КРАСНЫЙ ОКТЯБРЬ ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВА THE RED OCTOBER DISCOVERY OF AN ISLAND              WORKSHOP 28 MAY - 6 JUNE 2010 MOSCOW ...
КРАСНЫЙ ОКТЯБРЬ ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВАTHE RED OCTOBER DISCOVERY OF AN ISLAND              WORKSHOP 28 MAY - 6 JUNE 2010 MOSCOW  ...
CONTENTSStrelka	Institute                                                       1	       ВВЕДЕНИЕ	>>	INTRODUCTION			 >>>>>...
>> ВВЕДЕНИЕINTRODUCTION
Вступление - Илья Осколков-Ценципер	Foreword	—	Ilya	Oskolkov-Tsentsiper         Ilya	Oskolkov-Tsentsiper	is	the	President	...
Вступление - Ведран МимицаForeword	—	Vedran	Mimica         Vedran	Mimica	is	Director	of	the	Berlage	Institute	and	responsi...
Задание воркшопа                                                                       Workshop	Brief                     ...
conditions for this kind of performance;                  or perhaps new spatial models should       the Red October means...
Парадигма эпохи Лужкова                                                                        Paradigms	of	the	Luzhkov	Er...
“Creative City”	и его будущее                                                                        The	Creative	City	and...
>>ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВАDISCOVERY	OF	AN	ISLAND
Территория Стрелки                                                                        The	Strelka	Area                ...
Хронология участка                                                                        Chronology	of	the	Site          ...
>> ГОЛОСА ОСТРОВАVOICES	OF	THE	ISLAND
Are	developers	          AS Public space doesn’t bring money. Unless there is a reason to make aИнтервью: Алекс Столярик,Е...
Интервью: Михаил Козырев                                                                                       Интервью: С...
Art	is	today	the	key	      Artistic life on “Red October”, low rent prices for artists, are a spontaneousidentity	factor	o...
>>КОНКУРС ПЕРВЫХ ИДЕЙ   VISION	COMPETITION
Team	1	>> 	Мозаика жизненного                 пространства    Team	1	>> 	Lifestyle	Toolbox
BOAT                               CARS AND PEDESTRIAN ACCESS                                                             ...
44   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Mo...
46   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Mo...
48   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Mo...
Team	2	>> 	Зеленый остров   Team	2	>> 	Green	Island
Accessibility Flows                                            Flows and Heritage Buildings                               ...
Public Space Working Space Living Space                 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010  ...
Team	3	>> 	Креативное соединение       Team	3	>> 	Creative	Bridging
AddingBridgingExisting Footprint                                                                                          ...
Masterplan   Toolbox                                                                                     Mass Studies: Old...
Commercial                                                                      Housing                                   ...
OWNERS             RESIDENTS                                      STUDENTS                                                ...
Team	4	>> 	Внутренний город        Team	4	>> 	Inner	City
Not a Set...                      Not a Stack...                                  But a Tangle68   Workshop Berlage Instit...
Programmatic Areas                                                                      Pixel Programme70   Workshop Berla...
Housing                                                    Structure, Landscape and Chocolate Factory                     ...
>>ПЕТР-I-ПЛАН КЛАУЗУРА PETER	PLAN	IMPROMPTU
Monolithic Peter                                                                                                          ...
Peter ArtFestival                                                                              Red Wedge                  ...
Sinking Peter                                                                         Globbing Peter                      ...
Christmas                                                                             Mirror Peter                        ...
Peter Rocket                                                                      Invite Bernaskoni                       ...
Peter-go-round                                                                      Goodbye Peter                         ...
>>     СТРЕЛКАTHE	STRELKA	SITE
>> 	Контекст города   >>	Urban	Context
Moscow	Today	    Москва 2025Москва сегодня   Moscow	2025                          Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka In...
Контекст городаUrban	ContextThe Project Area is embedded within Moscow’s most                                             ...
The Network of Radial and Concentric Roads is disrupted                                                 Car Access to the ...
While several Metro Lines cross the island, there is no                                                 Two Bus lines acce...
>> 	Загадка острова	>>	The	Mystery	of	an	Island
104   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010   Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute M...
>>  СТРЕЛКА, ВПЕРЕД! >>FAST	FORWARD	STRELKA >>
>> 	Общая схема	>> 	Overall	Scheme
The general masterplan                                                                          The footprint plan offor t...
The general masterplan                                                                          The general plan showshas ...
The entire area has                                                                                    The private carbeen...
The diagram shows the                                                                                All the different are...
В направлении к программе                                                                         смешанного использования...
While the distribution of the program avoids any strictzoning, functions are clustered according to existingbuilding subst...
>> 	Шоколадная площадь   	>> 	Chocolate	Square
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
Red October: Discovery of an island
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Red October: Discovery of an island

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From 28 May to 3 June Strelka will host a workshop by the director of Rotterdam's Berlage Institute, Vedran Mimica, and architect Thomas Stellmach from the Berlin-based bureau Uberbau. They will look at the possible scenarios for the development of Red October and the intricacies of the balancing act between harsh zoning and free construction, between working space and living space, between efficient and creative, individual and collective, and between the social, political and personal investments in a given site.

