Aluminum Recycling in a Carbon
      Constrained World:
Observations and Opportunities

             Dr. Subodh Das , CEO ...
Chief Seattle ( 1788-1866 )




“ We didn’t inherit the earth from our parents.
   We are borrowing it from our children.”...
Global Metals Industry                   (Million Metric Tonnes)

Metals         World Production (2008)     CO2E ( T/T)  ...
Impact of Aluminum Industry on GHG

Aluminum is responsible for > 1% of global human induced
greenhouse gases (Carbon Diox...
Solution Spectrum

  1. Engineering : Design and Process for Recyclability
  2. Communications : Public, Consumer, Custome...
Engineering Solutions

 • Design, Produce and Promote Recycle-Friendly Alloys :
       “Lean & Green “ Products
        Al...
Develop and Utilize More
Recycle Friendly Aluminum Alloys


 Existing Model            New Model
                         ...
Product/ Alloy Differentiation

Excessive Product Differentiation Leads to Waste /Cost /Higher
  Carbon Footprints
       ...
Recycle Friendly Alloys (RFA)

                  15 RFA : “Lean and Green”

Electrical        1350
Can Sheet         3104 ...
Sensor Based Particle Sorter




              10
TiTech LIBS elemental
                                       concentration sensor sorter




                             ...
Al scrap and laser line ilumination for the 3D sensor




                          12
Communications Solutions

Recycling Consumes 5 % of the Energy ? : Revalidate

Recycling Rate is 54% ? : Consolidate Metho...
Alloy Recycling Index (ARI)
Recycling Production Index(RPI)

 •    ARI – Recyclability for recovering the maximum
     sto...
ARI & RPI for Key Aerospace Alloys

      ALLOYS                 ARI       RPI

      • 2XXX                 94        M

...
Legislative Solutions

1. Promote Bottle / Deposit Bill
2. Develop/Implement Protocols for Qualifying Recycling as Carbon
...
Sustainability – Social Responsibility -1

Produce Alloys & Products with Multiple Attributes and Recyclability

May Not H...
Sustainability—Social Responsibility - 2

                                 Packaging
•   Curb Value Partnership , Recycle ...
Sustainability—Social Responsibility - 3

 Shipping of NA / EU metal scrap to Asia
 Takes raw materials away from NA / EU
...
Sustainability—Social Responsibility - 4

CHALLENGE : MAKE THE GLOBAL ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

             “ OPERATIONALLY CARB...
Chief Seattle Das ( 1947- )




  “ We didn’t inherit the aluminum from our parents .
       We are borrowing it from our ...
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Aluminum Recycling in a Carbon Constraint World - Observations and Opportunities

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Cutting Edge thinking on sustainability and recyling for the global Aluminun Industry

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Aluminum Recycling in a Carbon Constraint World - Observations and Opportunities

