AmputationAmputation is the complete removal of an injured or deformed body partA.Indications for Amputation 1. Peripheral vascular disease 2. Peripheral Arterial occlusive disease 3. Acute occlusion due to embolism 4. Aneurysm 5. Diabetic limb disease 6. Necrotising fasciitis 7. Trauma (severe tissue damage) - traumatic amputation 8. Infection (chronic disabling infection, Gas Gangrene) 9. Tumours (Malignant) 10. Nerve injury (trophic ulceration – insensitive limb) 11. Congenital anomalies (eg. extra digits/ Gross deformity dysmelia) 12. Diabetes o Damage to micro-vessels o Peripheral neuropathy, no sensation o Ulcers develop due to trauma, infection often ensues o Arterial blood supply is reduced o Ulcer becomes chronic with bouts of acute infection leading to loss of digits/foot/limb 13. Other Factors o Malignancy: squamous cell carcinoma o Cardiac disease: AF, CCF, MI, o Trauma: RTA, crushing injury, gunshot, bomb blast, industrial machinery and burns.B.Aims 1. Return Patient to maximum level of independent function 2. Ablation of diseased tissue (tumor or infection) 3. Reduce morbidity & mortality (tumor or infection) 4. Considered first part of a Reconstruction to produce a physiological end organ .C.Determination of level 1. Zone of Injury (trauma) 2. Adequate margins (tumor) 3. Adequate circulation (vascular disease) 4. Soft tissue envelope 5. Bone and joint condition 6. Control of infection 7. Nutritional status
D.Techniques 1. Debridement of all Nonviable tissue and foreign material 2. Several debridements may be required 3. Primary wound closure often contraindicated 4. High voltage, electrical burn injuries require careful evaluation because necrosis of deep muscle may be present while superficial muscles can remain viable 5. Nerve Prevent neuroma formation Draw nerve distally, section it, allow it to retract proximally 6. Skin Opportunistic flaps Rotation flaps Tension free Skin grafts 7. Bone: Choose appropriate level Smooth edges of bone Narrow metaphyseal flare for some disarticulations 8. Goals of Postoperative Management Prompt, uncomplicated wound healing Control of edema Control of Postoperative pain Prevention of joint contractures Rapid rehabilitation 9. Post operative: a. Rigid dressing : decreses edema, decreases post operative pain, protect limb from trauma, early mobilsation. Good bandaging to mold the stump into Conical shape to accept the prosthesis. b. In postoperative prosthesis : early training with an IPOP is believed to increase the long term acceptance and use of prosthesis c. Epidural analgesia d. Cast to be appied at the end of the procedure, changed on the post op day 5 + IPOP e. Cast changed weekly f. Early prosthetic fitting . New prosthesis around 18 months g. Avoid proximal compression of the limb. h. Prevent contracture (by splinting and / or muscle exercises)
E.Complication 1. Failure of wound to heal : gap if wider than 1cm needs revision 2. Infection : open – flaps retract / edematous results in shortening the bone3. Phantom sensation : diminishes over time, telescoping4. Pain and phantom pain : massage , cold packs, exercise and neuromuscular stimulation TENS ( trans cutaneous electric nerve stimulation) : incorporated in a prosthesis-carbamazipine,Phenytoin,gabapentin,Amitriptylin &Mexiletine-Preioperative analgesia can prevent or decrease the later incidence of phantom pain.(Epiduralperineural) 5. Edema- mistakes :- 1) Too tightly applied cast 2) Soft spica cast 6. Haematoma 10. Infection 11. Necrosis of stump end. 12. Contractures (due to muscle imbalance) 13. Neuroma at the cut nerve ending 14. Phantom pain 15. Terminal overgrowth (children)Painin the postoperative period- 3 sources, wound pain, back pain and phantom pain. Wound pain can becontrolled with opiates in the immediate phase and, if needed, NSAID’s used.between normal postoperative (ie, surgical) pain and phantom limb pain.Surgical pain usually responds well to opioids.Phantom limb pain usually is like a burning, stinging, electric pain, and it can be increased with anxietyand stress.phantom pain is quite common initially,if it is still present at 6 months postsurgery, the prognosis is unfavorable.Phantom limb sensation also must be differentiated from phantom limb pain.Phantom limb sensation is the sensation that the amputated limb is still present.