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Red October: Discovery of an island

  1. 1. КРАСНЫЙ ОКТЯБРЬ ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВА THE RED OCTOBER DISCOVERY OF AN ISLAND WORKSHOP 28 MAY - 6 JUNE 2010 MOSCOW BERLAGE INSTITUTE at STRELKA INSTITUTE
  2. 2. КРАСНЫЙ ОКТЯБРЬ ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВАTHE RED OCTOBER DISCOVERY OF AN ISLAND WORKSHOP 28 MAY - 6 JUNE 2010 MOSCOW BERLAGE INSTITUTE at STRELKA INSTITUTE
  3. 3. CONTENTSStrelka Institute 1 ВВЕДЕНИЕ >> INTRODUCTION >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 7Berlage Institute 1.1 Foreword 9 1.2 Workshop Brief 15Workshop 1.3 Paradigms Of The Luzkhov Era 19The Red October: Discovery ofan Island 1.4 The creative city and its future 21 2 ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВА >> DISCOVERY OF AN ISLAND > 23TutorsVedran Mimica 2.1 The Strelka Area 27Thomas Stellmach 2.2 Chronology of the Site 29Maria S. GiudiciDavide Sacconi 3 ГОЛОСА ОСТРОВА >> VOICES OF THE ISLAND >>>>>> 31 3.1 Alex Stolyarik, Eugene Glekel 32Participants 3.2 Mikhail Kozyrev 34Daria Bychkova, Olga 3.3 Stanislav Poshvikin 35Khokhlova, Daria Klochkova,Alexei Kolesov, Valeria 4 КОНКУРС ПЕРВЫХ ИДЕЙ >> VISION COMPETITION > 39Krysenko, Alina Kvirkveliya,Marko Mihic-Jeftic, Ana 4.1 Lifestyle Toolbox 41Leshchinsky, Eric Oskey, 4.2 Green Island 51Tatyana Pissareva, Pavel Rueda, 4.3 Creative Bridging 57Anna Shevchenko, Alexandra 4.4 Inner City 67Skitiova, Gleb Vitkov, AlexanderZaltsman. 5 ПЕТР-I-ПЛАН КЛАУЗУРА >> PETER PLAN IMPROMPTU 77 Moscow June 2010 6 УЧАСТОК СТРЕЛКИ >> THE STRELKA SITE >>>>>>>> 91 6.1 Urban Context 93Thanks to: 6.2 The Mystery of an Island 103Ilya Oskolkov-TsentsiperVarvara Melnikova 7 СТРЕЛКА, ВПЕРЕД! >> FAST FORWARD STRELKA >>>>> 111Katya GirshinaSergey Golikov 7.1 Overall Scheme 113Alina Makovetskaya 7.2 Towards a Mixed Use Program 123 7.2 Chocolate Square 129 7.3 Strelka Tip 137 7.4 East Bank 145 7.5 North Side 151 berlage institute 8 РУКОВОДИТЕЛИ >> TUTORS >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 159 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 5
  4. 4. >> ВВЕДЕНИЕINTRODUCTION
  5. 5. Вступление - Илья Осколков-Ценципер Foreword — Ilya Oskolkov-Tsentsiper Ilya Oskolkov-Tsentsiper is the President of Strelka Institute for Media, Architecture and Design. The idea to create an institution like Strelka first hit us in the summer of amplified by the fact that those who work or frequent the place understand 2009, when we realized that Moscow cannot go on any longer in the same that this idyll is for a limited time, for clear economic and political reasons. primitive state of understanding of architecture, urbanism and design that it has been stuck in over the last few decades. We wanted to create The results of our research now stand before you, as the Strelka Institute a place where the most promising specialists from Russia and abroad for Media, Architecture and Design. could collaborate with the most brilliant architects, urban theorists and intellectuals. It was essential for us to be able to offer an education at Strelka free of tuition charges, which is critical for a country as uneven as Russia. We were fortunate to find a genuine ally in Rem Koolhaas and OMA/ AMO, who took over the task of developing the curriculum and inviting esteemed mentors to participate in the program. Our correspondence and communication throughout this process has been in and of itself an education for me and my colleagues. At the very start of our quest for other collaborators in Europe, we were introduced to the Berlage Institute, which has been another invaluable experience. The dean of the institute, Vedran Mimica, has demonstrated an unwavering generosity in his willingness to share his craft: the art of producing true knowledge in a postgraduate education and of leading a school grounded in research. It is thus no accident that when we inaugurated our facilities with a celebratory debut of “Summer at Strelka,” our program of public events, we invited the Berlage Institute as our first guests. They conducted a workshop for Russian students on the topic of developing creative spaces within the territories of former industrial zones. The case study for this research was the potential future mixed- use complex at Red October - the site of Strelka. Red October is a unique ensemble of red-brick factory buildings from the 19th century, positioned directly opposite the Kremlin. Right now it is host to what are unquestionably the most interesting bars, galleries, and studios in Moscow. The complex offers itself as a type of utopian commune; this feeling is only8 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 9
  6. 6. Вступление - Ведран МимицаForeword — Vedran Mimica Vedran Mimica is Director of the Berlage Institute and responsible for composing and implementing its research program. The Berlage Institute’s collaboration with the Strelka Institute began when The workshop was offered to young designers, architects, and journalists. we agreed to design a workshop brief for the strategic development of We worked with seventeen incredibly intelligent, dedicated, and creative the former Red October Chocolate Factory site, situated on an island in people in an almost 24-hour-a-day schedule for nine intense days. From the middle of Moscow. We organized the master class around some of the very first day, there was an extreme level of understanding the brief’s the primary operational principles of the Berlage Institute, principally that conceptual frame and a certain commitment that demonstrated not only every studio should have involved in its production all of the stakeholders. adept design skills but also a high level of critical thinking. The workshop So it was important and interesting to see the presence of the Guta Group was incredibly positive for us, and after this experience we believe developer, Russian intelligentsia, the Strelka staff, and the interested that the creation of the Strelka Institute for architecture and design will public together in the debate for the development of the cultural cluster. By produce excellent architects and planners. The Strelka workshop showed embracing reality, we tried to advance an alternative or, perhaps, advanced us that there is already a group of incredibly eager, young, and talented model of planning. practitioners in Russia who are seeking different models of development to the prevailing norms. In our exchange, we simply tried to frame the ways in In this district, the developers wanted to introduce various creative which they could advance their arguments. practices into the former factory and create a cultural cluster in the city center of Moscow. At the moment, the development of this super luxurious This publication should perhaps be seen as an argument not only the neighborhood had been frozen to some extent for five years. We embarked development of Strelka Island but also for