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A BRIEF HISTORY &   OVERVIEW OF FICTION
FICTION DEFINED„ FICTION < A LATIN WORD MEAN- ING TO FORM OR TO MAKE.
FICTION DEFINED (cont.)„ A FICTION IS A “MADE” STORY, AN IMAGINED & INVENTED LITERARY COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO ENTER- TAIN ...
FICTION DEFINED (cont.)„ TODAY THE TERM “FICTION” IS USUALLY APPLIED ONLY TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, & NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER ...
HISTORY OF FICTION„ THE HISTORY OF FICTION IS A LONG    & COMPLEX ONE.
ANTIQUITY OF STORIES„ STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT, PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND THERE IS NO IDENTI...
EARLY FORMS OF FICTION„ THE MODERN NOVEL & SHORT STORY WERE PRECEDED BY MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION, SUCH AS MYTHS, LEGE...
MYTHS„ TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS & EXPLOITS OF GODS & GODDESSES FROM VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS GREECE, ROME, & S...
MYTHS (cont.)„ OTHER MYTHS DEAL W/ THE MYS- TERIES OF NATURE, INCLUDING THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE & ITS INHABITANTS.
MYTHS (cont.)„ THE PURPOSE OF MYTHS IS TO HELP PEOPLE MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLD. THE GODS ARE DESCRIBED AS EX- PERIENCING HU...
LEGENDS„ RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE- MENTS OF FICTIONAL CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL PEOPLE (E.G., PAU...
LEGENDS (cont.)„ LEGENDS OFTEN PRAISE CHARACTER TRAITS THAT ARE VALUED BY A PAR- TICULAR SOCIETY.
LEGENDS (cont.)„ EX.: PAUL BUNYAN WAS A RESOURCE- FUL LUMBERJACK WHO WORKED HARD, NEVER BACKED DOWN FROM A FIGHT, & ENJOYE...
FABLES„ USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS & STATE AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT STEADY WINS THE RACE, APPEARA...
FABLES (cont.)„ THE BEST-KNOWN FABLES WERE WRIT- TEN BY A GREEK SLAVE NAMED AESOP (600 B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE STORIES SUCH A...
FAIRY TALES „ THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN  FEATURES SUPERNATURAL BEINGS  LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS, & FAIRY GOD-  MOTHERS.
FAIRY TALES (cont.)„ THEY ALSO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD & EVIL, WITH GOOD ALWAYS TRIUMPHING, THOUGH SOMETIMES IN...
FAIRY TALES (cont.)„ THE BEST-KNOWN COLLECTION OF THESE STORIES IS GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES, WHICH INCLUDES CINDER- ELLA, LITTL...
PARABLES„ STORIES THAT TEACH A LESSON OR EXPLAIN A COMPLEX SPIRITUAL CONCEPT THROUGH THE USE OF ANALOGY.
PARABLES (cont.)„ THE NEW TESTAMENT CONTAINS MANY PARABLES ABOUT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT (E.G., THE GOOD SAMARITAN, LUKE 10:2...
ALLEGORIES„ SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A  MORAL LESSON AND IN WHICH EACH  CHARACTER, ACTION, & SETTING  STANDS FOR A SPEC...
ALLEGORIES (cont.)„ EX.: JOHN BUNYAN’S PILGRIM’S PROGRESS (1678), IN WHICH A CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN, WHO EMBODIES THE V...
EVOLUTION OF FICTION„ OVER THE COURSE OF CENTURIES, WRITERS IN MANY LANGUAGES BE- GAN TO FOCUS MORE ON THE ARTIST- IC & EN...
EVOLUTION OF FICTION (cont.)„ . . .TO EXPLORE HUMAN CHARACTER W/OUT THE NEED TO PREACH & MORALIZE.
MODERN FORMS OF FICTION„ MANY 19TH-CENTURY WORKS NOW RE- FERRED TO AS NOVELS WERE CALLED “ROMANCES” BY THEIR AUTHORS (E.G....
