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  • 1. PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF A LONG SPANSUSPENSION BRIDGEProgressive Collapse and Structural Robustness: An International PerspectiveClay J. Naito, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor and Associate ChairKonstantinos Gkoumas, Ph.D., P.E., Associate ResearcherPierluigi Olmati 1P.E., Ph.D. StudentEmail: pierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itLuisa Giuliani 2Ph.D., Assistant ProfessorEmail: lugi@byg.dtu.dk1 Sapienza University of Rome2 Technical University of Denmark (DTU)Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org
  • 2. 2 Presentation outlineIntroduction on the progressive collapseThe Messina Strait BridgeDamage based approach and numerical simulations1234 ConclusionsOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org
  • 3. 3Progressive Collapse case historyRonan Point – May 16, 1968Progressive Collapse triggered byprecast concrete bearing wall failure(gas deflagration).Ali Khobar – June 25, 1996Progressive Collapse was stopped(ANFO detonation, 9 ton TNTeq).Oklahoma City – May 19, 1995Progressive Collapse triggered byconcrete column failure(ANFO detonation, 1.8 ton TNTeq).Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 4. 4Progressive Collapse case historyDeutsche Bank – September 11, 2001Progressive Collapse was stopped(Debris impact).Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 5. 5Ronan Point – May 16, 1968General view of Ronan Point prior todemolition/photo 1987/photographerM GlendinningFeatures:- apartments building;- built between 1966 and 1968;- 64 m tall with 22 story;- walls, floors, and staircases were made of precastconcrete;- each floor was supported directly by the walls inthe lower stories, (bearing walls system).References:NISTIR 7396: Best practices for reducing the potential forprogressive collapse in buildings. Washington DC: NationalInstitute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 2007.Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 6. 6Cause Damage Pr. CollapseFeatures:- apartments building, built between ‘66 and ’68;- 64 m tall with 22 story;- walls, floors, and staircases were made of precastconcrete;- each floor was supported directly by the walls inthe lower stories, (bearing walls system).The event:- May 16, 1968 a gas explosion blew out an outerpanel of the 18th floor;- the loss of the bearing wall causes theprogressive collapse of the upper floors;- the impact of the upper floors’ debris caused theprogressive collapse of the lower floors.Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234IntroductionRonan Point – May 16, 1968
  • 7. 7Ali Khobar – June 25, 1996References:NISTIR 7396: Best practices for reducing the potential forprogressive collapse in buildings. Washington DC: NationalInstitute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 2007.Features:- apartments building;- precast concrete wall and floor componentswere the structural bearing system;- ductile detailing and effective ties betweenthe precast components.Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 8. 8Features:- apartments building;- precast concrete wall and floor componentswere the structural bearing system;- ductile detailing and effective ties betweenthe precast components.Cause Damage Pr. CollapseThe event:- June 25, 1996 9 ton ofTNTeq detonated in frontof the building;- the exterior wall wasentirely destroyed;- collapse did not progressbeyond areas of firstdamage.Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234IntroductionAli Khobar – June 25, 1996
  • 9. 9Progressive CollapseDefinitions:1- "Progressive collapse is defined as the spread of an initial local failurefrom element to element resulting, eventually, in the collapse of an entirestructure or a disproportionate large part of it." (ASCE 7-05 2005)2- "A progressive collapse is a situation where local failure of a primarystructural component leads to the collapse of adjoining members which, inturn, leads to additional collapse. Hence, the total collapse isdisproportionate to the original cause." (GSA 2003)3- "Progressive collapse. A chain reaction failure of building members to anextent disproportionate to the original localized damage." (UFC 4-010-012003)References:(ASCE 7-05 2005): "Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures." American Society of CivilEngineers (ASCE).(GSA 2003): "Progressive collapse analysis and design guidelines for new federal office buildings and majormodernization projects." General Services Administration (GSA).(UFC 4-010-01 2003): "DoD minimum antiterrorism standards for buildings." Department of Defense (DoD).Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 10. 10Cause Damage Pr. CollapseDisproportionate Collapse ???Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 11. 11Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 12. 13Cause Damage Pr. CollapseDisproportionate Collapse ???Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Introduction
