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History of fiction
 

History of fiction

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    History of fiction History of fiction Presentation Transcript

    • A BRIEF HISTORY & OVERVIEW OF FICTION
    • FICTION DEFINED„ FICTION < A LATIN WORD MEAN- ING TO FORM OR TO MAKE.
    • FICTION DEFINED (cont.)„ A FICTION IS A “MADE” STORY, AN IMAGINED & INVENTED LITERARY COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO ENTER- TAIN (AND SOMETIMES INSTRUCT), TO MAKE READERS FEEL AND THINK.
    • FICTION DEFINED (cont.)„ TODAY THE TERM “FICTION” IS USUALLY APPLIED ONLY TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, & NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER LITERARY FORMS (E.G., PLAYS) ALSO HAVE FICTIONAL ELEMENTS.
    • HISTORY OF FICTION„ THE HISTORY OF FICTION IS A LONG & COMPLEX ONE.
    • ANTIQUITY OF STORIES„ STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT, PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND THERE IS NO IDENTI- FIABLE “FIRST” STORYTELLER OR WORK OF FICTION.
    • EARLY FORMS OF FICTION„ THE MODERN NOVEL & SHORT STORY WERE PRECEDED BY MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION, SUCH AS MYTHS, LEGENDS, FABLES, FAIRY TALES, PAR- ABLES, AND ALLEGORIES.
    • MYTHS„ TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS & EXPLOITS OF GODS & GODDESSES FROM VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS GREECE, ROME, & SCANDI- NAVIA.
    • MYTHS (cont.)„ OTHER MYTHS DEAL W/ THE MYS- TERIES OF NATURE, INCLUDING THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE & ITS INHABITANTS.
    • MYTHS (cont.)„ THE PURPOSE OF MYTHS IS TO HELP PEOPLE MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLD. THE GODS ARE DESCRIBED AS EX- PERIENCING HUMAN EMOTIONS & FACING HUMAN CONFLICTS.
    • LEGENDS„ RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE- MENTS OF FICTIONAL CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL PEOPLE (E.G., PAUL BUNYAN).
    • LEGENDS (cont.)„ LEGENDS OFTEN PRAISE CHARACTER TRAITS THAT ARE VALUED BY A PAR- TICULAR SOCIETY.
    • LEGENDS (cont.)„ EX.: PAUL BUNYAN WAS A RESOURCE- FUL LUMBERJACK WHO WORKED HARD, NEVER BACKED DOWN FROM A FIGHT, & ENJOYED A GOOD PARTY— ALL QUALITIES ADMIRED BY EARLY AMERICAN PIONEERS.
    • FABLES„ USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS & STATE AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT STEADY WINS THE RACE, APPEARANCES ARE DECEP- TIVE, ONE GOOD TURN DESERVES ANOTHER).
    • FABLES (cont.)„ THE BEST-KNOWN FABLES WERE WRIT- TEN BY A GREEK SLAVE NAMED AESOP (600 B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE STORIES SUCH AS ANDROCLES & THE LION, THE TORTOISE & THE HARE, AND THE WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING.
    • FAIRY TALES „ THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN FEATURES SUPERNATURAL BEINGS LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS, & FAIRY GOD- MOTHERS.
    • FAIRY TALES (cont.)„ THEY ALSO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD & EVIL, WITH GOOD ALWAYS TRIUMPHING, THOUGH SOMETIMES IN GROTESQUE, VIOLENT WAYS.
    • FAIRY TALES (cont.)„ THE BEST-KNOWN COLLECTION OF THESE STORIES IS GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES, WHICH INCLUDES CINDER- ELLA, LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD, HANSEL & GRETEL, RAPUNZEL, AND OTHER WELL-KNOWN FAVORITES.
    • PARABLES„ STORIES THAT TEACH A LESSON OR EXPLAIN A COMPLEX SPIRITUAL CONCEPT THROUGH THE USE OF ANALOGY.
