Ankle sprain The most common is an inversion sprain (or lateral ligament sprain) where the ankle turns over so the sole of the foot faces inwards, damaging the ligaments on the outside of the ankle.
Pott’s fracture Stress fracture of the medial malleolus Tarsal tunnel syndrome Calf strain (pulled muscle) Tight calf muscles Contusion of the calf muscles Cramp – Stress fractures
TA rupture The achiiles tendon can tear as a partial rupture or a total rupture. A total rupture is more common in older men who are recreational athletes. It sometimes occurs following a history of inflammation or degeneration of the tendon but nearly always results from a sudden event such as pushing off hard on the toes or suddenly bending the foot upwards.
Symptoms of a total achilles tendon rupture: A sudden sharp pain as if someone has whacked you in the back of the leg with something. This will often be accompanied by a load crack or bang. You will be unable to walk properly and unable to stand on tip toe. There may be a gap felt in the tendon. There will be a lot of swelling. A positive result for Thompsons test. (compression of calf does not produce plantar flexion)
treatment PRICE Operate on the tendon. Sometimes the leg is put in a plaster cast and allowed to heal without surgery. This is generally not the preferred method. It takes longer to heal and longer to start on rehabilitation.
achillestendinopathy/tendinitisCan be acute or chronic.It is no longer thought to be an inflammatory condition. On investigation, the main finding is usually degenerated tissue with a loss of normal fibre structure.
` Acute tendonitis: Gradual onset of pain over a period of days Pain at the onset of exercise which fades as the exercise progresses. Pain eases with rest. Tenderness on palpation. Chronic tendonitis: Gradual onset of pain over a period of weeks, or even months. Pain with all exercise, which is constant throughout. Pain in the tendon when walking especially up hill or up stairs. Pain and stiffness in the Achilles tendon especially in the morning or after rest. There may be nodules or lumps in the achilles tendon, particularly 2- 4cm above the heel. Tenderness on palpation. Swelling or thickening over the Achilles tendon. There may be redness over the skin. You can sometimes feel a creaking when you press your fingers into the tendon and move the ankle.
causes Increase in activity (either distance, speed or hills). Less recovery time between activities. Change of footwear or training surface. Weak calf muscles. Decreased range of motion at the ankle joint, usually cause by tight calf muscles. Running up hills - the achilles tendon has to stretch more than normal on every stride. This is fine for a while but will mean the tendon will fatigue sooner than normal. Overpronation or feet which roll in when running can place an increased strain on the achilles tendon. As the foot rolls in (flattens) the lower leg also rotates inwards which places twisting stresses on the tendon. Wearing high heels constantly shortens the tendon and calf muscles. When exercising in flat running shoes, the tendon is stretched beyond its normal range which places an abnormal strain on the tendon.
managementanti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen. Identify the causes and prescribe orthotics or a change in training methods. Tape the back of the leg to support the tendon. Apply a plaster cast if it is really bad. Use ultrasound treatment. Apply sports massage techniques. Prescribe a rehabilitation programme. Some might give a steroid injection however an injection directly into the tendon is not recommended. Some specialists believe this can increase the risk of a total rupture. Scan with an MRI or Ultrasound. Surgery if conservative treatment fails.
Haglunds Deformity When Retrocalcaneus bursitis exists at the same time as Achilles tendinitis in the same leg, this is known as Haglunds deformity.
Severs disease / Calcaneal Apophysitispain where the achilles tendon attaches, at the back of the heel. Severs disease occurs mainly in active children aged 8 to 15 years old. The point at which the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel becomes inflamed and the bone starts to crumble .Severs disease is often associated with a rapid growth spurt. As the bones get longer, the muscles and tendons become tighter
compartment syndromeCan be present in all three compartments of the legCompartment syndromes arise when a muscle becomes too big for the sheath that surrounds it causing pain. Compartment syndromes can be acute or chronic Acute compartment syndrome can occur as a result of: An impact which causes bleeding within the compartment and therefore swelling. A muscle tear which also causes bleeding. Over use injury which also causes swelling.
Shin splints (Periostitis) inflammation of the periostium of the tibia (sheath surrounding the bone) causing pain in anteriormedial shin Symptoms of shin splints: Pain over the inside lower half of the shin. Pain at the start of exercise which often eases as the session continues Pain often returns after activity and may be at its worse the next morning. Sometimes some swelling. Lumps and bumps may be felt when feeling the inside of the shin bone. Pain when the toes or foot are bent downwards. A redness over the inside of the shin (not always present).
