PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTSr. No. Chapter No. Chapter Heading
1 1 Management: Science, Theory and Practice (27th September 2...
GROUP WISE ASSIGNMENTS1. Compensatory assignments
2. Classes left? Sunday class? Next few classes
3. Project (4 groups of ...
Chapter 9
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. HUMAN FACTORS IN MANAGING
2. MOTIVATION
3. AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL: MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY
...
QUIZ
WHAT MOTIVATES ME… WORK OR
NO WORK
What is Leading
 Leading:
 The process of influencing people so that they will
contribute to organizational and group go...
HUMAN FACTORS IN MANAGING
 Multiplicity of roles
 No Average Person
 The importance of personal dignity
 Consideration...
MOTIVATION
 Motive: Why an individual wants to work
 Primary needs:
 Physiological needs such as water, air food, sleep...
AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL:
MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y
 These theories are two sets of assumptions about the
nature of peop...
AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL:
MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y
 THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS
 The expenditure of mental and physical effor...
AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL:
MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y
 CLARIFICATIONS:
 First: These are assumptions, not based on realit...
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
THEORY
 “When one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need
ceases to be a motivator”
 Ph...
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
 E: Existence needs are those which are basic
physiological needs
 R: Relatedness needs pertain to...
HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-
HYGIENE THEORY
 According to Herzberg’s two factor theory; Dissatisfiers,
or hygiene or job conten...
Satisfaction vs. Dissatisfaction
Motivators
Challenging work
Achievement
Growth
Recognition
Advancement
Responsibility
Hyg...
Expectancy theory states that the strength of an individual's
motivation will depend on the extent to which they expect th...
Vroom – example 1
+
25th
December
=
V = Santa brings
presents
E = Christmas Day F = Good Behaviour
Vroom – example 1
+ =
V = reaching targets E = performance
related pay agreement
F = efficient working
How Expectancy Theory Works
Expectancy
Effort - Performance Link
E=0
No matter how much effort
you put in, probably not po...
Expectancy theory
 Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and
valence (V) are related to one another in a ...
Needs
(Internal stimuli)
Incentive
(External Stimuli)
Perception EP
PI
IN
Abilities
and traits
Motivation/
Effort
Satisfac...
EQUITY THEORY
 Adams states that employees examine how fairly they have been treated,
relative to the inputs, in comparis...
Cognitive distortion of inputs & outputs – the employee
may distort facts for example how hard they are really
working or ...
GOAL SETTING THEORY OF
MANAGEMENT
 Clear goals if accepted are motivating
 The objectives must be verifiable, meaningful...
SKINNER’S REINFORCEMENT THEORY
 Positive reinforcement or behavior modification: Individuals
can be motivated by proper d...
SPECIAL MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES
1. Money (status, power, monetary means etc)
2. Other rewards consideration
1. Intrinsic R...
JOB ENRICHMENT
1. Job enrichment:
1. Building into jobs a higher sense of challenge and
achievement
2. Job Enlargement:
1....
Management chap 9
Management chap 9
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Management chap 9

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTSr. No. Chapter No. Chapter Heading 1 1 Management: Science, Theory and Practice (27th September 2010) 2 4 Essentials of Planning and Managing by Objectives (4th Oct) 3 5 Strategies, Policies and Planning Premises (11th Oct) 4 6 Decision Making (18th Oct) 5 7 The Nature of Organizing, Entrepreneuring, and Reengineering (25th Oct) 6 8 Organization Structure: Departmentation (1st Nov) 7 9 Line/ Staff Authority, Empowerment and Decentralization (15th Nov) 8 10 Effective Organizing and Organization Culture (22nd Nov) 9 14 Human Factors and Motivation 10 15 Leadership 11 16 Committees, Teams and Group Decision Making 12 18 The System and Process of Controlling (29th Nov) Sessional Evaluation External Evaluation 15 15 20 50 50 Quiz per Class Assignment & Presentation Mid-term Total Sessional External Exam
  2. 2. GROUP WISE ASSIGNMENTS1. Compensatory assignments 2. Classes left? Sunday class? Next few classes 3. Project (4 groups of 7 each) 15 marks 1. Portfolio Matrix with TOWS (Chap 3) 2. Planning stages of a new company (Chap 2,3) 3. Departmentation (chap 6) and culture(chap 8) 4. Controls (chap 12) 4. Mark dates, assignment to students
  3. 3. Chapter 9
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. HUMAN FACTORS IN MANAGING 2. MOTIVATION 3. AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL: MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y 4. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY 5. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY 6. HERTZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY 7. THE EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION 8. EQUITY THEORY 9. GOAL SETTING THEORY OF MOTIVATION 10. SKINNER’S REINFORCEMENT THEORY 11. MCCLELLAND’S NEEDS THEORY OF MOTIVATION 12. SPECIAL MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES 13. JOB ENRICHMENT 14. A SYSTEMS AND CONTINGENCY APPROACH TO MOTIVATION
  5. 5. QUIZ WHAT MOTIVATES ME… WORK OR NO WORK
  6. 6. What is Leading  Leading:  The process of influencing people so that they will contribute to organizational and group goals  Motivation:  Motivation is getting others to do something because they want to do it.  Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.
  7. 7. HUMAN FACTORS IN MANAGING  Multiplicity of roles  No Average Person  The importance of personal dignity  Consideration of the whole person
  8. 8. MOTIVATION  Motive: Why an individual wants to work  Primary needs:  Physiological needs such as water, air food, sleep and shelter  Secondary needs:  Self esteem, status, affiliation with others, affection, giving, accomplishment and self assertion  Motivation:  A general term which applies to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces
  9. 9. AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL: MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y  These theories are two sets of assumptions about the nature of people  THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS  Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can  Because of this human characteristic of disliking work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of objectives  Average human beings prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little ambition, and want security above all.