    • PARABLES (cont.)„ THE NEW TESTAMENT CONTAINS MANY PARABLES ABOUT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT (E.G., THE GOOD SAMARITAN, LUKE 10:25-37) & THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOD & HUMANS (E.G., THE SEED GROWING SECRETLY, MARK 4:26-29).
    • ALLEGORIES„ SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A MORAL LESSON AND IN WHICH EACH CHARACTER, ACTION, & SETTING STANDS FOR A SPECIFIC MEANING.
    • ALLEGORIES (cont.)„ EX.: JOHN BUNYAN’S PILGRIM’S PROGRESS (1678), IN WHICH A CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN, WHO EMBODIES THE VIRTUES OF CHRISTIANITY, JOURNEYS THROUGH A WORLD OF TEMPTATIONS & DANGERS (CITY OF DESTRUCTION, VALLEY OF HUMILIA- TION, ETC.) EN ROUTE TO THE CELESTIAL CITY (HEAVEN).
    • EVOLUTION OF FICTION„ OVER THE COURSE OF CENTURIES, WRITERS IN MANY LANGUAGES BE- GAN TO FOCUS MORE ON THE ARTIST- IC & ENTERTAINMENT POSSIBILITIES OF PROSE, . . .
    • EVOLUTION OF FICTION (cont.)„ . . .TO EXPLORE HUMAN CHARACTER W/OUT THE NEED TO PREACH & MORALIZE.
    • MODERN FORMS OF FICTION„ MANY 19TH-CENTURY WORKS NOW RE- FERRED TO AS NOVELS WERE CALLED “ROMANCES” BY THEIR AUTHORS (E.G., THE SCARLET LETTER, MOBY-DICK).
    • SHORT STORY„ THIS TERM WAS FIRST USED IN THE U.S. IN THE 1880s, BUT DID NOT APPEAR IN THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY UNTIL 1933.
    • SHORT STORY (cont.)„ THE FIRST ANALYSIS OF SHORT STORY STRUCTURE & TECHNIQUE WAS A REVIEW BY EDGAR ALLAN POE OF NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE’S TWICE- TOLD TALES (1842).
    • POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.) „ POE STRESSED WHAT HE CALLED “UNITY OF EFFECT OR IMPRESSION” ACHIEVED THROUGH SUSTAINED TONE, REPETITION, CONTINUITY, & MOMENTUM.
    • POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)„ ACCORDING TO POE, EVERY WORD OF A STORY (AS IN A POEM) SHOULD CON- TRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL EFFECT.
    • POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)„ SHOULD BE READABLE IN ONE SIT- TING (ABOUT 30 MINS. TO 2 HRS.), BEYOND WHICH EXCITEMENT CAN NOT BE SUSTAINED.„ CALLED HIS STORIES “TALES”
    • 19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)„ CHARACTERS BECAME MORE FULLY DEVELOPED, BEGAN TO HAVE SPIRI- TUAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPTH.„ PLOTS BECAME MORE COMPLEX, SETTINGS MORE FULLY DESCRIBED.
    • 19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)„ OFTEN LED READERS TO WONDER & QUESTION RATHER THAN TO ACCEPT A DIRECTLY STATED MORAL OR LESS- ON.
    • NONREALISTIC FICTION„ READING THIS KIND OF LITERATURE REQUIRES THE “WILLING SUSPENSION OF DISBELIEF” (S. T. COLERIDGE)—I.E., WILLINGNESS TO TAKE SERIOUSLY & TO ENJOY CHARACTERS, PLOTS, & SETTINGS THAT ARE STRANGE & IMPLAUSIBLE.
    • REALISTIC FICTION„ FOCUSES ON SCENES & EVENTS OF EVERYDAY LIFE.„ CHARACTERS ARE FULLY DEVELOPED, ORDINARY PEOPLE FULL OF COMPLEX- TIES & CONTRADICTIONS.
    • REALISTIC FICTION (cont.)„ SETTINGS ARE USUALLY MORE THAN BRIEFLY SKETCHED BACKDROPS.„ READERS ARE EXPECTED TO FIND MEANING FOR THEMSELVES.
    • SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS„ GENERALLY COMPRESSED & TIGHTLY CONSTRUCTED.„ CAREFULLY, CONSCIOUSLY MADE (HOWEVER SIMPLE, NATURAL, & FORMLESS THEY MAY SEEM).
    • SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS (cont.)„ ESSENTIALLY DRAMATIC, “SHOWING” RATHER THAN “TELLING.” TEND TO REVEAL CHARACTER IN ACTION OR UNDER STRESS. ƒ (NOVELS, BY CONTRAST, TEND TO SHOW CHARACTERS DEVELOPING OVER TIME.)
    • SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS (cont.)„ FOCUS IS OFTEN ON A SIGNIFICANT MOMENT OF PERCEPTION.„ OPERATE BY SUGGESTIVENESS & IN- DIRECTION.