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  • Basically, Dhofar was the most overlooked and backwards place in Oman. This rebellion aimed to liberalize Oman and make it a “People’s Republic” against a really conservative ruler. The Sultan was overthrown by his son which was the beginning of the end to this rebellion.
  • On 23 July 1970 Qaboos succeeded his father following a nearly bloodless palace coup. The action was coordinated by Sultan Sa’id’s British military advisors. The actual coup was lead by Burayk bin Hamud al-Ghafiri, the son of Sultan Sa’id’s governor of Dhofar, who led a group of the sultan’s bodyguards to the palace. After a brief struggle, Sultan Sa’id surrendered, signed an abdication document, received medical attention for a superficial gunshot wound, and then was flown to England to be exiled.
  • National Holiday is the Sultan’s Birthday Although there isn’t a constitution, there is a royal decree with some explanations of laws, including succession, form of government. Borrows from Islamic and Common Law. Military and security officials can’t vote.
  • Disposed of his father 53 Member in Council of Ministers
  • Al-Zwaidi has been writing since 1986
  • Arabic Network for Human Rights Information Black List is secret. Only three people have been discovered

Transcript

  • 1.
      Oman
      Presented By: Jessica Martin Kyle Gruskowski Stuart Smith Ken Starks
  • 2.
      Oman is the oldest independent state in the Arab world. It is one of the more traditional countries in the Gulf region but until 1970 it was one of the most isolated.
  • 3.
      Timeline of Oman
    • 1507  - Portuguese sack Muscat and capture the Omani coast; they are driven out in 1650.
    • 4. 1800s-1900s  - Omani empire expands to include Zanzibar and Mombasa on Africa's east coast and parts of the Indian subcontinent, reflecting Oman's strong maritime heritage.
    • 5. 1737  - Persians invade.
    • 6. 1749  - Persians are driven out. The Al Bu Said dynasty comes to power, and continues to rule to this day.
    • 7. 1913  - Control of the country splits. The interior is ruled by Ibadite imams and the coastal areas by the sultan. Under a British-brokered agreement in 1920 the sultan recognises the autonomy of the interior.
    • 8. 1959  - Sultan Said bin Taimur regains control of the interior. His rule is characterised by a fuedal and isolationist approach.
    • 9. 1964  - Oil reserves are discovered; extraction begins in 1967.
    • 10. 1965-75  - Rebellion in the southern region of Dhofar in which leftist forces are pitted against government troops. The uprising is finally put down with the help of soldiers from Jordan and Iran.
  • 11.
      Post-Coup Timeline
    • 1970  - The sultan is overthrown by his son in a bloodless coup. Sultan Qaboos bin Said begins a liberalization and modernization program.
    • 12. 1981  - Oman is a founding member of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council.
    • 13. 1997  - Sultan Qaboos decrees that women can stand for election to - and vote for - the Consultative Council. Two women are duly elected to the body.
    • 14. 1999  - Oman and neighboring United Arab Emirates (UAE) sign a border agreement defining most of their disputed common frontier.
  • 15.
      Dhofar Rebellion
    • 1964-1975
    • 16. Sultan Said bin Taimur was ultraconservative and opposed to change of any kind
    • 17. Its original aim was the overthrow of Said ibn Taimur, but, by 1967, under the name of the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf--which in 1974 was changed to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO)
  • 18.
      British Propaganda - " The Hand of God Destroys Communism "
      PFLOAG Logo Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf
      Dhofar
      Sultan Said bin Taimur
  • 19.
      Sultan Qaboos Bin Said
    • Came to power in 1970 after overthrowing his father
  • 20.  
  • 21.
      Sultan Qaboos Bin Said
    • Came to power in 1970 after overthrowing his father
    • 22. Opened up the entire country of Oman
    • 23. Created economic reforms and boosted spending on health, education and welfare
    • 24. By reorganizing and modernizing the military he was able to defeat the Dhofar crisis and begin concentrating on other issues.
  • 25.
      Neighborly Relations
    • Northern tip 35 miles directly opposite with Iran.
