Critical Theories Marxism
What is Marxism <ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) – German philosopher  </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant classes create dominant ide...
 
Marxism & Ideology <ul><li>Ideology as a set of ideas and beliefs – Marxism – Communism – Tory Party – Environmentalists –...
Class & Marxism <ul><li>In capitalism, a few own a lot (factories – land – media) </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling class, Bourgeoi...
Class & Marxism <ul><li>Marx defined class as something which existed in hostility because of the relationship between fac...
<ul><li>The dominant ideologies there to keep the fat cats in place </li></ul><ul><li>If you own means of production, you ...
Class Consciousness <ul><li>Self awareness (or lack of) of your class </li></ul><ul><li>Once aware, to act in your own int...
Case Study Class in NZ
A Classless Society? <ul><li>Small range of wealth  </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of deference to authority figures  </li></ul><u...
Race & Class in NZ <ul><li>Maori and Polynesians earning less, worse jobs, more unemployed, less educated </li></ul><ul><l...
Today… <ul><li>1980’s economic reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Top 10% earned more – rest stayed same </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven d...
Activity <ul><li>Define your own class </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the impact of class in your life. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><li>social grade social status and occupation </li></ul><ul><li>A  upper middle   class   higher managerial,  administ...
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Marxism

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Marxism

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Marxism

  1. 1. Critical Theories Marxism
  2. 2. What is Marxism <ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) – German philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant classes create dominant ideology </li></ul><ul><li>This is then seen by lower classes as natural </li></ul><ul><li>Lower classes cant better themselves </li></ul><ul><li>State & media spread this ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Economics part of this </li></ul>
  3. 4. Marxism & Ideology <ul><li>Ideology as a set of ideas and beliefs – Marxism – Communism – Tory Party – Environmentalists – Education system etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Marx added to this the idea that ideologies are used to lie and distort, to keep going unfair systems </li></ul><ul><li>But we don’t realise its happening to us. Dominant ideology </li></ul>
  4. 5. Class & Marxism <ul><li>In capitalism, a few own a lot (factories – land – media) </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling class, Bourgeois, Proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Production = objects of labour & subjects of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Those few making everything & the rest working but not progressing or benefiting </li></ul>Who are the ruling classes today? Do you think the class system is fair?
  5. 6. Class & Marxism <ul><li>Marx defined class as something which existed in hostility because of the relationship between factory owner and factory worker </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns what? Who works for who? Are they the same people? </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The dominant ideologies there to keep the fat cats in place </li></ul><ul><li>If you own means of production, you can make meaning too </li></ul><ul><li>Working classes have no channel or output – can’t oppose! </li></ul><ul><li>How might owning the means of production allow you to produce dominant ways of thinking? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Class Consciousness <ul><li>Self awareness (or lack of) of your class </li></ul><ul><li>Once aware, to act in your own interest </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to act in unity </li></ul><ul><li>Class consciousness as ideological factor (you believe you are subordinate so act it) </li></ul><ul><li>Class consciousness as earned </li></ul><ul><li>Can awareness come through definition? </li></ul><ul><li>If defined, and aware, do you have to act and think like all others in your class? </li></ul>
  8. 9. Case Study Class in NZ
  9. 10. A Classless Society? <ul><li>Small range of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of deference to authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of class mobility </li></ul><ul><li>High standard of working class living compared to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive labour laws </li></ul><ul><li>Developed welfare state </li></ul>
  10. 11. Race & Class in NZ <ul><li>Maori and Polynesians earning less, worse jobs, more unemployed, less educated </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions similar to lower classes in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Two classes – white and non white? </li></ul><ul><li>Class consciousness should kick in for non white. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Today… <ul><li>1980’s economic reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Top 10% earned more – rest stayed same </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven distribution of wealth creates nouveau riche </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of employment in rural areas + welfare reform = new poverty class </li></ul><ul><li>3 classes - new rich, middle class, poor – race still big part </li></ul><ul><li>However – no emphasis on historical factors, respect for work, not origin </li></ul>
  12. 13. Activity <ul><li>Define your own class </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the impact of class in your life. </li></ul><ul><li>Is class consciousness in play? </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to represent this in poster form using diagrams, cut outs, drawing etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Present to class </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>social grade social status and occupation </li></ul><ul><li>A upper middle class higher managerial, administrative or professional </li></ul><ul><li>B middle class intermediate managerial, administrative or professional </li></ul><ul><li>C1 lower middle class supervisory or clerical, junior managerial, administrative or professional </li></ul><ul><li>C2 skilled working class </li></ul><ul><li>skilled manual workers </li></ul><ul><li>D working class </li></ul><ul><li>semi and unskilled manual workers </li></ul><ul><li>E lowest level of subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>state pensioners or widows (no other earner), casual or lowest grade workers </li></ul>
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