Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “ People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).
Paralanguage: Communication by means other than language .
Tones of voice
Patterns of touch
Paralanguage : refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics)
Paralanguage i ncludes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages
Paralanguage may be:
Universals and Cultural Variations
eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle
--happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise
The functions of nonverbal communication
To repeat what was said verbally
To complement what was said verbally
To contradict what was said verbally
To substitute for what would be said verbally
To regulate and manage the communication event
Nonverbal communication divided into
Kinesic and Proxemic acts
Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture
Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.
Inborn Nonverbal Actions
Universality versus Relativism
Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning
Cultural Specific Emblems
Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean?
Could reflect social status and gender: In North America
Dominance versus subordination
---more space--- take less space
---stare at others --- less eye contact
--- smile more-- smile less
Dangers of overgeneralizations
Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way
Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture
We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes
How do we communicate with those we don’t know?
Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972)
Three common behaviours:
Which side of the path” look
I acknowledge you” look
Edward, T Hall in 1963
refers to touch and issues of personal space
Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6 inches) soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12 inches) audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36 inches) soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5 feet) full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20 feet) loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit
All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context
Silence also part of nonverbal communication
Sends nonverbal clues during communication
Igbo s of Nigeria
Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?