    • 26. Concerned with regional stability and security, given tensions in the region, the proximity of Iran and Iraq, and the potential threat of political Islam
      Not Good!
  • 27.
      Neighborly Relations
    • Oman maintained its diplomatic relations with Iraq throughout the 1990-91 Gulf war
    • 28. Since 1980 Oman and the U.S. have been parties to a military cooperation agreement
    • 29. Oman also has long been an active participant in efforts to achieve Middle East peace. 
  • 30.
      Jessica’s Sources
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/2448259.stm
    • 31. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5492/Al-Bu-Sa-id-Qaboos-1940.html
    • 32. http://www.onwar.com/aced/nation/oat/oman/foman1964.htm
    • 33. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.htm
  • 34.
      Omani Culture
  • 35.
      Demographics
      Population
    • 3,418,085
      Birth Rate (2009)
    • 34.79/1000 population
      Death Rate (2009)
    • 3.65/1000 population
      Gender ratio (2009)
    • 1.22 male/female
      Life Expectancy
    • 74.16 years
  • 36.
      Demographics Cont.
      Nationality
    • Omani
      Spoken Languages
      Ethnic Groups
      Literacy rate
    • 81.4%, (male – 86.8%, female – 73.5%)
  • 43.
      Religion
    • 75% Ibadhi Muslim
    • 44. 25% other including large minorities Sunni and Shia Muslim, and also Hindu.
    • 45. Areas along the Omani coast, influenced by international trade and tourism, are more open to non-Islamic religions and ways of life.
  • 46.
      Women’s Inequality
    • The government instigated an important change by introducing a law in 2008 stipulating that men and women's legal testimonies are now considered equal, although it is unclear to what extent this will apply to personal status law cases.
    • 47. Oman's patriarchal culture, in combination with conservative religious norms, continues to have a profound impact on women.
    • 48. Despite progress, women face discrimination in almost all areas of life, and men are traditionally and legally seen as heads of household.
    • 49. Women remain underrepresented in the judiciary and government structures, and do not have full freedom to make decisions about their health and reproductive rights.
    • 50. They are afforded unequal rights under the personal status law, which governs inheritance, marriage, divorce, and child custody
  • 51.
      Women’s Rights
    • By 2003, women's representation in the labor force grew to 17.2 percent.
    • 52. Over the last five years, women have continued to enjoy higher levels of economic participation, and according to some sources they now represent 19.1 percent of Oman's workforce.
    • 53. Oman was one of the first Gulf countries to provide women with political rights and begin integrating them into government structures.
    • 54. Women have been allowed to vote and stand in elections for the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council).
  • 55.
      Women’s Rights Continued
      Omani Women’s Associations (OWAs)
    • The OWA provides a channel for voluntary work and child welfare services, it includes 39 branches with 2,738 members throughout Oman.
    • 56. Omani women are encouraged to become involved in voluntary social work and to contribute to the development of their communities.
      Human Rights
    • The United Nations high commissioner for human rights, Navi Pillay, was recently touring the gulf states criticizing restrictions on women’s employment.
  • 57.  
  • 58.
      Stuart’s Sources
    • http://www.indexmundi.com/oman/demographics_profile.html
    • 59. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/country_profiles/791892.stm
    • 60. http://www.britishcouncil.org/tvetarabia-oman-education-in-oman.htm
    • 61. http://www.omanet.om/english/useful/basic.asp?cat=use
    • 62. http://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=384&key=261&parent=24&report=86
    • 63. http://www.edutube.org/files/blog/gender_equality_bubble-size-GDP-per-capita.jpg
  • 64.
      Oman Politics
      Kendrick Starks
  • 65.
      The Sultanate of Oman: Political Background
    • Type of Government: Monarchy
    • 66. Independence: 1650
    • 67. National Holiday: November 18
    • 68. CPI : 39 th
    • 69. Constitution: None
    • 70. Political Parties: NONE
    • 71. Voting Age: 21
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.