PFJ injuries Patella pain syndrome / CMP (Condramalacia patellae) Patellofemoral Instability Patella / Synovial Plica Runners Knee (Iliotibial band syndrome Lateral Cartilage Meniscus Inflammation Inflammation of Quadriceps insertion at the Patella (tendinitis Jumpers knee (patella tendon inflammation / rupture) Bakers cyst (Popliteal cyst) Inflammation of hamstring tendons / tendinitis Pre patella bursitis / Housemaids knee Osgood Schlatters disease
Chrondromalacia Patellae damage to the articular cartilage Acute injuries normally occur when the front of the knee cap suffers an impact, such as falling directly onto it, or being hit from the front. This results is small tears or roughening of the cartilage. In overuse cases, the cause of the damage is usually repetitive rubbing of part of the cartilage against the underlying bone. In a healthy knee the movement of the Patella across the knee is a gliding, smooth movement. In individuals with CMP, the knee cap rubs against the part of the joint behind it, resulting in inflammation, degeneration and pain. This can be for a number of reasons, but is usually due to the position of the patella itself.
Osgood Schlatters diseaseOsgood Schlatters disease is a very common cause of knee pain in children and young athletes usually between the ages of 10 and 15. It occurs due to a period of rapid growth, combined with a high level of sporting activity. These changes result in a pulling force from the patella tendon, on to the tibial tuberosity (bony protrusion at the top of the shin). This area then becomes inflamed, painful and swollen. This is frequent in younger people due to the remaining softness in their bones (from childhood).
Thigh: sports injury back Rupture of hamstring muscles / hamstring strain Hamstring contusion Tight hamstring muscles Hamstring Tendinitis at the muscles origin Front Rupture of quadriceps muscles (pulled muscle / thigh strain) Contusion of quadriceps muscles (dead leg / charley horse) Rupture of rectus femoris muscle Inflammation of rectus femoris tendon Rupture of adductor muscles (Groin strain) Glimores groin Inflammation of adductor muscles or tendon (tendinitis / tendinopathy) - Myositis Ossificans Hernia Ostitis Pubis Inflammation of iliopsoas muscle Rupture of iliopsoas muscle Stress Fracture of the Femur
Gilmores groin Gilmores groin was first identified in 1980 as a cause of longstanding groin pain. The condition is sometimes called the Sportsmans Hernia, however there is not actually a hernia present. The external oblique muscle has an archway through which several nerves and vessels pass. In Gilmores groin, a groin muscle tear causes this archway to open up much wider. Further tears in the obliques cause them to lift up and away from the inguinal ligament, leaving the transversus abdominus unsupported.
HIP Hip bursitis Stress fracture of the femur Slippage of the epiphysis at neck of femur Perthes disease Inflammation and calcification of the greater trochanter Inflammation of the hip joint (synovitis) Labral Tear
Buttocks Piriformis syndrome Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint Iliolumbar ligament sprain Referred pain from the lumbar spine Myofascial Pain and Trigger Points Sciatica Inflammation of the muscle attachments to the greater trochanter Ischiogluteal Bursitis Ankylosing Spondylitis / Bechterews Disease Hamstring Tendinitis at the muscles origin
upper back & neck Pain in the neck which does not radiate - Rehabilitation, mobility, stretching, strengthening, sports massage, taping Pain in the neck which radiates to the shoulders and arms - Rehabilitation, mobility, stretching, strengthening, sports massage, taping, traction Muscle ruptures in the back - Rehabilitation, mobility, strengthening, sports massage Inflammation of muscle attachments to the spine - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage, taping. Scheuermanns disease Tight muscles in the upper back and neck - Rehabilitation, mobility, stretching, strengthening, sports massage, taping.
Fracture of the clavicle Fracture of the neck of the humerus Frozen Shoulder / Adhesive capsulitis - Rehabilitation Dislocation of the A.C. joint Dislocation of the sterno-clavicular joint Dislocated Shoulder Impingement syndrome - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening. Rotator cuff injuries / rotator cuff strain - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage. Rupture of the supraspinatus tendon - Rehabilitation, mobility, strengthening. Inflammation of the supraspinatus tendon - Rehabilitation, mobility, strengthening. Subacromial bursitis - Rehabilitation, mobility, strengthening. Inflammation of the subscapularis tendon - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage. Deltoid muscle strain (front) Deltoid muscle strain (back) - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage. Pectoralis major muscle / tendon strain - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening. Pectoralis major tendon inflammation - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening. Rupture of the long head of the biceps - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage. Inflammation of the long head of the biceps - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage. Winged Scapula
Elbow Tennis elbow - Rehabilitation, strengthening, stretching, sports massage, prevention Entrapment of the radial nerve Bursitis of the elbow (student elbow) Golfers / Throwers elbow - Rehabilitation, strengthening, stretching, sports massage. Inflammation of the biceps tendon Entrapment of the ulnar nerve Inflammation and rupture of the triceps tendon - Rehabilitation, stretching, strengthening, sports massage Elbow Hyperextension Injury - Taping Medial Elbow Ligament Sprain
Wrist & Forearm RSI - Repetitive strain injury Bursitis in the wrist. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Sports massage Dislocation of the carpal bones Muscle & tendon inflammation Fractured Scaphoid Fracture of the distal radius Fracture of the hook of the hamate de Quervains Tenosynivitis Ganglion Cyst Distal Radial Epiphysis Injury