  10. 10. AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL: MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y  THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS  The expenditure of mental and physical effort in work is as natural as play or rest  External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for producing effort towards objectives. People will perform those jobs to which they are committed.  Commitment varies as the rewards or their sizes vary  Average human beings learn under normal conditions, not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it  The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population  The intellectual potential of the average human being is only partially utilized
  11. 11. AN EARLY BEHAVIORAL MODEL: MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y  CLARIFICATIONS:  First: These are assumptions, not based on reality or research  Second: The effective manager recognizes te dignity and capabilities as well as the limitations of people and adjusts behavior as demanded by the situation  Third: These are completely different views of people and are not based on any scale  Fourth: Theory Y is not against the use of authority, rather it uses authority as one of the many methods of leading
  12. 12. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY  “When one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator”  Physiological Needs: For example; food, water, warmth, shelter and sleep.  Security or Safety Needs: physical danger, fear of losing job, property, food or shelter  Affiliation or acceptance Needs: These are social needs, or belongingness needs and play a very important part in human life  Esteem Needs: for example; power, prestige, status and self confidence etc  Self actualization Needs: to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something
  13. 13. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY  E: Existence needs are those which are basic physiological needs  R: Relatedness needs pertain to satisfactorily relating to others  G: Growth needs referring to self development, creativity, growth and competence  One may be motivated by several needs at the same time  When people experience frustration on one level, they may focus on the lower level needs
  14. 14. HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION- HYGIENE THEORY  According to Herzberg’s two factor theory; Dissatisfiers, or hygiene or job content factors are not motivators  While satisfiers are motivators and are related to job content  Satisfiers: Growth oriented needs and lead to job satisfaction and then high performance  Dissatisfiers: Existence and socialization needs and lead to no dissatisfaction and routine performance
  15. 15. Satisfaction vs. Dissatisfaction Motivators Challenging work Achievement Growth Recognition Advancement Responsibility Hygiene Status Interpersonal relations Quality of Supervision Compensation Fringes Company policy and administration Work Conditions
  16. 16. Expectancy theory states that the strength of an individual's motivation will depend on the extent to which they expect the results of their efforts to contribute towards their personal needs or goals. VRoom suggested that the strength of an individual's motivation is the product of two factors. 1. The strength of preference for a certain outcome - Vroom called this 'valence' stating that it could be positive, negative or zero - since outcomes might be desired, avoided or considered with indifference - 2. The expectation that a particular outcome will result from certain behaviour - Vroom called this 'subjective probability' or 'expectancy', which refers to the individual's perception of the link between behaviour and outcome. It is represented by a number between 1 [probable] and 0 [no chance] - THE EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
  17. 17. Vroom – example 1 + 25th December = V = Santa brings presents E = Christmas Day F = Good Behaviour
  18. 18. Vroom – example 1 + = V = reaching targets E = performance related pay agreement F = efficient working
  19. 19. How Expectancy Theory Works Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.
  20. 20. Expectancy theory  Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion: M = E x I x V  If either E, I, or V is low, motivation will be low.
  21. 21. Needs (Internal stimuli) Incentive (External Stimuli) Perception EP PI IN Abilities and traits Motivation/ Effort Satisfaction Perceived And Equitable Intrinsic & Extrinsic Reward Performance Productivity EP: Effort performance, PI: Performance Incentive, IN: Incentive -Needs
  22. 22. EQUITY THEORY  Adams states that employees examine how fairly they have been treated, relative to the inputs, in comparison with the treatment received by others.  A compatible input-output ratio with others makes him satisfied  He feels guilty, if he is on the higher side  He gets dissatisfied, if he finds himself under rewarded  Outcomes by a person/ Inputs by a person = Outcomes by another person/ Inputs by another person
  23. 23. Cognitive distortion of inputs & outputs – the employee may distort facts for example how hard they are really working or the relevance of their experience or qualifications Leaving the field – absenteeism, resignation, request for transfer Changes to inputs – the employee may attempt to change inputs without changing outputs e.g. rates of pay, holidays, status & recognition Changing the Object of Comparison – the employee may begin to compare him/herself with different and inappropriate members of the organisation Changes to inputs – the employee decreases the level of either the amount or quality of their work Acting on others – the employee may attempt to persuade others to lower their productivity or try to force them out
  24. 24. GOAL SETTING THEORY OF MANAGEMENT  Clear goals if accepted are motivating  The objectives must be verifiable, meaningful, clear and attainable or they must be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic & Time bound)  Un realistic goals are de-motivating  To gain commitment to goals, true participation in setting them is essential Planning Actions Implementation Control and appraisal Setting objectives
  25. 25. SKINNER’S REINFORCEMENT THEORY  Positive reinforcement or behavior modification: Individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and by praise for their performance, while punishment for poor performance produces negative results MCCLELLAND’S NEEDS THEORY OF MOTIVATION  The basic motivating needs are:  Need for power  Need for Affiliation  Need for Achievement
  26. 26. SPECIAL MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES 1. Money (status, power, monetary means etc) 2. Other rewards consideration 1. Intrinsic Rewards 1. A feeling of accomplishment and self actualization 2. Extrinsic Rewards 1. It includes benefits, recognition, status symbols and money 3. Participation 4. Quality of Working Life
  27. 27. JOB ENRICHMENT 1. Job enrichment: 1. Building into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement 2. Job Enlargement: 1. Enlarging the scope of the job by removing dullness of repetitive tasks and adding similar tasks without enhancing responsibility
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