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    Paralanguage a Paralanguage a Presentation Transcript

    • Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “ People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).
    • Paralanguage: Communication by means other than language .
    • Paralanguage includes
      • Facial expressions
      • Tones of voice
      • Gestures
      • Eye contact
      • Spatial arrangements
      • Patterns of touch
      • Expressive movements
      • Silence
    • Paralanguage : refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics)
    • Paralanguage i ncludes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages
    • Paralanguage may be:
      • Complementary
      • Unconscious
      • Learned
    • Universals and Cultural Variations
      • eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle
      • basic emotions:
      • --happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise
    • The functions of nonverbal communication
      • To repeat what was said verbally
      • To complement what was said verbally
      • To contradict what was said verbally
      • To substitute for what would be said verbally
      • To regulate and manage the communication event
    • Nonverbal communication divided into
      • Kinesic and Proxemic acts
      • Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture
      • Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.
    • Inborn Nonverbal Actions
      • Smiling
      • Crying
    • Universality versus Relativism
      • Birdwhistell (1970)
      • Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning
    • Cultural Specific Emblems
      • Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean?
    • Could reflect social status and gender: In North America
      • Dominance versus subordination
      • ---more space--- take less space
      • ---stare at others --- less eye contact
      • --- smile more-- smile less
    • Dangers of overgeneralizations
      • Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way
      • Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture
      • We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes
    • How do we communicate with those we don’t know?
      • Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972)
      • Three common behaviours:
      • Which side of the path” look
      • I acknowledge you” look
      • Look—away priority”
    • Proxemics
      • Edward, T Hall in 1963
      • refers to touch and issues of personal space
    • Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6 inches) soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12 inches) audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36 inches) soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5 feet) full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20 feet) loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit
    • All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context
      • Body movements
      • Eye contact
      • Facial expressions
      • Touch
    • Silence also part of nonverbal communication
      • Sends nonverbal clues during communication
      • Culturally determined
      • Igbo s of Nigeria
    • Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?