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    Marxism Marxism Presentation Transcript

    • Critical Theories Marxism
    • What is Marxism
      • Karl Marx (1818-1883) – German philosopher
      • Dominant classes create dominant ideology
      • This is then seen by lower classes as natural
      • Lower classes cant better themselves
      • State & media spread this ideology
      • Economics part of this
    • Marxism & Ideology
      • Ideology as a set of ideas and beliefs – Marxism – Communism – Tory Party – Environmentalists – Education system etc…
      • Marx added to this the idea that ideologies are used to lie and distort, to keep going unfair systems
      • But we don’t realise its happening to us. Dominant ideology
    • Class & Marxism
      • In capitalism, a few own a lot (factories – land – media)
      • Ruling class, Bourgeois, Proletariat
      • Means of Production = objects of labour & subjects of labour
      • Those few making everything & the rest working but not progressing or benefiting
      Who are the ruling classes today? Do you think the class system is fair?
    • Class & Marxism
      • Marx defined class as something which existed in hostility because of the relationship between factory owner and factory worker
      • Who owns what? Who works for who? Are they the same people?
      • The dominant ideologies there to keep the fat cats in place
      • If you own means of production, you can make meaning too
      • Working classes have no channel or output – can’t oppose!
      • How might owning the means of production allow you to produce dominant ways of thinking?
    • Class Consciousness
      • Self awareness (or lack of) of your class
      • Once aware, to act in your own interest
      • Tendency to act in unity
      • Class consciousness as ideological factor (you believe you are subordinate so act it)
      • Class consciousness as earned
      • Can awareness come through definition?
      • If defined, and aware, do you have to act and think like all others in your class?
    • Case Study Class in NZ
    • A Classless Society?
      • Small range of wealth
      • Lack of deference to authority figures
      • High levels of class mobility
      • High standard of working class living compared to Europe
      • Progressive labour laws
      • Developed welfare state
    • Race & Class in NZ
      • Maori and Polynesians earning less, worse jobs, more unemployed, less educated
      • Conditions similar to lower classes in Europe
      • Two classes – white and non white?
      • Class consciousness should kick in for non white.
    • Today…
      • 1980’s economic reforms
      • Top 10% earned more – rest stayed same
      • Uneven distribution of wealth creates nouveau riche
      • Lack of employment in rural areas + welfare reform = new poverty class
      • 3 classes - new rich, middle class, poor – race still big part
      • However – no emphasis on historical factors, respect for work, not origin
    • Activity
      • Define your own class
      • Think about the impact of class in your life.
      • Is class consciousness in play?
      • Attempt to represent this in poster form using diagrams, cut outs, drawing etc…
      • Present to class
      • social grade social status and occupation
      • A upper middle class higher managerial, administrative or professional
      • B middle class intermediate managerial, administrative or professional
      • C1 lower middle class supervisory or clerical, junior managerial, administrative or professional
      • C2 skilled working class
      • skilled manual workers
      • D working class
      • semi and unskilled manual workers
      • E lowest level of subsistence
      • state pensioners or widows (no other earner), casual or lowest grade workers