The paper deals with the identification of optimal structural morphologies through evolutionary procedures.
Two main approaches are considered. The first one simulates the Biological Growth (BG) of natural structures like the bones and the trees. The second one, called Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO), removes material at low stress level. Optimal configurations are addressed by proper optimality indexes and by a monitoring of the structural response. Design graphs suitable to this purpose are introduced and employed in the optimization of a pylon carrying a suspended roof and of a bridge under multiple loads.