the development of urban culture on the premise that such projects or processes in other world cities have in the whole city of Moscow. Dynamic and different cultures, in a kind frequently brought so-called “pioneers” onsite. The result has been that the of pixelized way, are already fermenting and have been achieved in the pioneers leave after certain time and gentrifiers, with financial support from studios, courtyard, and bar at Strelka. We believe that Strelka or perhaps developers, would create enclaves of monofunctionality and monoculture. the whole Red Chocolate Factory cultural cluster should be a sort of The task of redirecting seemingly inevitable process of gentrification antenna that radiates its statements, messages, and designs to the whole of was our immediate aspiration. We hoped to facilitate the possibility of Moscow and to all of Russia. developing the island into a mix of housing and creative industry facilities. Our brief anticipated that creativity is crucial to the economic development The advanced model of urban planning advocated in our workshop with of the contemporary city. And so we ask if one can imagine places that Strelka anticipates and supports the importance of different stakeholders foster creativity rather than simply offering facilities that would be driven by and the role they perform in the urban territory. The cultural cluster of the a kind of normative masterplanning common in city building. In other words, island should be permanently open and thereby connect these stakeholders, we asked if it is possible to construct environments or milieus that can working as a place of osmosis and exchange, rather than some mode of host creativity without forcing it, without top-down, bureaucratic decision- gated community. After this experience, the Berlage Institute would really making. We believe that precisely in the city of Moscow, with its incredible like to continue our relation with the Strelka Institute because we believe potential for development, perhaps such hybrid conditions and an exchange in the very near future that the two institutes could acquire an even more of different ways to develop the city could hypothetically be possible. That productive and meaningful association. was our hypothesis.10 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 11
  7. 7. Задание воркшопа Workshop Brief 1. Red October: from industrial establish new examples of city making production to creative industry practices as well. The Red October area on Bolotny Tackling the Red October project means Island, Moscow, has undergone in the necessarily discussing the possibility for last few years a radical transformation such complexes to become performing from confectionery factory to mixed environments and enhance the existing use complex that aims at becoming conditions of their surroundings. What is a hub for new activities. In European it, then, that will make the Red October cities, industrial production has been transformation successful? What should replaced by production of knowledge, the Red October offer to Moscow, and and the case of Red October stands what kind of urbanity could it propose? as paradigmatic example of a Ultimately, the issue of the contemporary urban condition; the transformation of places such as the ambition to turn the former factory into Red October is not as simple as it may a hotspot for creativity should therefore seem: creativity represents today a key offer the chance to cast a critical glance asset for the economic development on the idea of cultural production and its of cities that revolve increasingly on relationship with the city at large. knowledge-based activities. In the last decades a large number of industrial complexes have been 2. Creativity and the city redeveloped as centres of creative In a post-industrial condition, production, mainly as a strategy to research and innovation become the protect their architectural heritage; but basis for the economy of the city. No the social and urban implications of this longer confined to the realm of the dynamic have often been neglected, superfluous, creativity becomes the shadowed as they are by smaller scale prerequisite for the development of issues of preservation and reuse. And such an economy. Exchange of ideas yet, the resemantisation of productive and multidisciplinarity cease to be the plants into places where knowledge mantras of academia and intellectual is created and exchanged is a crucial élite to become vital components of transition point for our cities. Far from a diffused process of production of being mere real estate investments, knowledge. Initiatives such as the these operations have the potential Red October transformation can offer to trigger larger scale processes and the ideal opportunity to generate the14 Workshop Berlage Institute - Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 15
  8. 8. conditions for this kind of performance; or perhaps new spatial models should the Red October means then to rethinkbut how is it possible to foster a creative emerge. We should therefore rethink what makes such a hub attractive,growth, as the concept of creativity which features can turn a complex as and imagining what could both privateitself seems to be so elusive? And, the Red October into an attractor for and public players do to enhance theindeed, is it possible at all to guide or creative practices: in short, what would development of this hub.even encourage the development of a turn Red October into a new centre for The redevelopment of former industrialso-called creative industry? the city. areas is often the excuse for large-scaleThe post-industrial city is at the same real estate operations that offer verytime a factory, a school, a research 3. Spaces of urban intensity little to the city other than an increasecentre; as activities mix and overlap Both sides of the Iron Curtain, the in the land value of the newly gentrifiedthe rhetoric of total spatial flexibility factory had a symbolic presence in area. But the Red October ambition issubstitutes the traditional zoning of the city of the twentieth century; it to establish a mixed use centre thatthe age of industry. The myth of fluidity represented the belief in the progress would encourage the growth of creativeseems to suggest that any kind of of industrial society. Nowadays, as industry, an ambition that has to becontrol would only hamper the ‘natural’ production is more and more an abstract explored and supported with new ideasdevelopment of life processes, and, matter and our conceptual references and strategies, as inserting new centrestherefore, of creativity as well. What are increasingly rarefied, it is easy to in an existing constellation is not akind of places can we then imagine for see the abandoned plants as romantic neutral act, or an easy one.a working condition that has continuous ruins, remains of the lost ‘identity’ of The workshop will therefore try