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Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
Group communication powerpoint
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Group communication powerpoint

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  • 1. Module 3 Themes in Personal Communication Group Communication
  • 2. What is a group? <ul><li>Write your definition down on a piece of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a suggestion: </li></ul><ul><li>A group is a collection of people who interact in some way and share common goals and interests </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Groups you may have included on your list: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Studies group </li></ul><ul><li>Work group (shop assistants, waiters </li></ul><ul><li>Family group </li></ul><ul><li>Climbing group </li></ul><ul><li>Football team </li></ul><ul><li>Dance group </li></ul>Which groups do you belong to? Write down a list of all the different groups you belong to e.g family, friendship etc
  • 4. Goals of group membership <ul><li>Why do we join groups? What is the purpose of belonging to them? What do we get out of being in them? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at each of the groups you listed – jot down next to it, why you think you belong to it and what you get out of this belonging e.g family – security, love </li></ul>
  • 5. Functions of groups <ul><li>Here are some suggestions regarding </li></ul><ul><li>why we join groups: </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve a shared goal ( Task-oriented ) </li></ul><ul><li>To resist a common threat </li></ul><ul><li>To have a sense of belonging and security ( socio-emotional ) </li></ul><ul><li>To create an identity for ourselves </li></ul>
  • 6. Group Activity <ul><li>Form yourself into three equal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group can take a seat at one of the group tables set up. </li></ul><ul><li>You will find a task to perform – this is an independent task – no interaction with the teacher is necessary and the teacher will not interact with you. </li></ul>
  • 7. How do groups form? <ul><li>Groups go through stages, according to Tuckman (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Forming – people find out about the task, the rules and the nature of the situation facing the group, feel anxiety, try to find a leader – how did this work in your group activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion – conflict between individuals, rebellion against the leader, resistance to rules or demands of task </li></ul><ul><li>Norming – stable group structure, conflicts resolved, social norms established </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation – Problems solved, group turns to constructive solution to group task, energy directed at task </li></ul>
  • 8. Group behaviour <ul><li>Once we are part of a group, how does the group stay together or as it is technically known, how is group cohesion maintained? </li></ul><ul><li>Watch this video clip for some clues: </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/watch?v=y7srIXn2muc </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the people behave this way? </li></ul>
  • 9. Group Norms <ul><li>Groups have what we call ‘ norms ’ of behaviour or ‘rules’. Depending on the type of group, this can be unspoken or laid out explicitly, perhaps in a contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your list of groups – which ones have explicit, spelt out rules of behaviour and membership? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any ‘unspoken’ rules or norms for the other groups? </li></ul>
  • 10. Types of group <ul><li>Groups with set, laid out rules and norms are called FORMAL groups – give me some examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups with unspoken, underlying norms and values are called INFORMAL groups – give me some examples </li></ul>
  • 11. Leadership styles – what qualities are important in a leader? <ul><li>Tedeschi and Lindskold (1976) say: </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence – a person who can control others behaviour, opinions and persuade people to stick to roles and group norms </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour – effective leaders can understand the task the group is facing and can match the tasks to appropriate people </li></ul><ul><li>Authority – if leader is assigned to role by being nominated or elected, this reflects other people’s ideas of their authority or ability to achieve the group’s goals and manage the situation. </li></ul>
  • 12. What sort of person becomes a leader? <ul><li>Myers and Myers (1985) say four approaches to this question: </li></ul><ul><li>Some take a trait approach – certain people have the right personality traits and become leaders naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Situational approach – depending on situation a person may rise to the occasion of being a leader e.g in a fire etc </li></ul><ul><li>Functional approach – can be several leaders, fulfilling different parts of a task, depending on knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency approach – leadership depends on a combination of the type of situation, the style of the leader. </li></ul>
  • 13. Leadership styles <ul><li>Authoritarian – makes decisions for group, does not take part in group activities, assigns people to tasks without saying why and makes changes without consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic – makes decisions but consults group, friendly to group members, participates in group activities, gives reasons for praise and criticism and offered help when required. </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – takes no decisions, does not direct or control group activities, makes neither positive or negative comments but others look to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective – no ONE person is leader, several leaders emerge and take decisions at different points. </li></ul>
  • 14. Other roles in groups <ul><li>Everyone plays a role in a group, even if it is what is called the ‘uncommitted’! Read pages 3-5 in the photocopied section after page 54 of Module 3 booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>How do people get their roles in groups? </li></ul><ul><li>What names did Albrecht come up with for different roles in groups? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of role did you play in the group activity? </li></ul>
  • 15. Conformity <ul><li>Read pages 212-213 in Module 3 booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people follow ‘norms’ in different groups – what makes them do it? What do they get out of conforming? </li></ul><ul><li>Give three examples from Allen’s list, of reasons which might cause us to conform. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the qualities of a ‘mature’ group? </li></ul>
  • 16. Group Think <ul><li>Sometimes groups become so well established that they start to think in a </li></ul><ul><li>group way rather than an individual way. Janis (1972) says such groups have </li></ul><ul><li>these symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>They think no-one can hurt or criticise them as individuals because they are protected by the group </li></ul><ul><li>They rationalise, or excuse behaviour by saying it is for the good of their group </li></ul><ul><li>They believe their group is right and others are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>They stereotype people outside their group as being bad, wrong or not as good as them </li></ul><ul><li>They put direct pressure on members of the group who disagree, not to do this </li></ul><ul><li>They encourage individual group members to limit their own behaviour and thinking to fit in with the group </li></ul><ul><li>They have the illusion (not true) that everyone in the group believes in everything the group does and thinks (link to BBC Prison Experiment and original experiment ) </li></ul>
  • 17. Group Conflict <ul><li>Even in well established groups there is conflict. According to Blake, Shepard and Mouton (1964) we can manage conflict in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance – we ignore or gloss over problems </li></ul><ul><li>Defusion (note spelling!)- we put off conflict to another time or try to agree on minor points – just avoidance really </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation = win-lose, win-win, lose-lose </li></ul><ul><li>Win-lose – usually when leader imposes a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Win-win – a solution offered where both people get something out of it – a compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Lose-lose – neither person gets their way but conflict over </li></ul>

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