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  • 1. Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “ People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).
  • 2. Paralanguage: Communication by means other than language .
  • 3. Paralanguage includes
    • Facial expressions
    • Tones of voice
    • Gestures
    • Eye contact
    • Spatial arrangements
    • Patterns of touch
    • Expressive movements
    • Silence
  • 4. Paralanguage : refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics)
  • 5. Paralanguage i ncludes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages
  • 6. Paralanguage may be:
    • Complementary
    • Unconscious
    • Learned
  • 7. Universals and Cultural Variations
    • eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle
    • basic emotions:
    • --happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise
  • 8. The functions of nonverbal communication
    • To repeat what was said verbally
    • To complement what was said verbally
    • To contradict what was said verbally
    • To substitute for what would be said verbally
    • To regulate and manage the communication event
  • 9. Nonverbal communication divided into
    • Kinesic and Proxemic acts
    • Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture
    • Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.
  • 10. Inborn Nonverbal Actions
    • Smiling
    • Crying
  • 11. Universality versus Relativism
    • Birdwhistell (1970)
    • Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning
  • 12. Cultural Specific Emblems
    • Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean?
  • 13. Could reflect social status and gender: In North America
    • Dominance versus subordination
    • ---more space--- take less space
    • ---stare at others --- less eye contact
    • --- smile more-- smile less
  • 14. Dangers of overgeneralizations
    • Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way
    • Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture
    • We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes
  • 15. How do we communicate with those we don’t know?
    • Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972)
    • Three common behaviours:
    • Which side of the path” look
    • I acknowledge you” look
    • Look—away priority”
  • 16. Proxemics
    • Edward, T Hall in 1963
    • refers to touch and issues of personal space
  • 17.  
  • 18. Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6 inches) soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12 inches) audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36 inches) soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5 feet) full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20 feet) loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit
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  • 23. All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context
    • Body movements
    • Eye contact
    • Facial expressions
    • Touch
  • 24. Silence also part of nonverbal communication
    • Sends nonverbal clues during communication
    • Culturally determined
    • Igbo s of Nigeria
  • 25. Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?