tochange as its hallmark? cities that are now undergoing major understand what qualities should a newCities struggle to come up with transformations. This identity has never centrality have to become an enginesuitable responses to this situation, as really been linked to specific places, for creative activities. The scenariosproduction of knowledge is alternatively as the architecture of factories is for the Red October will explore whatlabelled as either a corporate affair or largely international and generic in its kind of relationship we could establisha grassroots dynamic; but the case of character, but it was indeed related to between flexibility and sense of place,Red October investigates the possibility the common recognition of the meaning, living and working spaces, productionto establish places where cultural utility and purpose of industries from and creativity, individual initiatives andexchange is hosted without necessarily both an economical and social point of general frameworks, public policies andbeing controlled. These places are view. private investments.crucial in the economic structure of a Contemporary creative industry, on What is it that triggers creativity in asociety based on ‘immaterial labour’ that the contrary, seems a very volatile certain environment, and what is itproduces services rather than goods. idea and struggles to be recognized, that triggers urban intensity in specificThe development of such experiments understood and represented. Starting places in the city? The question iscan be considered a test project from this core question, the possibility perhaps undecidable, but it might veryfor modes of life and work that will of generating an urban centre around well open up a new field of possibilitieseventually become the standards of the a hub for cultural production seems an for Red October, Moscow and the post-city of the next decades. extremely challenging one, as it touches industrial city itself.Perhaps new policies are needed in at several levels the key issues of theorder for these experiments to succeed, city of today. Working on scenarios for16 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 17
  9. 9. Парадигма эпохи Лужкова Paradigms of the Luzhkov Era In early may 2010, a third version of the Genplan, business. But as the request for office space was or General Plan for Moscow, was approved. gradually absorbed, the need for housing became The Genplan tries to sketch the direction of the towards the late 1990s the most powerful engine city development up to year 2025 and embodies of the construction industry. the policies of the city administration led by This shift in urban politics was influenced by Mayor Yuri Luzhkov. Many criticisms have arisen the demographic growth of the city. After a regarding this plan, mostly on an infrastructural long phase of shrinking, Moscow started to point of view. grow again around 1997; from the 8.5 million Traffic in Moscow has steadily increased inhabitants of that year, it reached the current since the early 1990s, and citizens perceive the figure of 10.4 million around 2004. Genplan as a weak solution for this pressing The growth is largely due to internal immigration problem. Moreover, the previous versions of and it fuels a real estate sector that is already the Genplan allowed the substitution of mid-XX booming thanks to the improved economical century housing complexes with new, taller conditions of the long-term residents. buildings that achieve higher densities, further In the previous version of the Genplan, by 2020 complicating the circulation in the city centre. 42% of the area of Moscow would be used in These choices correspond to a precise strategy a different capacity- that is to say, density will aimed at the strengthening of the character increase everywhere in the city. of Moscow as head of the Commonwealth of Nowhere is this condition more visible, than in Independent States. As the ties between the the case of the former industrial areas that await former Soviet Republics become more and more reconversion. loose, the capital needs to reinforce its role in a Beside Luzhkov, two key characters are able to changing and uncertain geopolitical situation. influence the general policies about such areas: It comes as no surprise, in such a larger Alexander Kuzmin, Chief Architect since 1996, scale scenario, that the city administration and the head of Mosproject 2 Mikhail Posokhin. focused its efforts in encouraging the real Mosproject, the former state design office, is estate sector, densifiying the consolidated still the biggest reality in terms of architectural centre and expanding through new residential development in the city. neighborhoods. But after twenty years, new Commercial developers thus deal with a complex infrastructural policies are needed in order to administrative situation in which their projects solve a circulation system that fails to support the have to fit within the larger canvas of the latest need of the population. Genplan; in turn, the Genplan is shaped by the This condition of hypertrophic real estate pressure of the need for new housing, and the development unparalleled by infrastructural political pressure to strengthen the preeminence growth can be considered the hallmark of the last of Moscow. decades. On the political point of view, this period As the Genplan is a regulative tool, and not a has been dominated by Yuri Luzhkov, mayor of prescriptive one, the direct relationship between the city since 1992. investors and politicians is crucial; the plan thus During the first years he was in office, Luzhkov becomes an object of negotiation and discussion believed that the centre of Moscow should rather than the embodiment of a clear intention. develop mostly as a centre of trade, services and18 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 19
  10. 10. “Creative City” и его будущее The Creative City and its Future Recent theory has established the creative critical voices such as David Harvey and Matteo city as paradigm of the post-industrial urban Pasquinelli have pointed out that the creatives reality. Today, the production of knowledge often play the part of the bait in complex real has become as important as the production estate operations that ultimately aim at the of goods. Therefore, all activities linked to substitution of the creative ‘pioneers’ with research and development, communication, and bourgeois ‘gentrifiers’. innovation take the foreground in the economic This process is generally described precisely as development of contemporary cities. Cities, so to gentrification: the original inhabitants are pushed speak, cannot afford not to be creative –or else, out in order to make space for target clients they will lose the race to more competitive, more that buy housing units at expensive prices. creative cities. Gentrification takes place in derelict areas that Authors such as Richard Florida argue that