      Branches of Government
      Legislative
    • Entire branch only has advisory role and split up into two parts
    • 75. The Shura Council consists of 71 seats and are appointed by the Sultan
    • 76. The Council of the State consists of 84 seats and are elected by popular vote for 4-year terms
      • The last election was in 2007. None of the 20 females up for election won. The next election will be in 2011.
      Judicial
    • Courts that cover following cases:
  • 80.
      The Executive Branch: Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said
    • Sultan since 1970
    • 81. Head of State and Commander in Chief
    • 82. All decisions finalized by the Sultan
    • 83. Appoints Council of Ministers
  • 84.
      The Sultans Job Titles
    • Prime Minister
    • 85. Minister of Defense
    • 86. Minister of Finance
    • 87. Minister of Foreign Affairs
    • 88. Chairman of the Central Bank
  • 89.
      Freedom of Speech
    • “ Anyone who uses a system on a device or a means of communication to direct a message while knowing it is untrue or causes harm to a person or a service” Article 61 of the Telecommunications Law
    • 90. Punishment can be up to 2 years in prison and a fine up to $2,000
    • 91.   Journalist, activist, and co-founder of the Oman Writers' Society, Ali al-Zwaidi published material relating to corruption in Omantel and sentenced to 10 days and required to pay a fine.
  • 92.
      Freedom of Speech Continued
    • Oman Government confiscated and banned several books at the Muscat International Book Fair
    • 93. Government has black list of people that are allowed to have media appearance.
    • 94. The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information feels that these actions are hostile to the freedom of expression.
    • 95. Eventually, the government lifted the ban to some books and/or showed tolerance.
  • 96.
      Ken’s Sources
    • http:// www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table
    • 97. http:// encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5492/Al-Bu-Sa-id-Qaboos-1940.html
    • 98. http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/mu00000_. html
    • 99. http:// www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=384&key=261&parent=24&report=86
    • 100. https:// www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html
    • 101. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.html
    • 102. http://www.openarab.net/en/node/795
    • 103. http://www.anhri.net/en/?p=206
  • 104.
      Economy of Oman
      By: Kyle Gruskowski
  • 105.
      Economic Background
    • Per Capita income- $23,900 USD (2009 est.)
    • 106. 53 rd compared to the world.
    • 107. Labor Force- 968,000 (60% non-national) 142 nd on the world scale. Labor force by occupation was not specified, but GDP composition by sector states;
      Agriculture: 2.2% Industry: 36.3% Services: 61.6% (2009 est.)
  • 108.
      Cont.
    • Major exports : petroleum, crude oil production, fish, textiles
      -Exports account for $29.34 billion USD(2009 est.) Main agriculture exports: dates, limes, bananas, vegetables, cattle. Major Imports: machinery/transportation equipment, manufactured goods.
  • 109.
      Cont.
    • Major imports account for $18.41 billion USD(2009 est.)
    • 110. Major trading partners: China(31.7%), South Korea(17%),UAE(11.7%), Japan(11%),Thailand(7.1%)
    • 111. Oil production: 806,000 bbl/day. 25 th in world.
    • 112. Unemployment Rate: 15%(2004 est.)
    • 113. Inflation rate: 5.3%(2009 est.)
    • 114. National external debt: $7.747 billion USD
  • 115.
      Currency Exchange Rate
    • The Currency in Oman is known as the Rial
    • 116. The exchange rate from USD to rials is $1 USD= 0.385 Rials.
    • 117. Introduced as monetary unit of Oman in 1932.
  • 118.
      Cont.
    • Oman seems to be failing on the global economic level because they continue to follow the vicious cycle of “Periphery vs. Core nations.”
    • 119. Oman has a high oil production level, they cease to grow due to their lack of diversification of resources and continue to export low value raw materials and import manufactured goods.
  • 120.
      Oman’s struggle
    • Oman is the oldest independent country in the Arab world, and has a strategically important positioning in the Gulf.
    • 121. Oil production has been a main asset to the success of Oman and 2/3 of all oil production comes from the Middle East.
