A comparison of cleaning methods for graffiti removal from masonry                materials   B Y M A R Y F. S T R I E G E...
What are important factors to consider before            removing graffiti?
Graffiti or Art?The Polish city of Lodz is making huge waves in the street art world. Under thepatronage of Mayor Hanna Zd...
Gentlest Means Possible:      Do no harm
Type of graffiti materials Markers Spray paints Others
Weathering factors Sunlight = UV cross-  linking or fading Temperature Humidity“Graffiti peeling – yellow” by Greig Chr...
How do we evaluate graffiti removal methods?              NCPTT study
What are people using to remove graffiti? Survey of Professionals: requests to conservators  and preservation professiona...
Selection of masonry types Marble Red, Low Fired Brick Beige, Modern Brick
Selection of Graffiti materials Type: Rust-oleum Enamel Color: Red, Black
Choice of cleaning systems Peel Away 1® Wipe Out Porous Surface Graffiti Remover® Sure Klean® Fast Acting Stripper Las...
Peel Away 1® A poultice like paste  containing caustic  cleaners Active Ingredients     Calcium Hydroxide     Magnesiu...
Wipe Out Porous Surface Graffiti Remover® Basic gel Active Ingredients     75% proprietary      ingredient     1-5% Mo...
Sure Klean® Fast Acting Stripper Solvent-based gel Active Ingredients:    Dichloromethane    Amine    Methyl Alcohol ...
Laser Cleaning Remove material from a    solid surface in a    controlled fashion   Active Ingredients = NA   pH = NA ...
Sample  Preparation  . .Cutting andcoring samples. .
. . .Painting samples with redand black stars. . .
. . .Artificial weather exposure chamber. . .
Testing   Methods. . .Colorimetry. . .
Laser profilometry
Visual appearance ranking
Results: Color change                       Percent Change in L Value0.6000.5000.400                                      ...
Laser Profilometry: Texture change
Improvement of Visual Appearance                      Percent Ranked #1 in Visual Appearance Survey1009080                ...
What have we learned?Of the products tested: Peel Away was most efficient for removing paint and the  least physical dama...
Where do we go from here? Limited study established methods for evaluating  graffiti removers A greater range of product...
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Presentation at the Annual APT meeting in Victoria Canada, 2011.

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  • Organic AcetoneXyleneMEKProsoco tar and asphalt removerTag awayProsoco 1 ProSoCo’s Fast acting stripper or heavy duty paint stripperProsoco 2010Prosocoenviro stripsMethylene chloride containing strippersClay poulticeModify an AB57 gel recipe – marblePeel away 1 Peel awayPeel away 7 or 2Solvent based stripper Solvent poulticeHydrogen peroxide poulticeCalcium hypochloride poulticeSodium hydroxide gel Poultice or long dwell chemical stripper, if not work reapply chemical stripper – long dwell and scrub with a toothbrush – good for red and strong colored graffiti Soy GelSolvent gels bulked with cellulose fiber Zip Strip Rock MiracleCathedral Stone’s strippers – but not for granite
  • Marble samples cored from block of Colorado Yule MarbleYellow high fired modern brick: Glacier White from the PerlaEastgate plantLow fired historic red brick from Cane River Region
  • Complete Removal System is an environmentally safe method for removing up to 30+ coats of paint in a single application from most surfaces, (i.e., wood, brick, Concrete, stone, stucco, plaster, cast iron, steel, marble, and fiberglass).
  • Manufacturer states that the WipeOut is specifically formulated for use on porous surfaces and will not damage surfaces including brick, concrete, cement, pavers, stone and terrazzo.
  • Laser is the most efficient at removing black paint from marble, but it is ineffective at removing red paint from any sample. Also, alterations to the surface were observed. It is likely that brick samples were vitrified from the localized heat of the laser.Peel Away was most efficient at removing paint from all surfaces, based on color change.Wipeout performed well on the high fired brick samples. It mobilizes the paint pigments on porous materials.Sure Klean Fast Acting Stripper was less effective at removing paint from all surfaces.
  • The 30 nonbiased volunteers ranked the different cleaning techniques in each of the six groups: high-fired brick painted red, high-fired brick painted black, low-fired brick painted red, low-fired brick painted black, marble painted red, and marble painted black. The responses to the survey give the most accurate representation of which cleaning method best removed the paint, because ranking the cleaners represents the personal opinion of the general public. The poultice cleaner will likely be viewed as the best cleaner by the general public for marble and low-fired brick. The gel cleaner will be seen as the best on high-fired brick
  • A comparison of cleaning methods for graffiti removal compressed