such offer some key asset (position, identity of old a performance can only be fostered by truly industrial structures) but are poorly served and diverse, vibrant urban environments. Through thus perceived as unsafe. Usually, the creatives quantitative analysis, Florida demonstrates that are the first layer of society that is attracted by neighborhoods that host more artists, more such places because of the reasons we already gay people, more citizens of different ethnic discussed –good economic conditions for large background, do ultimately perform better on an spaces. Nevertheless, their joy is short lived, as economic point of view. Plainly said, there is they are usually forced to move out when the business in the production of knowledge, and a prices stop to be affordable. contemporary urban centre should encourage In the meantime, they will have served their social mixity in order to maximize the generation purpose: by establishing their practices on site, of original ideas that can eventually bring they create a sense of trust, the impression that revenue to the city itself. the neighborhood is lively, young, and on its way Nevertheless, cases such as the Strelka area to something better. raise the question of how to encourage and As we have seen, in the Strelka area the informal maintain a vibrant urban environment in an art initiatives have played precisely such a unstable economic reality such as the one of part. How long will they be able to resist in a today. The traditional industrial production has territory that is bound to become one of the most left the place, and art and intellectual production expensive locations in Moscow? tentatively colonize the existing premises. Design It is then necessary to reconsider what is the institutes, TV studios, art practices have moved future of these initiatives and whether we could to Strelka thanks to the relatively affordable rent, imagine spatial strategies able to keep some large spaces and prime position. pioneers in the area even after it has achieved its It is easy to see how the lack of efficient goal as real estate operation. infrastructural connections has contributed to If it is really true that knowledge creates keeping the rent prices low. As this condition economy, it might prove more beneficial to improves, the value of the land increases, actually encourage some creatives to stay in the eventually pushing out the so-called creative area, rather than only seeing the short term profit class. derived from substituting their studios with high- In fact, this dynamic is not at all unheard of; end housing.20 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 21
  11. 11. >>ОТКРЫТИЕ ОСТРОВАDISCOVERY OF AN ISLAND
  12. 12. Территория Стрелки The Strelka Area We are not the first who think about the The area, which by now had been dubbed as Strelka area, which occupies Bolotny Island the “Golden Island” in virtue of its development from the western tip (‘Strelka’) to the Bolshoi potential continued to be ina state of uncertainty Moskvoretsky bridge. The area can potentially due to the 2008 financial crisis and unanswered become a prime real estate development, at the questions on the role of the site within the urban same time it is a sensitive spot in Moscow due to context, phasing and program. its strategic position in the centre of the city. Strelka has become the focal point of interest of various actors, among them the public Since 2002, various investors have been involved administration. The goals of the development in the conversion of the former industrial area. company and the administration do not always Throughout the last decade different proposals coincide. In September 2009, Chief Architect have been presented, but no coherent plan Alexander Kuzmin said: ‘This zone should rather was ever adopted. Up to 2009 most industrial be public. There will be practically no offices on buildings were still in function, among them the Bolotny Island. There will be hotels, apartments historical Red October candy factory, a landmark there. A financial center? Definitely no. It’s of the Moskva river scenography. Recently art impossible to have it there, the transportation studios and independent creative practices have system doesn’t allow it. Imagine thousand of cars colonized the spaces that became available after in the rush hours. We have already issued the 2009. This condition is generally interpreted as necessary papers which forbid the construction a transition phase — a state of hibernation until of office centres in the city centre’1. commercial proposals take off at last. This take on the matter has been criticized by From 2003 to 2005 KRT-Megapolis - a subsidiary representatives of the Corporation of Territory of the Corporation of Territory Developers Developers, but there seems to be a general managed the property. These two years were agreement that Strelka shall become a residential too short to reach an agreement between neighborhood. the agendas of all stakeholders, and to the Public Opinion does not agree. The area is dismay of Mayor Luzhkov no conclusions were perceived as very central and as such as a place reached. As the city is a major stakeholder in that holds an identity that needs to be public, this operation, Luzhkov decided to change the accessible, preserved and strengthened. The management company. opening of creative practices such as the Strelka From 2005 to 2007 developer Moskapstroi Institute brings forward many questions about (principal city construction company since 1967) the potential of the area: was responsible for the development of the site. Moskapstroi mostly worked at an infrastructural Can Strelka be more than another housing level, providing lighting on the Patriarshy Bridge project? Can it be public and compete with Paris and improving public space in limited areas. Ile de la Cite or London’s Modern Tate Area? Since 2007, the responsibility passed to Guta Will improved accessibility weaken Strelka’s Group. The Group had been involved in the identity? Can the Creative Industries help project from the beginning, but only took the lead to develop a sustainable program with this after the previous attempts failed to kickstart the complex situation? development. 1 http://www.gzt.ru/topnews/realty/262244.htm26 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 27