SHORT STORY„ THIS TERM WAS FIRST USED IN THE U.S. IN THE 1880s, BUT DID NOT APPEAR IN THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY UNTIL ...
SHORT STORY (cont.)„ THE FIRST ANALYSIS OF SHORT STORY STRUCTURE & TECHNIQUE WAS A REVIEW BY EDGAR ALLAN POE OF NATHANIEL ...
POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.) „ POE STRESSED WHAT HE CALLED  “UNITY OF EFFECT OR IMPRESSION”  ACHIEVED THROUGH SUSTAINED ...
POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)„ ACCORDING TO POE, EVERY WORD OF A STORY (AS IN A POEM) SHOULD CON- TRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL ...
POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)„ SHOULD BE READABLE IN ONE SIT-  TING (ABOUT 30 MINS. TO 2 HRS.),  BEYOND WHICH EXCITEMENT ...
19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)„ CHARACTERS BECAME MORE FULLY DEVELOPED, BEGAN TO HAVE SPIRI- TUAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPTH.„ PLOT...
19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)„ OFTEN LED READERS TO WONDER & QUESTION RATHER THAN TO ACCEPT A DIRECTLY STATED MORAL OR LESS- ...
NONREALISTIC FICTION„ READING THIS KIND OF LITERATURE REQUIRES THE “WILLING SUSPENSION OF DISBELIEF” (S. T. COLERIDGE)—I.E...
REALISTIC FICTION„ FOCUSES ON SCENES & EVENTS OF EVERYDAY LIFE.„ CHARACTERS ARE FULLY DEVELOPED, ORDINARY PEOPLE FULL OF C...
REALISTIC FICTION (cont.)„ SETTINGS ARE USUALLY MORE THAN BRIEFLY SKETCHED BACKDROPS.„ READERS ARE EXPECTED TO FIND MEANIN...
SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS„ GENERALLY COMPRESSED & TIGHTLY CONSTRUCTED.„ CAREFULLY, CONSCIOUSLY MADE (HOWEVER SIMPLE, NAT...
SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS   (cont.)„ ESSENTIALLY DRAMATIC, “SHOWING” RATHER THAN “TELLING.” TEND TO REVEAL CHARACTER IN ...
SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS   (cont.)„ FOCUS IS OFTEN ON A SIGNIFICANT MOMENT OF PERCEPTION.„ OPERATE BY SUGGESTIVENESS & ...
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
History of fiction
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History of fiction

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Transcript of "History of fiction"

  1. 1. A BRIEF HISTORY & OVERVIEW OF FICTION
  2. 2. FICTION DEFINED„ FICTION < A LATIN WORD MEAN- ING TO FORM OR TO MAKE.
  3. 3. FICTION DEFINED (cont.)„ A FICTION IS A “MADE” STORY, AN IMAGINED & INVENTED LITERARY COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO ENTER- TAIN (AND SOMETIMES INSTRUCT), TO MAKE READERS FEEL AND THINK.
  4. 4. FICTION DEFINED (cont.)„ TODAY THE TERM “FICTION” IS USUALLY APPLIED ONLY TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, & NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER LITERARY FORMS (E.G., PLAYS) ALSO HAVE FICTIONAL ELEMENTS.
  5. 5. HISTORY OF FICTION„ THE HISTORY OF FICTION IS A LONG & COMPLEX ONE.
  6. 6. ANTIQUITY OF STORIES„ STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT, PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND THERE IS NO IDENTI- FIABLE “FIRST” STORYTELLER OR WORK OF FICTION.
  7. 7. EARLY FORMS OF FICTION„ THE MODERN NOVEL & SHORT STORY WERE PRECEDED BY MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION, SUCH AS MYTHS, LEGENDS, FABLES, FAIRY TALES, PAR- ABLES, AND ALLEGORIES.
