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Hinduism Ppt

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Hinduism

Hinduism


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  • 1. THE BASICS World’s oldest religion World's third largest religion, after Christianity and Hinduism Islam Largely influenced later religions: Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism 837 million followers 13% of the world's population Dominant religion in India (82%) Also found in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Fiji, Bali 1.1 million Hindus in the U.S. ORIGINS 3000 BCE Began in Indus Valley (now Pakistan) Along banks of Indus River Very developed, urban population 1000 BCE Aryans (nobles from European and Persian backgrounds) migrated into India Mixed with native peoples HINDU GOD(S) Believe in the universal soul or God (Brahman), as the sole reality who is present in all things. Brahman has no form, and is eternal. Brahman is creator, preserver and transformer of everything. Brahman appears in the human spirit as Atman, or the soul. Often believed that Hindus worship many gods. Really one Brahma eternal god (Brahman). The other gods are different aspects of the Brahman. Three principal gods: Vishnu Brahma: creates the universe Vishnu: preserves the universe Shiva Shiva: destroys the universe. 1
  • 2. SCRIPTURE: THE VEDAS The Bhagavad Gita The Vedas Means “knowledge” quot;Song of the Blessed Lord“ Written around 1500 BCE to educate the priests about rituals knowledge, work and devotion are all paths to Developed from oral and poetic traditions. salvation and that the central value in life is that of Four parts, and each part is further split into fours loyalty to God. The Samhitas: most ancient part of the Vedas-hymns of praise Spiritual insight that can transform spiritual life to God. Setting: The Brahmanas: rituals and prayers to guide the priests in their duties. Battlefield The Aranyakas: concern worship and meditation. Arjuna (Krishna in human disguise) does not want to fight his kinsmen, but it is his duty The Upanishads: consist of the mystical and philosophical teachings of Hinduism. KARMA CASTE SYSTEM Relations among past deeds, present character, Sanksrit word is varna and future fate Division of social ranks and tasks developed by Aryans All actions have unavoidable consequences during conquest Reincarnation Three parts, and a fourth added later: The soul passes through a cycle of successive lives The priests (or Brahmins) and is reborn in a new body. The next incarnation is The warriors, nobles (the Kshatriyas). The merchants, artisans (Vaisya) always dependent on how the previous life was lived Unskilled workers, peasants (Sudra) Law that governs advancement or regression in Each group has a different set of rules dealing with physical world of deaths and rebirths careers, marriage, diet, etc. The Sudra cannot be reborn RELIGIOUS PATHS for MOKSHA SAMSARA & MOKSHA Karma Yoga: path of work Samsara: wheel of birth and rebirth Doing caste duties without hope for reward Continues forever Selfless duties Jnana Yoga: path of knowledge Souls reborn until they reach perfection Study and learn the lessons of the ancient masters Moksha: the release of the soul from samsara Raja yoga: path of physical & mental discipline Training the body so the soul can be free Requires celibacy Bhakti Yoga: path of love Devoted love to God Man is dependent on God, surrendering to Him is easiest way of release 2
  • 3. THE PROBLEM FOR HUMANS The Laws of Manu Soul 200 BCE-200 CE Karma Ideal code of behavior for Hindus Still have some influence on life today, thought Wheel of rebirth not considered “law” anymore Individual choice *the same things are the ingredients for the solution Laws of Manu, Chapter 6 The Four Stages of Life (for men) 1. A twice-born Snataka, who has thus lived according to the law in the order of householders, may, taking a firm resolution and Student 1. keeping his organs in subjection, dwell in the forest, duly (observing the rules given below). Studies the Vedas 2. When a householder sees his (skin) wrinkled, and (his hair) white, Between ages 8 and 24 and. the sons of his sons, then he may resort to the forest. Householder 2. 3. Abandoning all food raised by cultivation, and all his belongings, he may depart into the forest, either committing his wife to his sons, Follow ideals of wisdom, rituals of household, observe caste or accompanied by her. duties, etc. 4. Taking with him the sacred fire and the implements required for Can be turned over to a son domestic (sacrifices), he may go forth from the village into the forest and reside there, duly controlling his senses. Aging householder/Forest Dweller 3. 5. Let him offer those five great sacrifices according to the rule, with Orients himself away from family and worldly concerns towards various kinds of pure food fit for ascetics, or with herbs, roots, and Brahman (to unite) fruit. 6. Let him wear a skin or a tattered garment; let him bathe in the Samadhi (optional) 4. evening or in the morning; and let him always wear (his hair in) Release of the soul (Atman) so it can unite with Brahman braids, the hair on his body, his beard, and his nails (being unclipped). The Three Stages of Life (for women) Student 1. Householder: duties complement her 2. husband’s 3. Forest Dweller: she can join her husband if she wants to 3