  13. 13. Хронология участка Chronology of the Site 2002....................................... The Russian company Guta-group acquires the chocolate factory “Red October” and the territory around it. 25% of the shares go to the Moscow City Government. 2003....................................... Guta-group and the Moscow City Government announce the start of an elite development project called “Golden Island”. The project is aimed at the construction of high-end housing on Balchug Island. October, 2004 ....................... no development has started yet. Some local artists rent abandoned factory garages from Guta-group and establish the artistic community “Art-Strelka”. End of 2004 ........................... Moscow authorities launch a programme aimed at removing industries from the city centre. The “Red October” stops being productive and its activities are moved to other premises. Meanwhile, Guta-group finances a new pedestrian bridge that connects the Island and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. 2005....................................... The empty spaces of the former factory “Red October” are offered for rent at high prices in an attempt to re-brand the Strelka area as “Golden Island”. The first leased property is converted into an elite night club called “Paradise”. May, 2008.............................. For the first time the former factory hosts events such as exhibitions of contemporary art and the presentation of the glossy magazine “Black Square”. August, 2008 ......................... The economic crisis slows the construction industry; Guta-group freezes the “Golden Island” project. September 2008 .................... The chocolate shop of “Red October” factory hosts an international exhibition of modern art organized in collaboration with New York gallerist Larry Gagosian. November, 2008  ................... Guta-group lowers rent prices to $250-450 for a square meter per year. Heiress Maria Baibakova rents 3000 square meters and engages in a series of expensive artistic projects, inviting renowned protagonists of the London art scene to Moscow. After a year Baibakova decides to end the experiment. May, 2009.............................. “Art-Strelka”, which paid a symbolic rent of $150 per year, is pressed to move out. Guta-group plans to open a restaurant in the former garages of the factory, but Russian entrepreneur Alexander Mamut rents the space and establishes the Strelka Institute for architecture, media, and design. The Strelka Institutes ideally continues the legacy of the “Art-Strelka” artistic community. September, 2009 ................... The shops of the former “Red October” factory are used as one of the main exhibition spaces of the Third Moscow Biennal.  2009—2010 ......................... More than 60 leasers have moved into the former factory renovating the premises at their own expense. Among the current leasers are restaurants, cafes, ateliers, photo-studios, art galleries and services such as gyms and beauty salons.28 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 29
  14. 14. >> ГОЛОСА ОСТРОВАVOICES OF THE ISLAND
  15. 15. Are developers AS Public space doesn’t bring money. Unless there is a reason to make aИнтервью: Алекс Столярик,Евгений Глекель encouraged to provide public space for a business centre or a residential area, in which case it will public space for the bring money.Interview: Alex Stolyarik, Eugene Glekel city? EG There are very strict regulations about public spaces and green areas in Alex Stolyarik is the General Manager of “AFI Rus”, the managing particular. company of “AFI Development” What kind of program AS Basically the most profitable kind of development at the moment is the sells best in this residential sector. Lofts in particular. There is already an overabundance moment in Moscow? of office space in the city. You cannot convert the existing factory into residential space without legally changing its zoning, but there is a trick to overcome this obstacle. And the trick is that you do not change the intended use, you just call the development ‘apartments’ and convert it into Eugene Glekel is the Director of “Group Systems Architects” residential lofts without really changing its formal use. Lofts are not that popular yet in Moscow, but I think the future is in this kind of conversions. There is a huge market for residential space and lofts. Another profitable typology is the hotel. It’s very similar to residential. You can easily convert a factory into hotels. If former factories are located near the metro or close to a good area where there are interesting urban hot spots and that sorts of things, then a conversion can be really successful. Mixed use… It definitely works. For the transformation of a former industrial What do you think area I would definitely choose a mixed use development. about mixed use If you only do offices, they are empty at night. Actually, they are empty after developments? 7 in the evening, which is not good for the development. For the economicHow does the public AS There are definitely some restrictions. There is a zoning, a definite land performance of the area, it is better if people are present at night. They canadministration use. There are clear restrictions in terms of height, insulation, infrastructural go to a café, they can go to a theatre.influence the issues. Not all of them fit to the economy of the project. And developersdecisions of are always looking for a better economic performance. But each developer There are definitely a lot of new developments during the latest years. Newdevelopers? stands for himself. Developers are not city planners. They look at their How did Moscow projects. properties and think: “How I can make the most out of this?” And they change in the last 10 start pushing the limits with the city administration. And if you are well years? EG There has been an intense construction activity outside the city. The city connected, if you have good relationship with the city administration, it can has expanded a lot. Suburbs have grown a lot. help with the change of zoning. Sometimes.What contributes EG What creates good relationships? If you grew up together, if you wereto creating good together at school, if you go to the sauna together.relationships? The discussion with Stolyarik and Glekel shed light on the relationship AS It’s a tricky question, what creates good relationship. I mean, you’ve between developers and city authorities. When it comes to large-scale got to do good work, create more jobs, and do whatever is good for the interventions, negotiation between private and public interests is a key economy of this city. Any construction is good if it relates correctly with factor. The so-called Genplan (masterplan of Moscow) offers a canvas for the infrastructure of the city. In these cases the city helps you with the this negotiation rather than acting as projective tool. development. The more you invest in the city the more you get from the city. In such a condition, architects should do more than simply designing good That’s actually one way to go about it. environments: they have to first construct a grammar to communicate with There is a masterplan for Moscow. It’s difficult to change it but dealing with the clients. Finding a common ground between the economic performance issues area by area is reasonable I think. It’s like a give and take game. and a need for improved urban conditions becomes then the prerequisite for any architectural project. Nevertheless, the interview also underlines how sometimes social and economic reasons can dovetail, supporting mixed use developments and conversion of industrial areas.32 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 33
