Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
More study stuff
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

More study stuff


Stuff for Nurses

Stuff for Nurses

Published in Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Blood GasesBLOOD GASES Normal ValuesArterial (Sea Level) pH 7.35-7.45 PaO2* 80-100 mm Hg PaCO2 32-48 mm Hg HCO3 22-26 mEq/L O2 saturation > 95%*In a patient > 60 years old, PaO2 is equal to 80 mm Hg minus 1 mm Hg for every year over 60.Expected PaO2 = FIO2 × 5.Interpreting Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)1 Check pH ↑ = Alkalosis; ↓ = acidosis 2 Check PaCO2 ↑ = CO2 retention (hypoventilation); respiratory acidosis or compensating for metabolicalkalosis ↓ = CO2 blown off (hyperventilation); respiratory alkalosis or compensating for metabolicacidosis3 Check HCO3 ↑ = Nonvolatile acid is lost; HCO3 gained (metabolic alkalosis or compensating forrespiratory acidosis) ↓ = Nonvolatile acid is added; HCO3 is lost (metabolic acidosis or compensating forrespiratory alkalosis)4 Determine imbalancesDefinition and Sources of Variation in ECG Waveforms and Intervals* Description Normal Duration(sec) Source of Possible VariationDefinition and Sources of Variation in ECG Waveforms and Intervals* Description Normal Duration (sec)Source of Possible VariationP wave Represents time for the passage of the electrical impulse through the atrium causing atrialdepolarization (contraction); should be upright 0.06-0.12 Disturbance in conduction within atriaPR interval Measured from beginning of P wave to beginning of QRS complex; represents time taken forimpulse to spread through the atria, AV node and bundle of His, the bundle branches, and Purkinjefibers, to a point immediately preceding ventricular contraction 0.12-0.20 Disturbance in conductionusually in AV node, bundle of His, or bundle branches but can be in atria as well QRS interval Measured from beginning to end of QRS complex; represents time taken for depolarization(contraction) of both ventricles (systole) < 0.12 Disturbance in conduction in bundle branches or inventriclesST segment Measured from the S wave of the QRS complex to the beginning of the T wave; representsthe time between ventricular depolarization and repolarization (diastole); should be isoelectric (flat)0.12 Disturbances usually caused by ischemia or infarction
  • 2. T wave Represents time for ventricular repolarization; should be upright 0.16 Disturbances usuallycaused by electrolyte imbalances, ischemia, or infarctionQT interval Measured from beginning of QRS complex to end of T wave; represents time taken for entireelectrical depolarization and repolarization of the ventricles 0.34-0.43 Disturbances usually affectingrepolarization more than depolarization and caused by drugs, electrolyte imbalances, and changes inheart rate