Chap 6 Need Theories Of Motivation


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Maslow's hierarchy, Two factor theory and ERG theory

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Chap 6 Need Theories Of Motivation

  1. 1. NEED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Saturday, 21st Nov 09
  2. 2. THE PROJECT  Details of the project
  3. 3. Course Outline Sr. |Chap|Final Exam Chapter Heading No.|No. |Q. No. 1. 1 1 An Introduction to Motivational Concept (260909) 2. 2 2 Motivation in the History (101009) 3. 3 3 Darwinian Theory of Evolution and Motivation (171009) 4. 4 4 Instinct and Motivation (311009) 5. 5 5 The Effect of Frustration, Conflict and Stress (051109 & 071109) 6. 6 6 Need Theories of Motivation 7. 7 7 Reinforcement/Incentive Theories 8. 8 8 Expectancy Theories of Motivation 9. 9 9 Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance 10. 10 10 Motivation and Monetary Rewards 11. 11 11 Motivation Through MBO and Performance Appraisal Marks Distribution: Number of Quizzes attended + Midterm + Final assignment
  4. 4. Motivation  Motivation is getting others to do something because they want to do it.  The process which encourages and guides behavior.  The act or process of stimulating to action, providing an incentive or motive, especially for an act.  Motivation is the internal drive to accomplish a particular goal. In a work setting, motivation is what makes people want to work.  Motivation: Goal directed behavior
  5. 5.  Need: an internal desire to be satisfied  Want: A means to fulfill a need  Motive: Energy arising from need, lacking or wanting of something, leading towards the satisfaction of need/ fulfillment of want.  Motivation: Goal directed behavior  Incentive: A stimulus that can influence the behavior of employees of organization Some important points
  6. 6. DEFINITIONS  Need:  “the internal stimulus which causes a person to act and has physiological and/or psychological bases”  Motive:  A particular class of reasons for action directed to a goal or a set of goals.  Valence:  The strength of an individual’s desire for a particular outcome in (Vroom’s expectancy theory-1964)
  7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF NEED THEORIES  A manager needs to understand the need structure of employees and predict their behavior in an organization, in order to motivate them through right kinds of incentives.  He should place the right incentives effectively, understanding what kind of incentive may motivate the employees towards strong desire to perform  He faces the challenge of assigning the right kind of job to right kind of employees, as the tasks may or may not relate to the achievement needs or money needs  The need structure of employees could not be changed but the management may change their preferences, if some needs are covered in the basic salary structure and some are related to performance, so the employees strive to achieve performance related goals  Some needs like a hunger for work or doing something for the sake of doing it/ learning it, could not be satisfied, but need activation by manager
  8. 8. QUIZ TIME  Describe any two of the following:  Relationship between Social Needs and Work  Relationship between Physiological Needs and Work  Relationship between Safety needs and work Keeping yourself in place of manager
  9. 9. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • Man is a wanting creature • It keeps on searching from the satisfaction of one need to the other • Satisfaction of lower level need results in the motivation for satisfaction of next level need. • A satisfied need does not any more motivates him • While the upper level needs ie social, esteem and self actualization needs can never be fully satisfied • The needs are often found in sets of combinations. • Since the levels of needs are overlapping, hence a higher level need may arise before the satisfaction of lower level need. • So the individual may move back to the lower level need that is not satisfied or may want to upgrade the satisfaction of the lower level need.
  10. 10. TWO-LEVEL THEORY  Many social scientists divide needs into two clusters of Lower order needs and higher order needs  Taylor, Wolf and Webber suggested that when people are hungry or thirsty, they can not think about any thing other than food or water.  The analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation generally support this theory
  11. 11. THREE-LEVEL THEORY  As the picture indicates, the ERG model presented by Alderfer divides the needs into three groups; existence, relatedness and growth.  Alderfer used the same order of needs as of Maslow  According to him, the satisfaction of higher order or Growth needs make them more important  He says that all needs can be simultaneously active, unlike Maslow’s model
  12. 12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE NEEDS AND WORK MOTIVATION 1. Satisfaction of existence needs and extrinsic motivation 2. Relatedness needs and motivation  Affiliative motive  Power motive  Competitive motive 3. Growth needs and motivation  Competence motive  Achievement motive