  16. 16. Интервью: Михаил Козырев Интервью: Станислав ПошвыкинInterview: Mikhail Kozyrev Interview: Stanislav Poshvikin Mikahil Kozyrev is a showman and works for Rain TV, a channel that Stanislav Poshvikin is an architect of Studio 8 of “Mosproekt-2”and the broadcasts live from the Red October. author the Masterplan for the development of the territory of Red October factory.What is special about Everybody in this country knows the chocolate factory “Red October”. Do you believe the To my point of view it is not correct to call the future high-end developmentthis island? People often ask me “Does it still smell of chocolate in your office?”, area is going to just accommodation. Lofts on “Red October” will not be the main residence because this smell was really a legend, you could smell it everywhere be merely market- of their owners; I see them rather as collector pieces belonging to people around the factory when it functioned. Today, it doesn’t smell. But when we driven residential who also own apartments in London, on Cyprus, anywhere you can imagine. came here last autumn there were still puddles of chocolate on the floor. accommodation? So by building those lofts the developer Anton Kuznetsov of Guta-group will Then more and more renters began to come in. And now every week I see realize his dream to create art objects; ultimately, this operation will support new people putting on new plates of cafes, design studios, photo studios other art projects on the island. and so on. It’s a real boom. What if a bridge next I do not see the construction of a new pedestrian bridge near the monumentWhat kind of facility I would like if there will be a small hotel here. I think people who work here to Peter the Great’s as a problem. The visitors who will come to the island will not disturb thedo you think is would also like to live here. statue would open residents. Everything depends on how the movement along the embankmentmissing? up Strelka to more is handled. We proposed to the Mayor to rebuild the embankment in orderDo you think an easier I think that improving the car accessibility would not help, because as soon pedestrian visitors? to reestablish a contact with the water and provide a pedestrian quay. Itcar accessibility as you drive out of the island you get stuck in the traffic anyway. If you want would not be too expensive to do that. I believe it is a good idea and thewould improve the to travel home comfortably you should not leave the place until 3.00 a.m. City Government should support it. This reconstruction could also supportarea? Mayor Luzhkov’s idea of an “Art Path” which will extend from the MuseumWhat if a bridge next The construction of a bridge near the monument of Peter the Great would of Modern Art on Krimsky Val to the Balchug-Kempinsky Hotel. If we thinkto Peter the Great’s change our life for the better. If more people will visit the area, the better about city islands such as the ones in the River Seine, we can see thatstatue would open the area will perform. And business follows people. The entrepreneurs who they are lively environments not because of what happens in or aroundup Strelka to more look for space to settle will surely be attracted to the area if they see that it the buildings that stand along the banks, but due to the embankments. Allpedestrian visitors? is lively and vibrant. sorts of people spend time there: students, artists, middle class workers, vagabonds, owners of vessels, sailors. Nevertheless, I also think that there should be a path dedicated to residents within the island itself. In that case,Do you think the I don’t know how many of the people who work today in the “Red October” the residents could use sheltered routs that would be independent from theidentity of the former like chocolate but I think everybody should eat 5 chocolates a day to save fluxes of external visitors.chocolate factory the local chocolate shop from bankruptcy. As you might know, the localcan still contribute to factory shop is still open although the productive activities have been Do you envision It will be interesting if every new resident brings in his or her own designer.the character of the transferred to another place. Moreover, if each of us eats 5 chocolates a the development as Then we will have a mosaic of façade decorations which will reveal theplace? day we’ll be happy, and the Balchug Island will be an Island of Happiness. one ensemble, or characters of the owners. as a collection of architectural objects?34 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 35
  17. 17. Art is today the key Artistic life on “Red October”, low rent prices for artists, are a spontaneousidentity factor of marketing trick which nobody designed. That’s a paradox. The only reasonthe area. Do you art life exists here is that the owners of this territory are young sociablebelieve artists will be people. I mean Aleksandr Mamut, Anton Chernov and Artyom Kuznetsov.pushed out if the real They are not art people but they are open-minded and easy-going and areestate development not going to let such an area in the centre of Moscow become lifeless.succeeds? How do you imagine Nobody knows what will happen on “Red October” in 10, 20, 50 years.the Strelka area in 10, Luzhkov can come here someday, look at the site from the bridge and say:20, 50 years? “What a dump is this? Demolish all!”. And the next day bulldozers will be here. But I want to live until I see a reconstructed embankment where people will walk, kiss, put their feet in the water, even if I don’t think that living on the island will be affordable to most of them. Stanislav Poshvikin is possibly the person who knows best the Red October complex; he worked on the area for more than a decade and is currently responsible for the architectural project that Guta-group will implement. Two main issues were brought to our interest after talking to him: first of all, the importance of the developers’ role, and secondly, the potential of the open air public space along the quays. As Poshvikin works with Guta-group, he has a clear vision of what kind of commercial operation will be carried on the island. It is going to be a high- end residential development targeted at wealthy clients. But if the market- driven choices are adamantly geared at an elite subject, Poshvikin points out that the shared public spaces should be open and attractive for visitors of every kind. He believes that a careful reconstruction of the embankments would be a key element in providing a vibrant environment. Indeed, it becomes clear that investing in the common spaces can become the most effective tool to preserve a certain degree of publicness on the island.36 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 37
  18. 18. >>КОНКУРС ПЕРВЫХ ИДЕЙ VISION COMPETITION
