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  • 1. Critical Theories Marxism
  • 2. What is Marxism
    • Karl Marx (1818-1883) – German philosopher
    • Dominant classes create dominant ideology
    • This is then seen by lower classes as natural
    • Lower classes cant better themselves
    • State & media spread this ideology
    • Economics part of this
  • 3.  
  • 4. Marxism & Ideology
    • Ideology as a set of ideas and beliefs – Marxism – Communism – Tory Party – Environmentalists – Education system etc…
    • Marx added to this the idea that ideologies are used to lie and distort, to keep going unfair systems
    • But we don’t realise its happening to us. Dominant ideology
  • 5. Class & Marxism
    • In capitalism, a few own a lot (factories – land – media)
    • Ruling class, Bourgeois, Proletariat
    • Means of Production = objects of labour & subjects of labour
    • Those few making everything & the rest working but not progressing or benefiting
    Who are the ruling classes today? Do you think the class system is fair?
  • 6. Class & Marxism
    • Marx defined class as something which existed in hostility because of the relationship between factory owner and factory worker
    • Who owns what? Who works for who? Are they the same people?
  • 7.
    • The dominant ideologies there to keep the fat cats in place
    • If you own means of production, you can make meaning too
    • Working classes have no channel or output – can’t oppose!
    • How might owning the means of production allow you to produce dominant ways of thinking?
  • 8. Class Consciousness
    • Self awareness (or lack of) of your class
    • Once aware, to act in your own interest
    • Tendency to act in unity
    • Class consciousness as ideological factor (you believe you are subordinate so act it)
    • Class consciousness as earned
    • Can awareness come through definition?
    • If defined, and aware, do you have to act and think like all others in your class?
  • 9. Case Study Class in NZ
  • 10. A Classless Society?
    • Small range of wealth
    • Lack of deference to authority figures
    • High levels of class mobility
    • High standard of working class living compared to Europe
    • Progressive labour laws
    • Developed welfare state
  • 11. Race & Class in NZ
    • Maori and Polynesians earning less, worse jobs, more unemployed, less educated
    • Conditions similar to lower classes in Europe
    • Two classes – white and non white?
    • Class consciousness should kick in for non white.
  • 12. Today…
    • 1980’s economic reforms
    • Top 10% earned more – rest stayed same
    • Uneven distribution of wealth creates nouveau riche
    • Lack of employment in rural areas + welfare reform = new poverty class
    • 3 classes - new rich, middle class, poor – race still big part
    • However – no emphasis on historical factors, respect for work, not origin
  • 13. Activity
    • Define your own class
    • Think about the impact of class in your life.
    • Is class consciousness in play?
    • Attempt to represent this in poster form using diagrams, cut outs, drawing etc…
    • Present to class
  • 14.
    • social grade social status and occupation
    • A upper middle class higher managerial, administrative or professional
    • B middle class intermediate managerial, administrative or professional
    • C1 lower middle class supervisory or clerical, junior managerial, administrative or professional
    • C2 skilled working class
    • skilled manual workers
    • D working class
    • semi and unskilled manual workers
    • E lowest level of subsistence
    • state pensioners or widows (no other earner), casual or lowest grade workers