Patients usually report that the absent hand/arm/limb is itching, tickling, or moving through space.Phantom sensation is perceived as a "funny" or "different" feeling but usually is not perceived as painful.Phantom limb pain theoriesThree theories as to why patients experience phantom limb pain and sensation exist.One theory is that the remaining nerves continue to generate impulses.A second theory is that the spinal cord nerves begin excessive spontaneous firing in the absence ofexpected sensory input from the limb.The third theory is that there is altered signal transmission and modulation within the somatosensorycortex.TelescopingAnother common phenomenon is telescoping.Telescoping is the sensation that the distal part of the amputated extremity has moved proximally upthe arm.A patient might report that it feels like the entire extremity has shrunk so that the hand is now up at theelbow.This is a normal part of the nerve healing process and usually fades with time.F. What do the following terms mean?Residual limb - The preferred term for the remaining portion of the amputated limb (Stump, while stillused, is politically incorrect.)Terminal device - Most distal part of the prosthesis used to do work (eg, hand)Myodesis - Direct suturing of muscle or tendon to boneMyoplasty - Suturing muscles to periosteumPrehensile - GraspForequarter Amputationis the removal of the upper limb with the scapulaMainly for malignancyKrukenberg procedure
Separate radial and ulna rays distallyforming radial and ulna pincers capable of strong prehension and excellent manipulative abilitySYMES AMPUTATION: The Symes amputation provides an end-bearing stump that in manycircumstances allows ambulation without a prosthesis over short distances. It is an excellent amputationfor children, in whom it preserves the physes at the distal end of the tibia and fibula (26).BOYD AMPUTATIONThe Boyd procedure provides a broad weight-bearing surface of the heel by creating an arthrodesisbetween the distal tibia and the tuber of the calcaneus Compared to a Symes amputation, it provides more length and better preserves the weight- bearing function of the heel pad. Its increased complexity and morbidity have made it less used now than the Symes amputation.
Choparts amputation amputation of the foot by a midtarsal disarticulation.closed amputation one in which flaps are made from the skin and subcutaneous tissue and suturedover the end of the bone.amputation in contiguity amputation at a joint.amputation in continuity amputation of a limb elsewhere than at a joint.double-flap amputation one in which two flaps are formed.Dupuytrens amputation amputation of the arm at the shoulder joint.elliptic amputation one in which the cut has an elliptical outline.Gritti-Stokes amputation amputation of the leg through the knee, using an oval anterior flap.guillotine amputation one performed rapidly by a circular sweep of the knife and a cut of the saw, theentire cross-section being left open for dressing.Heys amputation amputation of the foot between the tarsus and metatarsus.interpelviabdominal amputation amputation of the thigh with excision of the lateral half of the pelvis.interscapulothoracic amputation amputation of the arm with excision of the lateral portion of theshoulder girdle.Larreys amputation amputation at the shoulder joint.Lisfrancs amputation 1. Dupuytrens a. 2. amputation of the foot between the metatarsus and tarsus.oval amputation one in which the incision consists of two reversed spirals.Pirogoffs amputation amputation of the foot at the ankle, part of the calcaneus being left in thestump.racket amputation one in which there is a single longitudinal incision continuous below with a spiralincision on either side of the limb.root amputation removal of one or more roots from a multirooted tooth, leaving at least one root tosupport the crown; when only the apex of a root is involved, it is called apicoectomy.spontaneous amputation loss of a part without surgical intervention, as in diabetes mellitus.subperiosteal amputation one in which the cut end of the bone is covered by periosteal flaps.
Symes amputation disarticulation of the foot with removal of both malleoli.Teales amputation amputation with short and long rectangular flaps.