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Module 3 Themes in Personal Communication Group Communication
What is a group? <ul><li>Write your definition down on a piece of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a suggestion: </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Groups you may have included on your list: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Studies group </li></ul><ul><li>Work gr...
Goals of group membership <ul><li>Why do we join groups?  What is the purpose of belonging to them?  What do we get out of...
Functions of groups <ul><li>Here are some suggestions regarding </li></ul><ul><li>why we join groups: </li></ul><ul><li>To...
Group Activity <ul><li>Form yourself into three equal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group can take a seat at one of the g...
How do groups form? <ul><li>Groups go through stages, according to Tuckman (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Forming –  people find...
Group behaviour <ul><li>Once we are part of a group, how does the group stay together or as it is technically known,  how ...
Group Norms  <ul><li>Groups have what we call ‘ norms ’ of behaviour or ‘rules’.  Depending on the type of group, this can...
Types of group <ul><li>Groups with set, laid out rules and norms are called  FORMAL  groups – give me some examples. </li>...
Leadership styles – what qualities are important in a leader? <ul><li>Tedeschi and Lindskold (1976) say: </li></ul><ul><li...
What sort of person becomes a leader? <ul><li>Myers and Myers (1985) say four approaches to this question: </li></ul><ul><...
Leadership styles <ul><li>Authoritarian – makes decisions for group, does not take part in group activities, assigns peopl...
Other roles in groups <ul><li>Everyone plays a role in a group, even if it is what is called the ‘uncommitted’!  Read page...
Conformity <ul><li>Read pages 212-213 in Module 3 booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people follow ‘norms’ in different gro...
Group Think <ul><li>Sometimes groups become so well established that they start to think in a </li></ul><ul><li>group way ...
Group Conflict <ul><li>Even in well established groups there is conflict. According to Blake, Shepard and Mouton (1964) we...
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Group communication powerpoint

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  1. 1. Module 3 Themes in Personal Communication Group Communication
  2. 2. What is a group? <ul><li>Write your definition down on a piece of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a suggestion: </li></ul><ul><li>A group is a collection of people who interact in some way and share common goals and interests </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Groups you may have included on your list: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Studies group </li></ul><ul><li>Work group (shop assistants, waiters </li></ul><ul><li>Family group </li></ul><ul><li>Climbing group </li></ul><ul><li>Football team </li></ul><ul><li>Dance group </li></ul>Which groups do you belong to? Write down a list of all the different groups you belong to e.g family, friendship etc
  4. 4. Goals of group membership <ul><li>Why do we join groups? What is the purpose of belonging to them? What do we get out of being in them? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at each of the groups you listed – jot down next to it, why you think you belong to it and what you get out of this belonging e.g family – security, love </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functions of groups <ul><li>Here are some suggestions regarding </li></ul><ul><li>why we join groups: </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve a shared goal ( Task-oriented ) </li></ul><ul><li>To resist a common threat </li></ul><ul><li>To have a sense of belonging and security ( socio-emotional ) </li></ul><ul><li>To create an identity for ourselves </li></ul>
  6. 6. Group Activity <ul><li>Form yourself into three equal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group can take a seat at one of the group tables set up. </li></ul><ul><li>You will find a task to perform – this is an independent task – no interaction with the teacher is necessary and the teacher will not interact with you. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How do groups form? <ul><li>Groups go through stages, according to Tuckman (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Forming – people find out about the task, the rules and the nature of the situation facing the group, feel anxiety, try to find a leader – how did this work in your group activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion – conflict between individuals, rebellion against the leader, resistance to rules or demands of task </li></ul><ul><li>Norming – stable group structure, conflicts resolved, social norms established </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation – Problems solved, group turns to constructive solution to group task, energy directed at task </li></ul>
  8. 8. Group behaviour <ul><li>Once we are part of a group, how does the group stay together or as it is technically known, how is group cohesion maintained? </li></ul><ul><li>Watch this video clip for some clues: </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/watch?v=y7srIXn2muc </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the people behave this way? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Group Norms <ul><li>Groups have what we call ‘ norms ’ of behaviour or ‘rules’. Depending on the type of group, this can be unspoken or laid out explicitly, perhaps in a contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your list of groups – which ones have explicit, spelt out rules of behaviour and membership? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any ‘unspoken’ rules or norms for the other groups? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of group <ul><li>Groups with set, laid out rules and norms are called FORMAL groups – give me some examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups with unspoken, underlying norms and values are called INFORMAL groups – give me some examples </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leadership styles – what qualities are important in a leader? <ul><li>Tedeschi and Lindskold (1976) say: </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence – a person who can control others behaviour, opinions and persuade people to stick to roles and group norms </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour – effective leaders can understand the task the group is facing and can match the tasks to appropriate people </li></ul><ul><li>Authority – if leader is assigned to role by being nominated or elected, this reflects other people’s ideas of their authority or ability to achieve the group’s goals and manage the situation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What sort of person becomes a leader? <ul><li>Myers and Myers (1985) say four approaches to this question: </li></ul><ul><li>Some take a trait approach – certain people have the right personality traits and become leaders naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Situational approach – depending on situation a person may rise to the occasion of being a leader e.g in a fire etc </li></ul><ul><li>Functional approach – can be several leaders, fulfilling different parts of a task, depending on knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency approach – leadership depends on a combination of the type of situation, the style of the leader. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Leadership styles <ul><li>Authoritarian – makes decisions for group, does not take part in group activities, assigns people to tasks without saying why and makes changes without consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic – makes decisions but consults group, friendly to group members, participates in group activities, gives reasons for praise and criticism and offered help when required. </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – takes no decisions, does not direct or control group activities, makes neither positive or negative comments but others look to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective – no ONE person is leader, several leaders emerge and take decisions at different points. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other roles in groups <ul><li>Everyone plays a role in a group, even if it is what is called the ‘uncommitted’! Read pages 3-5 in the photocopied section after page 54 of Module 3 booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>How do people get their roles in groups? </li></ul><ul><li>What names did Albrecht come up with for different roles in groups? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of role did you play in the group activity? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conformity <ul><li>Read pages 212-213 in Module 3 booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people follow ‘norms’ in different groups – what makes them do it? What do they get out of conforming? </li></ul><ul><li>Give three examples from Allen’s list, of reasons which might cause us to conform. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the qualities of a ‘mature’ group? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Group Think <ul><li>Sometimes groups become so well established that they start to think in a </li></ul><ul><li>group way rather than an individual way. Janis (1972) says such groups have </li></ul><ul><li>these symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>They think no-one can hurt or criticise them as individuals because they are protected by the group </li></ul><ul><li>They rationalise, or excuse behaviour by saying it is for the good of their group </li></ul><ul><li>They believe their group is right and others are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>They stereotype people outside their group as being bad, wrong or not as good as them </li></ul><ul><li>They put direct pressure on members of the group who disagree, not to do this </li></ul><ul><li>They encourage individual group members to limit their own behaviour and thinking to fit in with the group </li></ul><ul><li>They have the illusion (not true) that everyone in the group believes in everything the group does and thinks (link to BBC Prison Experiment and original experiment ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Group Conflict <ul><li>Even in well established groups there is conflict. According to Blake, Shepard and Mouton (1964) we can manage conflict in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance – we ignore or gloss over problems </li></ul><ul><li>Defusion (note spelling!)- we put off conflict to another time or try to agree on minor points – just avoidance really </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation = win-lose, win-win, lose-lose </li></ul><ul><li>Win-lose – usually when leader imposes a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Win-win – a solution offered where both people get something out of it – a compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Lose-lose – neither person gets their way but conflict over </li></ul>
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