  19. 19. Team 1 >> Мозаика жизненного пространства Team 1 >> Lifestyle Toolbox
  20. 20. BOAT CARS AND PEDESTRIAN ACCESS TRAMCOVERING AN ISLAND CITY ROLE River Transport System Car and Pedestrian Accessibility Metro Transport System Tram Transport System The Island as City Hub Lifestyles: Global, Local, Discovery Section: Public and Private Space Relationships 42 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 43
  21. 21. 44 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 45
  22. 22. 46 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 47
  23. 23. 48 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 49
  24. 24. Team 2 >> Зеленый остров Team 2 >> Green Island
  25. 25. Accessibility Flows Flows and Heritage Buildings Section Scheme: Program and Accessibility Building Mass Studies Flows and Public Ground Landscape Section52 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 53
  26. 26. Public Space Working Space Living Space Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 55
  27. 27. Team 3 >> Креативное соединение Team 3 >> Creative Bridging
  28. 28. AddingBridgingExisting Footprint CREATIVECLUSTE CREATIVECLUSTER Digging CREATIVECLUSTE Elevating CREATIVECLUSTE58 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 59
  29. 29. Masterplan Toolbox Mass Studies: Old and New Buildings60 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 61
  30. 30. Commercial Housing Working Leisure Education Overview62 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 63
  31. 31. OWNERS RESIDENTS STUDENTS CITIZENS TOURISTS VISITORS STUDENTS FREE - LANCERS WORKERS FREE - LANCERS STUFFUsers Flows CREATIVECLUSTER RESIDENTS VISITORS WORKERS CREATIVECLUSTER LEISURE CO - WORKING EDUCATION HOUSING COMMERCIALProgram CREATIVECLUSTER64 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 65 CREATIVECLUSTER
  32. 32. Team 4 >> Внутренний город Team 4 >> Inner City
  33. 33. Not a Set... Not a Stack... But a Tangle68 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 69
  34. 34. Programmatic Areas Pixel Programme70 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 71
  35. 35. Housing Structure, Landscape and Chocolate Factory Public Creative72 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 73
  36. 36. >>ПЕТР-I-ПЛАН КЛАУЗУРА PETER PLAN IMPROMPTU
  37. 37. Monolithic Peter Marko Mihic-Jeftic >> Winning project78 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 79
  38. 38. Peter ArtFestival Red Wedge Olga Khokhlova Alexei Kolesov Honourable mention Honourable mention80 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 81
  39. 39. Sinking Peter Globbing Peter Alina Kvirkvelyia Alexander Zaltsman Honourable mention82 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 83
  40. 40. Christmas Mirror Peter Alexandra Skitiova Pevtree Daria Klochkova84 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 85
  41. 41. Peter Rocket Invite Bernaskoni Valeria Krysenko Gleb Vitkov86 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 87
  42. 42. Peter-go-round Goodbye Peter Anna Shevchenko Pavel Rueda88 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 89
  43. 43. >> СТРЕЛКАTHE STRELKA SITE
  44. 44. >> Контекст города >> Urban Context
  45. 45. Moscow Today Москва 2025Москва сегодня Moscow 2025 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 95
  46. 46. Контекст городаUrban ContextThe Project Area is embedded within Moscow’s most The Project Area and Major Green Areas in Moscow’sprominent public spaces. Centre.96 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 97
  47. 47. The Network of Radial and Concentric Roads is disrupted Car Access to the site is characterised by cul-de-sac’sat it’s very core, Bolotny Island. The site is central and and one-way-streets. Only the initiated can accessremote at once. Bolotny Island.98 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 99
  48. 48. While several Metro Lines cross the island, there is no Two Bus lines access the Island, distances to the stationsactual stop on Bolotny Island. A potential extension of the are generally too large.yellow line might change that.100 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 101
  49. 49. >> Загадка острова >> The Mystery of an Island
  50. 50. 104 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 105
  51. 51. >> СТРЕЛКА, ВПЕРЕД! >>FAST FORWARD STRELKA >>
  52. 52. >> Общая схема >> Overall Scheme
  53. 53. The general masterplan The footprint plan offor the Strelka island is the project shows thedivided in four different relationship between theareas each one with a new development anddifferent mix of functions the city, and the openand a different lifestyle. relationship with the water. Public Transport Access114 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 115
  54. 54. The general masterplan The general plan showshas been conceived to be how the project isrealized in five phases of conceived as one coherentdevelopment. development but with different environments defined by a unique relationship between buildings and public spaces.116 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 117
  55. 55. The entire area has The private carbeen conceived as accessibility is possiblemainly pedestrian, with through a system ofa restricted accessibility underground parking thatfor delivery services, will fully cover the parkingsafety vehicles, public requirements for residentstransportation and and visitors.residents with permission.Section: programs and circulation118 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 119
  56. 56. The diagram shows the All the different areasaccessibility system with of the island arethe articulated system equally supplied withof pedestrian paths and green spaces, with asquares, starting from the predominance of green inmain bridge toward the tip the residential waterfrontof the island and the north along the east bank.side.Section: pedestrian circulation120 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 121
  57. 57. В направлении к программе смешанного использования Towards a Mixed Use Program Above: Projected Buildings. Below: Overall Surfaces by Program in Square Metres. 5 966 30 104 22 581 education culture creative studios & offices 24347 work/life residential retail & leisure 41 763 11976122 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 123
  58. 58. While the distribution of the program avoids any strictzoning, functions are clustered according to existingbuilding substance, orientation and accessibility. The softclustering of the functions activate them and create alively mix in the public spaces which connect them. Commercial Residential Working Managed Apartments & Hotels Creativity Overview124 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 Workshop Berlage Institute at Strelka Institute Moscow June 2010 125
  59. 59. >> Шоколадная площадь >> Chocolate Square

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