  8. 8. MYTHS„ TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS & EXPLOITS OF GODS & GODDESSES FROM VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS GREECE, ROME, & SCANDI- NAVIA.
  9. 9. MYTHS (cont.)„ OTHER MYTHS DEAL W/ THE MYS- TERIES OF NATURE, INCLUDING THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE & ITS INHABITANTS.
  10. 10. MYTHS (cont.)„ THE PURPOSE OF MYTHS IS TO HELP PEOPLE MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLD. THE GODS ARE DESCRIBED AS EX- PERIENCING HUMAN EMOTIONS & FACING HUMAN CONFLICTS.
  11. 11. LEGENDS„ RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE- MENTS OF FICTIONAL CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL PEOPLE (E.G., PAUL BUNYAN).
  12. 12. LEGENDS (cont.)„ LEGENDS OFTEN PRAISE CHARACTER TRAITS THAT ARE VALUED BY A PAR- TICULAR SOCIETY.
  13. 13. LEGENDS (cont.)„ EX.: PAUL BUNYAN WAS A RESOURCE- FUL LUMBERJACK WHO WORKED HARD, NEVER BACKED DOWN FROM A FIGHT, & ENJOYED A GOOD PARTY— ALL QUALITIES ADMIRED BY EARLY AMERICAN PIONEERS.
  14. 14. FABLES„ USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS & STATE AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT STEADY WINS THE RACE, APPEARANCES ARE DECEP- TIVE, ONE GOOD TURN DESERVES ANOTHER).
  15. 15. FABLES (cont.)„ THE BEST-KNOWN FABLES WERE WRIT- TEN BY A GREEK SLAVE NAMED AESOP (600 B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE STORIES SUCH AS ANDROCLES & THE LION, THE TORTOISE & THE HARE, AND THE WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING.
  16. 16. FAIRY TALES „ THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN FEATURES SUPERNATURAL BEINGS LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS, & FAIRY GOD- MOTHERS.
  17. 17. FAIRY TALES (cont.)„ THEY ALSO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD & EVIL, WITH GOOD ALWAYS TRIUMPHING, THOUGH SOMETIMES IN GROTESQUE, VIOLENT WAYS.
  18. 18. FAIRY TALES (cont.)„ THE BEST-KNOWN COLLECTION OF THESE STORIES IS GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES, WHICH INCLUDES CINDER- ELLA, LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD, HANSEL & GRETEL, RAPUNZEL, AND OTHER WELL-KNOWN FAVORITES.
  19. 19. PARABLES„ STORIES THAT TEACH A LESSON OR EXPLAIN A COMPLEX SPIRITUAL CONCEPT THROUGH THE USE OF ANALOGY.
  20. 20. PARABLES (cont.)„ THE NEW TESTAMENT CONTAINS MANY PARABLES ABOUT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT (E.G., THE GOOD SAMARITAN, LUKE 10:25-37) & THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOD & HUMANS (E.G., THE SEED GROWING SECRETLY, MARK 4:26-29).
  21. 21. ALLEGORIES„ SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A MORAL LESSON AND IN WHICH EACH CHARACTER, ACTION, & SETTING STANDS FOR A SPECIFIC MEANING.
  22. 22. ALLEGORIES (cont.)„ EX.: JOHN BUNYAN’S PILGRIM’S PROGRESS (1678), IN WHICH A CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN, WHO EMBODIES THE VIRTUES OF CHRISTIANITY, JOURNEYS THROUGH A WORLD OF TEMPTATIONS & DANGERS (CITY OF DESTRUCTION, VALLEY OF HUMILIA- TION, ETC.) EN ROUTE TO THE CELESTIAL CITY (HEAVEN).
  23. 23. EVOLUTION OF FICTION„ OVER THE COURSE OF CENTURIES, WRITERS IN MANY LANGUAGES BE- GAN TO FOCUS MORE ON THE ARTIST- IC & ENTERTAINMENT POSSIBILITIES OF PROSE, . . .