  1. 1. Aluminum Recycling in a Carbon Constrained World: Observations and Opportunities Dr. Subodh Das , CEO & Founder Phinix, LLC Lexington, Kentucky, USA The Aluminum Industry - Perspectives on our Future TMS - LMD Aluminum Plenary Session February 15,2010 1 Seattle, Washington, USA
  2. 2. Chief Seattle ( 1788-1866 ) “ We didn’t inherit the earth from our parents. We are borrowing it from our children.” 2
  3. 3. Global Metals Industry (Million Metric Tonnes) Metals World Production (2008) CO2E ( T/T) % Global GHG Iron & Steel 1,330 1.0 >4 Aluminum 35 14 >1 Copper 17 5.5 <1 Zinc 10 3 <<1 Magnesium 1 > 18 <<1 Titanium 0.1 > 20 <<1 3
  4. 4. Impact of Aluminum Industry on GHG Aluminum is responsible for > 1% of global human induced greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxide and Perfluoro Carbons) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 10 kg CO2 per kg of primary aluminum production ( 35 million tonnes ) 350 million metric tonnes CO2 per year for primary production 0.5 kg CO2 per kg of aluminum remelted or recycled (30 million tonnes) 15 million metric tonnes CO2 per year for recycled production Perfluoro Carbons (PFC) 1.0 kg PFC per tonne of aluminum production Equivalent to 250 million metric tonnes of CO2 Recycle to reduce the Al industry GHG 4
  5. 5. Solution Spectrum 1. Engineering : Design and Process for Recyclability 2. Communications : Public, Consumer, Customer, Suppliers 3. Legislative : Local , National, Regional and International 4. Sustainability : Social Responsibility 5
  6. 6. Engineering Solutions • Design, Produce and Promote Recycle-Friendly Alloys : “Lean & Green “ Products Alloying Element ( Mg, Cu, Si, Mn , Zn…) have even higher carbon foot prints • Avoid Unsustainable Alloys / Product Differentiation • Design Multi-Materials Systems for Disassembly ( Aluminum / Steel / Vinyl / Composites ) • Broaden Commercialize Use of Sensor- Based Sorting Technologies 6
  7. 7. Develop and Utilize More Recycle Friendly Aluminum Alloys Existing Model New Model Pure Al “Primary World” “Secondary World” Si/Mg Cu/Zn Mg/Mn Mn/Fe 7
  8. 8. Product/ Alloy Differentiation Excessive Product Differentiation Leads to Waste /Cost /Higher Carbon Footprints 57 Varieties of Ketchups 31 Varieties of Ice Creams >> 1000 Varieties of Coffees / Wines > 100 Aluminum Alloys in Commercial Use 8
  9. 9. Recycle Friendly Alloys (RFA) 15 RFA : “Lean and Green” Electrical 1350 Can Sheet 3104 for Body , Lids and Tabs B&C 3105 ( painted sheet ) , 6061 (Extrusion) Automotive 5754 (inner) , 6111-T4 (outers ) 6061-T6 ( bumpers/structural ) , A356 , 380 , 319 Aerospace 2024 , 7075 ( plate, extrusion ) Marine 5052 ( sheet ) , 6063 ( extrusion ) Material / Metallurgical Engineers : Stay away from the “ Periodic Table” as “ Entropy” Toys -- Li, Ag ,Be, Bi, Pb, Ti ,Cr, Zr, V All we need is Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn ,Fe and Si 9
  10. 10. Sensor Based Particle Sorter 10
  11. 11. TiTech LIBS elemental concentration sensor sorter Laser Optical emission Mixed illumination spectrometer feed Laser XYZ Sorted 3D line scanner products Alloy sort or batch Camera based on analysis of all major alloying elements, light and dense Conveyor Air jet ejection 11
  12. 12. Al scrap and laser line ilumination for the 3D sensor 12
  13. 13. Communications Solutions Recycling Consumes 5 % of the Energy ? : Revalidate Recycling Rate is 54% ? : Consolidate Methodologies All Material are Claimed “Green” and “Recyclable” Refine and Promote Adoption of Recycling Indices Aluminum Recycling Index ( ARI ) Recycling Production Index (RPI) Define Common LCA Methodologies for Competing Materials 13
  14. 14. Alloy Recycling Index (ARI) Recycling Production Index(RPI) • ARI – Recyclability for recovering the maximum stored energy invested in the alloy and carbon footprint (Quantative) : 0 - 100 • RPI – Ease of producing from recycled remelts (Qualitative) : Low (L) , Medium (M) , High (H) , Unusable (U) 14
  15. 15. ARI & RPI for Key Aerospace Alloys ALLOYS ARI RPI • 2XXX 94 M • 7XXX 91 M/L • 2XXX/7XXX 91 U As compared to more recycle friendly alloys • 3XXX , 6XXX 98 H 15
  16. 16. Legislative Solutions 1. Promote Bottle / Deposit Bill 2. Develop/Implement Protocols for Qualifying Recycling as Carbon Credits/Offsets 3. Meet & Promote Voluntary Commitments ( EPA Climate Leadership Programs ) 16
  17. 17. Sustainability – Social Responsibility -1 Produce Alloys & Products with Multiple Attributes and Recyclability May Not Have Enough Primary Aluminum for ALL PRODUCTS for >> 7 Billion People *** Automotive : Lightweight (++), Attribute (+), high recyclability (+) ** Aerospace : Lightweight (++) , Performance (++) , Recyclability (-) * Packaging : Convenience (+) , Recyclability (- -) *** Electrical : Attribute (+), Cost (++) , Recyclability (-/+) * B&C : Lightweight (+) , Recyclability (-/+) 17
  18. 18. Sustainability—Social Responsibility - 2 Packaging • Curb Value Partnership , Recycle Bank, Habitat for Humanity , Cash for Cans “No Cans Left Behind “, RFID Tags to Track / Recover Lost Aluminum Products • Consider Urban Mining of Used Beverage Cans Aerospace • Recycle Abandoned Planes from Obsolete “Graveyards” • Presort 2XXX/7XXX and Use Mixed for Non-Critical Applications Automotive • Dismantle / Segregate Components by Alloys Before Remelting • Broaden Commercial Use of Sensor Based particle Sorter B&C • Sort 5XXX / 6XXX before Recycling from Demolished Buildings 18
  19. 19. Sustainability—Social Responsibility - 3 Shipping of NA / EU metal scrap to Asia Takes raw materials away from NA / EU Transfers GHG emission reductions Sensor-based sorters can now batch alloys on line – a task that is not possible by hand sorting Lower trade deficits --- cost differential between imported primary and exported scrap >> over $ 1 Billion per year for US 19
  20. 20. Sustainability—Social Responsibility - 4 CHALLENGE : MAKE THE GLOBAL ALUMINUM INDUSTRY “ OPERATIONALLY CARBON NEUTRAL “ • NEW ALUMUNUM PRODUCED EACH YEAR SHOULD LAST FOR EVER TO BE USED AGAIN AND AGAIN • TOTAL CARBON DIOXIDE EQUIVALENT NEEDED TO PRODUCE ALL GLOBAL NEW ALUMINUM SHOULD BE DECREASED BY INCREASING RECYCLING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY >>> AMOUNT LOST BY NOT RECYCLING ALL NEW ALUMNUM PRODUCTS PRODUCED 20
  21. 21. Chief Seattle Das ( 1947- ) “ We didn’t inherit the aluminum from our parents . We are borrowing it from our children.” 21
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