Abd-ur-Rehman in late 19 th Century
    • Established Loya Jirga and Justice Deptt. Thus depriving power from the ulema .
    • Signed Durand Treaty with the British ( c. 1893)
    • In 1907, Britain & Russia established spheres of influence in the South & North respectively, after the Anglo-Russian Agreement,
  • 4. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • After a period of instability following Abd-ur-Rehman, his grandson, Amanuallah took over.
    • He remained neutral between Britain & Russia and signed treaties with them.
    • Thus, he refused jihadis from India who went to Afghanistan to fight the British following the Khilafat Movement.
    • Introduced several reforms like abolishing polygamy, introducing western dress code, women’s higher education. These lost him his job.
  • 5. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • After Amanuallah, Nadir Shah, an islamic fundamentalist, assumed power and turned back many reforms.
    • Later, his son, a young Zahir Shah assumed Kingship guided by his uncles.
    • After a period of political uncertainties, Zahir Shah’s cousin and Army commander, Daoud Khan deposed the Prime Minister and assumed that position.
  • 6. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • By this time, Pakistan had been created and joined SEATO/CENTO treaties.
    • Daoud Khan raked up the issue of Pashtunistan and this angered Pakistan.
    • Daoud Khan decided to build up his Army with Russian assistance.
    • Daoud Khan also introduced several reforms and clipped powers of the ulema .
    • An angry Pakistan shut the borders and trade routes with landlocked Afghanistan forcing Zahir Shah to replace Daoud Khan as Prime Minister
  • 7. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • Three powerful groups had formed in Afghanistan by this time: ulema led by Sirhindi’s family, nationalists and communists.
    • Syed Qutb and Mawdudi began to influence the Islamists
    • Hekmatyar, Rabbani & Sayyaf appeared on the scene
  • 8. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • In c. 1973, Daoud Khan once again assumed power in a coup and deposed King Zahir Shah
    • He continued with his earlier reforms
    • Joined hands with the Parchami Marxists to push through his reforms of land ceiling, formation of the Republic etc.
    • Fearing his tough actions, Hekmatyar and Rabbani fled to Pakistan where they received support from Z.A. Bhutto.
  • 9. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • Hekmatyar’s rebellion, supported by Pakistan, against Daoud Khan was easily crushed.
    • Daoud Khan came under the influence of oil-rich Shah of Iran and this was disliked by the Soviet union
    • Daoud Khan also began prosecuting the Parchamis with whom he had joined hands earlier.
  • 10. Afghanistan: From Abd-ur-Rehman to Taliban
    • The Marxists, who had split into Parchami & Khalq factions, re-united and re-established the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
    • The Soviet Union began to help the Marxists fearing Iranian and American influence.
    • Daoud Khan started arresting Marxist leaders. The Chief of PDPA, Nur Muhammad Taraki, escaped arrest and activated the officers’ cells in the Army which had been trained by the Soviet Union.
    • In April, 1978, the Army staged a coup and assassinated Daoud Khan. This was known as the ‘Great Saur (April) Revolution’. Thus, Marxists came to power.