  24. 24. EVOLUTION OF FICTION (cont.)„ . . .TO EXPLORE HUMAN CHARACTER W/OUT THE NEED TO PREACH & MORALIZE.
  25. 25. MODERN FORMS OF FICTION„ MANY 19TH-CENTURY WORKS NOW RE- FERRED TO AS NOVELS WERE CALLED “ROMANCES” BY THEIR AUTHORS (E.G., THE SCARLET LETTER, MOBY-DICK).
  26. 26. SHORT STORY„ THIS TERM WAS FIRST USED IN THE U.S. IN THE 1880s, BUT DID NOT APPEAR IN THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY UNTIL 1933.
  27. 27. SHORT STORY (cont.)„ THE FIRST ANALYSIS OF SHORT STORY STRUCTURE & TECHNIQUE WAS A REVIEW BY EDGAR ALLAN POE OF NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE’S TWICE- TOLD TALES (1842).
  28. 28. POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.) „ POE STRESSED WHAT HE CALLED “UNITY OF EFFECT OR IMPRESSION” ACHIEVED THROUGH SUSTAINED TONE, REPETITION, CONTINUITY, & MOMENTUM.
  29. 29. POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)„ ACCORDING TO POE, EVERY WORD OF A STORY (AS IN A POEM) SHOULD CON- TRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL EFFECT.
  30. 30. POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)„ SHOULD BE READABLE IN ONE SIT- TING (ABOUT 30 MINS. TO 2 HRS.), BEYOND WHICH EXCITEMENT CAN NOT BE SUSTAINED.„ CALLED HIS STORIES “TALES”
  31. 31. 19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)„ CHARACTERS BECAME MORE FULLY DEVELOPED, BEGAN TO HAVE SPIRI- TUAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPTH.„ PLOTS BECAME MORE COMPLEX, SETTINGS MORE FULLY DESCRIBED.
  32. 32. 19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)„ OFTEN LED READERS TO WONDER & QUESTION RATHER THAN TO ACCEPT A DIRECTLY STATED MORAL OR LESS- ON.
  33. 33. NONREALISTIC FICTION„ READING THIS KIND OF LITERATURE REQUIRES THE “WILLING SUSPENSION OF DISBELIEF” (S. T. COLERIDGE)—I.E., WILLINGNESS TO TAKE SERIOUSLY & TO ENJOY CHARACTERS, PLOTS, & SETTINGS THAT ARE STRANGE & IMPLAUSIBLE.
  34. 34. REALISTIC FICTION„ FOCUSES ON SCENES & EVENTS OF EVERYDAY LIFE.„ CHARACTERS ARE FULLY DEVELOPED, ORDINARY PEOPLE FULL OF COMPLEX- TIES & CONTRADICTIONS.
  35. 35. REALISTIC FICTION (cont.)„ SETTINGS ARE USUALLY MORE THAN BRIEFLY SKETCHED BACKDROPS.„ READERS ARE EXPECTED TO FIND MEANING FOR THEMSELVES.
  36. 36. SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS„ GENERALLY COMPRESSED & TIGHTLY CONSTRUCTED.„ CAREFULLY, CONSCIOUSLY MADE (HOWEVER SIMPLE, NATURAL, & FORMLESS THEY MAY SEEM).
  37. 37. SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS (cont.)„ ESSENTIALLY DRAMATIC, “SHOWING” RATHER THAN “TELLING.” TEND TO REVEAL CHARACTER IN ACTION OR UNDER STRESS. ƒ (NOVELS, BY CONTRAST, TEND TO SHOW CHARACTERS DEVELOPING OVER TIME.)
  38. 38. SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS (cont.)„ FOCUS IS OFTEN ON A SIGNIFICANT MOMENT OF PERCEPTION.„ OPERATE BY SUGGESTIVENESS & IN- DIRECTION.
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