    • 122. Ex. Resource Curse
    • 123. Ultimately, by 2022 it is said that most of the oil reserves will be depleted and Oman must find new means of commodities other than oil.
  • 124.
      Vision 2020
    • Because of dwindling oil reserves, the government is adopting a new development plan that focuses on the diversification, industrialization and privatization while simultaneously reducing the use of oil.
    • 125. This plan the government calls “vision 2020” was adopted in 1996 and is set up to diversify the economy so that the oil sector of the GDP changes from 37% to 9%.
  • 126.
      Objectives of vision 2020
    • 1.diversification of the sources of national income.
    • 127. 2. enable the private sector to participate in development of national economy.
    • 128. 3.Activate market forces and competition
    • 129. 4.increase efficiency in deployment of resources.
    • 130. 5.development and enforcement of capital market.
  • 131.
      Cont.
    • To stray from the use of oil, the government focuses on major investments to Oman’s infrastructure such as roads, airports, and sea ports.
    • 132. Doing so will allow the transportation process to and from Oman more efficient which will later boost economic growth.
  • 133.
      Cont.
    • Also the government invests heavily in the gas sector of the economy because Oman has a much bigger natural gas resource than oil. Their foothold near the Arabian Sea makes this commodity a key part in the diversification process.
    • 134. This is very difficult to uphold due to the constant political instability in the Middle East, neighboring countries will sabotage oil pipelines during state of unrest.
  • 135.
      Cont.
    • With major investments to infrastructure, tourism, industrial, and gas sector of Oman’s economy ; in return the government believes the economy will, over time, stray from the oil production industry to non-oil areas which will enhance economic growth.
    • 136. By 2020 Oman hopes have drastically changed their global economy to a more efficient competitor in the global market.
  • 137.
      Vision 2020 Now
    • As challenging as the oil crisis was, Oman was able to reduce inflation from 12%(2008) to 8%(2009) and estimate it will drop to 1.8% in 2011.
    • 138. The country has made concrete moves to develop trade links between Asia, Oman has made 3 major investments in 3 major ports in the Indian Ocean, as well as numerous free trade agreements.
  • 139.
      Oil/Gas production and consumption
  • 140.
      Vision 2020 cont.
    • on January 1, 2009, Oman signed a free trade agreement with the United States which eliminated trade barriers on all consumer and industrial products.
    • 141. Which opened up important sea ports like Salalah.
    • 142. This helped Oman tremendously because it was an initiative for foreign business’ to invest in Oman because they new they would be protected.
  • 143.
      Vision 2020 cont.
    • Seventh five-year plan has made great results for Oman :
    • 144. Capital expenditure on oil:34%
    • 145. Investment in gas-based indust.:22%
    • 146. Total investment in oil and gas: 56%
    • 147. Public sector: 54%
  • 148.
      Cont.
    • So far Oman is on track to diversify its economy yet there are no guarantees in the future.
    • 149. Yahya bin said Al Jabri, executive president of CMA, states that with the completion of the infrastructure in various parts, he declares Oman is keeping pace with the long-term plan.
    • 150. In order to drastically change the economy the country must also obtain a strong, centralized political system. Continuous fighting and growing military tensions is the one of two main challenges to this reform.
  • 151.
      Cont.
    • Compared to past reforms,there are not many challenges to this plan working, the only other problem that can occur is the water scarcity in the Middle East, which can hinder Oman’s agriculture production, yet the economy proceeds to continue to grow and in the eye’s of many will continue to do so.
  • 152.
      Kyle’s Sources
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/791892.stm
    • 153. http://www.xe.com/ucc/convert.cgi?Amount=1&From=USD&To=OMR&image.x=57&image.y=17
    • 154. http://siakhenn.tripod.com/unemployment.html
    • 155. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html
    • 156. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1069074/rial
    • 157. http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Oman
    • 158. http://www.meepas.com/Omanemergingeconomy.htm
    • 159. www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/publication.asp?country=31
    • 160. www.menafn.com/qn_news_story_s.asp?storyid=1093214706