    1. 1. A comparison of cleaning methods for graffiti removal from masonry materials B Y M A R Y F. S T R I E G E L , E R I C G U I D R Y, M O L LY M C G AT H , A N D C AT H E R I N E A R C E N E A U X N AT I O N A L C E N T E R F O R P R E S E R VAT I O N TECHNOLOGY AND TRAINING
    2. 2. What are important factors to consider before removing graffiti?
    3. 3. Graffiti or Art?The Polish city of Lodz is making huge waves in the street art world. Under thepatronage of Mayor Hanna Zdanowska … In MyModern Met website 9/29/2011
    4. 4. Gentlest Means Possible: Do no harm
    5. 5. Type of graffiti materials Markers Spray paints Others
    6. 6. Weathering factors Sunlight = UV cross- linking or fading Temperature Humidity“Graffiti peeling – yellow” by Greig Christie, August 12, 2005. Flickr. Accessed 10/09/2011.
    7. 7. How do we evaluate graffiti removal methods? NCPTT study
    8. 8. What are people using to remove graffiti? Survey of Professionals: requests to conservators and preservation professionals in the field 20 responses received  Most used chemical cleaners  Organic Solvents: Acetone, MEK, Xylene  Solvent poultices  Solvent Gels  Commercial Products  Solvent based  Hydroxide based  Peel Away products
    9. 9. Selection of masonry types Marble Red, Low Fired Brick Beige, Modern Brick
    10. 10. Selection of Graffiti materials Type: Rust-oleum Enamel Color: Red, Black
    11. 11. Choice of cleaning systems Peel Away 1® Wipe Out Porous Surface Graffiti Remover® Sure Klean® Fast Acting Stripper Laser Cleaning
    12. 12. Peel Away 1® A poultice like paste containing caustic cleaners Active Ingredients  Calcium Hydroxide  Magnesium Hydroxide  Sodium Hydroxide pH = 13 Requires a separate neutralizing solution
    13. 13. Wipe Out Porous Surface Graffiti Remover® Basic gel Active Ingredients  75% proprietary ingredient  1-5% Monoethanolamine  1-10 % Potassium Hydroxide  1-5% Nonylphenol Ethoxylate pH = 11-12
    14. 14. Sure Klean® Fast Acting Stripper Solvent-based gel Active Ingredients:  Dichloromethane  Amine  Methyl Alcohol  Xylene  Alcohol pH = NA Major handling and environmental issues
    15. 15. Laser Cleaning Remove material from a solid surface in a controlled fashion Active Ingredients = NA pH = NA Expensive equipment Time intensive
    16. 16. Sample Preparation . .Cutting andcoring samples. .
    17. 17. . . .Painting samples with redand black stars. . .
    18. 18. . . .Artificial weather exposure chamber. . .
    19. 19. Testing Methods. . .Colorimetry. . .
    20. 20. Laser profilometry
    21. 21. Visual appearance ranking
    22. 22. Results: Color change Percent Change in L Value0.6000.5000.400 Peel Away0.300 Laser Stripper Wipeout0.2000.1000.000 H-B Red H-B Black L-B Black M Red M Black
    23. 23. Laser Profilometry: Texture change
    24. 24. Improvement of Visual Appearance Percent Ranked #1 in Visual Appearance Survey1009080 Poultice7060 Laser5040 Stripper3020 Gel 10 0 H-F Brick Red H-F Brick Black L-F Brick Red L-F Brick Black Marble Red Marble Black
    25. 25. What have we learned?Of the products tested: Peel Away was most efficient for removing paint and the least physical damage to the surface, but it was difficult to remove from some surfaces Sure Klean Fast Acting Stripper was a gel that limited penetration into the material. It was a poor performer overall. Wipe Out was difficult to control during application and caused the relocation of pigment. It performed well on the high fired yellow brick. Laser ablation required a great deal of pre-experimental examination to be effective.
    26. 26. Where do we go from here? Limited study established methods for evaluating graffiti removers A greater range of products must be tested, with an emphasis on cleaners that are:  Environmentally friendly  Effective at removing a range of materials  Safe for the cultural resource, the environment, and the user

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