The academic
paragraph

Te Puna Ako Learning Centre
2013
What’s a paragraph?
• A paragraph consists of a number of
sentences
• Paragraph length varies – as a general guide
only th...
The Topic Sentence
• The TOPIC SENTENCE makes clear
what the paragraph is about
• Other sentences in the paragraph
develop...
Other sentences in a paragraph
may…
•
•
•
•

Give further detail
Explain
Give examples
Give evidence

Sentences need to su...
Reference
Reference
to
to
literature
literature

Further
Further
reference
reference
to
to
literature
literature

This dis...
Paragraph Structure
General

Specific
We use paragraphs to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Describe
Explain
Compare
Contrast
Support
Persuade
and…
Example of paragraph notes
An example of how you might plan your paragraphs:
Paragraph topic = Distinction between Manager...
Summary
• Paragraphs are the building blocks of many types of
academic writing
• A paragraph is made up of a number of sen...
Summary
• Paragraphs are the building blocks of many types of
academic writing
• A paragraph is made up of a number of sen...
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Paragraphs

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  • Paragraphs

    1. 1. The academic paragraph Te Puna Ako Learning Centre 2013
    2. 2. What’s a paragraph? • A paragraph consists of a number of sentences • Paragraph length varies – as a general guide only they are between 5 to 10 sentences in length • Each paragraph develops one aspect of a topic • A paragraph contains a topic sentence Paragraphs are the building blocks of many types of academic writing
    3. 3. The Topic Sentence • The TOPIC SENTENCE makes clear what the paragraph is about • Other sentences in the paragraph develop or explain the main idea
    4. 4. Other sentences in a paragraph may… • • • • Give further detail Explain Give examples Give evidence Sentences need to support, clarify, develop the main idea
    5. 5. Reference Reference to to literature literature Further Further reference reference to to literature literature This distinction between the supervisory manager and visionary leader is determined by their respective tasks and functions. According to Colvard (2003) management tasks involve organising and running the day to day activities of the business – “setting priorities, establishing processes, overseeing the execution of tasks and measuring progress against expectations” (para. 4). Leadership, on the other hands, is much more focused on the ‘big picture’, on developing a vision for the longer term, such as developing new ways of doing things or identifying new solutions to old problems. Similarly, Dunford (1992) argues that management is concerned with ‘efficiency’ – with tasks such as coordinating resources and implementing policy, while leadership focuses on ‘effectiveness’ in terms of making decisions, establishing directions and principles, formulating questions and identifying problems. Topic sentence: Topic sentence: This sentence This sentence gives the main gives the main point of the point of the paragraph paragraph Explanation of Explanation of the 11stpart of the st part of the topic the topic sentence: sentence: difference in difference in tasks tasks Explanation Explanation of the 22ndpart of the nd part of the topic of the topic sentence: sentence: difference in difference in functions functions
    6. 6. Paragraph Structure General Specific
    7. 7. We use paragraphs to: • • • • • • • Describe Explain Compare Contrast Support Persuade and…
    8. 8. Example of paragraph notes An example of how you might plan your paragraphs: Paragraph topic = Distinction between Managers and leaders -> Tasks and functions Managers -> day to day tasks Leaders -> big picture Supporting information -–> quote Colvard (2003) Managers “day to day activities” Leaders “vision” (para. 4) Paraphrase Dunford (1992, p.46) -> different functions efficiency v effectiveness
    9. 9. Summary • Paragraphs are the building blocks of many types of academic writing • A paragraph is made up of a number of sentences • A paragraph is focused on ONE main point of a topic • A paragraph contains a topic sentence
    10. 10. Summary • Paragraphs are the building blocks of many types of academic writing • A paragraph is made up of a number of sentences • A paragraph is focused on ONE main point of a topic • A paragraph contains a topic sentence
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