  • 13. 14 Presentation outlineIntroduction on the progressive collapseThe Messina Strait BridgeDamage based approach and numerical simulationsConclusionsOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234
  • 14. 15Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Messina Bridge
  • 15. 16Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Messina Bridge
  • 16. 17Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Messina BridgeProposed Messina Strait BridgeLength of main span: 10827 feetHeight of tower: 1255 feetGolden Gate BridgeLength of main span: 4200 feetHeight of tower: 746 feet
  • 17. 18DECKOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Messina Bridge
  • 18. 19 Presentation outlineIntroduction on the progressive collapseThe Messina Strait BridgeDamage based approach and numerical simulationsConclusionsOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234
  • 19. 20Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.orgDamage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 20. 21εy ε 1 ε 2 ε 3σyχy χ 1 χ 2 χ 3My(a) (b)M1 σ1M2 σ2FlexuralMy[MN m]M1[MN m]M2[MN m]χy [1/m] χ1 [1/m] χ2 [1/m] χ3 [1/m]Railwaysgirders60 63 6.3 0.0015 0.0085 0.01 0.015Highwaygirders130 136.5 13.65 0.001 0.0045 0.005 0.01Transverse 80 84 8.4 0.00155 0.0095 0.011 0.0155Axial σy [MPa] σ1 [MPa] σ2 [MPa] εy [-] ε1 [-] ε2 [-] ε3 [-]Hangers 1620 1782 162 0.0077 0.01925 0.024 0.03Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 21. 22East side330 mDS1DS2DS3DS4DS5DS61650 m960 m210 m80 mnot to scaleAirbus A380-800West sideOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 22. 23Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulationsst side330 mDS1DS2DS3DS4DS5DS6210 m8Airbus
  • 23. 241650 m960 mnot to scaleEast hanger West hangerMid-pointWest extremity pointEast extremity pointDamage zoneEast sideWest sideOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 24. 25Moments on the high way deck – DS 1Mid-pointWest extremity pointYield momentOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 25. 26Moments on the high way deck – DS 3Mid-pointWest extremity pointYield momentOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 26. 27Moments on the high way deck – DS 4Mid-pointWest extremity pointYield momentOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 27. 28Moments on the high way deck – DS 5Mid-pointWest extremity pointYield momentOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 28. 29Moments on the high way deck – DS 6Mid-pointWest extremity pointYield momentOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 29. 30Average axial force on the East and West hangersOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 30. 31Relative displacement at the Mid-pointOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 31. 32Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Damage based approach, numerical simulations
  • 32. 33 Presentation outlineIntroduction on the progressive collapseThe Messina Strait BridgeDamage based approach and numerical simulationsConclusionsOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234
  • 33. 34On the numerical simulations:1- The progression of the damage from the hangers tothe bridge deck occurs for at least 8 destroyedhangers.2 - The complete failure of the deck occurs for at least10-12 destroyed hangers.3 - The progression of the damage to an adjoin hangeroccurs for 12 destroyed hangers.Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Conclusions
  • 34. 35On the performance evaluation of this long spansuspension bridge:1- When the damage could be considereddisproportionate?- When the deck fails?- When the damage progresses to an adjoinhanger?(And when the initial damage could be consideredto be local?)2- Research on the progressive collapse should lead ona quantitative evaluation of the progressive collapsesusceptibility.Olmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org1234Conclusions
  • 35. Progressive Collapse and Structural Robustness: An International PerspectiveClay J. Naito, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor and Associate ChairKonstantinos Gkoumas, Ph.D., P.E., Associate ResearcherOlmati P, Giuliani LSapienza University of Rome & DTUpierluigi.olmati@uniroma1.itwww.francobontempi.org