Sw Key To Vasos Taxa
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Sw Key To Vasos Taxa Sw Key To Vasos Taxa Presentation Transcript

  • StreamWatch Key to Virginia SOS Taxa Groups – photo slideshow
    To download the key, go to http://streamwatch.org/volunteers/forms-and-documents
    Photo research and compilation by StreamWatch volunteer Bob Henricks.
  • 1a – Organism has sectioned, jointed legs. (2)
    Be sure to look carefully underneath the body. Be aware that stubby, fleshy prolegs without joints are not “sectioned, jointed legs.”
    http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/html/amphipods.html
    http://www.troutnut.com/specimen/354
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/109670820
  • 1b – No sectioned, jointed legs. (5)
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/256137/bgimage
    http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/Benthos/Mollusca/Gastropods/Gastropoda.html
    http://www.troutnut.com/specimen/650
    View slide
  • 2a – More than 3 pairs of jointed legs. (3)
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/103159/bgimage
    View slide
  • 2b –3 pairs of jointed legs. (13)
  • 3a – Shrimp-like or lobster-like and can move quickly in water. (4)
    Prod the organism gently to test its movement.
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/284146/bgimage
  • 3b – Body is wider than it is tall. Organism does not swim or rapidly propel itself through water, though it can walk well with its many legs. SOWBUGS
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/176271/bgpage
  • 4a – Fan-shaped tail. CRAYFISH
    http://www.troutnut.com/specimen/354
  • 4b – Body is taller than it is wide. No fan-shaped tail. SCUDS
    http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/html/amphipods.html
  • 5a – Organism is inside a shell. (6)
    5b – Not inside a shell (though possibly in a case). (9)
    http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/Benthos/Mollusca/Gastropods/Gastropoda.html
    http://www.conservationmaven.com/frontpage/2009/8/24/lake-tahoe-health-report-asian-clam-invasion-growing-fast.html
    5a
  • 6a – Shell composed of two halves that join at base to form hinge. CLAMS
    6b – Shell not as described in 6a. (7)
    http://www.conservationmaven.com/frontpage/2009/8/24/lake-tahoe-health-report-asian-clam-invasion-growing-fast.html
  • 7a – Shell forms a coil. LUNGED SNAILS
    7a
    http://mkohl1.net/Planorbidae.html
  • 7b – Shell forms a flattened cone. LUNGED SNAILS
    http://mkohl1.net/Fwlimpets.html
  • 7c - Shell forms a spiral. (8)
    ttp://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/Benthos/Mollusca/Gastropods/Gastropoda.html
    http://tiee.ecoed.net/vol/v4/experiments/habitat_shifts/description.html
  • 8a – With apex up and opening down, shell opening is to the left. LUNGED SNAILS
    http://tiee.ecoed.net/vol/v4/experiments/habitat_shifts/description.html
  • 8b – With apex up and opening down, shell opening is to the right. GILLED SNAILS
    8b
    http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/Benthos/Mollusca/Gastropods/Gastropoda.html
  • 9a – No distinct head composed of hardened exoskeleton material can be seen. (10)
    Use magnification.
    9a
    http://www.cdb.riken.jp/jp/04_news/img/planarian300.jpg
    https://web.natur.cuni.cz/ekologie/galleries/Terenni%20hydrobiologicke%20praktikum%20II/2004/organismy/slides/Krouzkovec%20Lumbriculus%20variegatus%20P9290161.JPG
  • 9b – Organism has a distinct head. The head is composed of hardened exoskeleton material. (12). The head may be very small, so use magnification when looking for this feature.
    9b
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/247112
  • 10a – Body without any of the features listed in 10b. (11)
    10b – Body with one or more of the following features: fleshy, unjointed prolegs, encircling raised ribs or welts, tentacle-like structures producing from end of body, a row of suckers on underside of body. MOST TRUE FLIES
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/256137/bgimage
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/110748797
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/359194/bgimage
  • 11a – Looks like an earthworm, though often skinnier. Very regular cylindrical form; no bumps or protrusions of any kind. Usually pinkish. AQUATIC WORMS
    https://web.natur.cuni.cz/ekologie/galleries/Terenni%20hydrobiologicke%20praktikum%20II/2004/organismy/slides/Krouzkovec%20Lumbriculus%20variegatus%20P9290161.JPG
  • 11b – Organism appears as a small (less than 1/8”) grayish blob out of water. In water, it may resolve into flattened slug-like form with a triangular head. If intact, it may move slowly around the bottom or sides of the container in a sliding manner, like a slug sliding over the ground. FLATWORMS
    http://www.cdb.riken.jp/jp/04_news/img/planarian300.jpg
  • 11c – Suckers on both ends of underside. LEECHES.Leeches are exceedingly rare in riffles of the Rivanna basin.
  • 12a – Shaped like a bowling pin. Sometimes sticks to tweezers with invisible silk. On larger specimens (1/8 inch and over), two feather like-structures attached to head are visible with magnification. BLACKFLIES
    12a
  • 12b – Not as described in 12a or 12 c. Often very small, appearing as a short bit of thread. Often very wriggly when placed in water. MIDGES
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/109432336
  • 12c – Not as described in 12 a or 12b. Head is partially or almost completely withdrawn into thorax. Skin has tough, leathery, grainy texture. Thorax much wider than head. SOLDIER FLY; classify within MOST TRUE FLIES. The soldier fly is extremely uncommon in Rivanna basin riffles.
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/265372/bgimage
  • 13a – Lives in case constructed of sand, tiny pebbles, sticks, bits of leaves, or other detritus (although organism may have become separated from case). Abdomen is soft and grub-like. No filamentous gill tufts along underside of abdomen. CASEMAKING CADDISFLY; classify within MOST CADDISFLIES
    13b – Not as in 13a. (14)
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/110046384
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/111100589
  • 14a – Filamentous gill structures along entire underside of abdomen. These structures usually look like “fluff”. [Do not confuse with hellgrammite, which has elongate structures producing from side of abdomen (see 19a)]. There are also always two short tufts extending from the end of the abdomen, like short tails. COMMON NETSPINNERS
    14b – Not as in 14a. (15)
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/95399019
  • 15a – Two or 3 long or longish tails (more than 1/4 of body length) at end of abdomen and gills attached to the side or top/side of the abdomen. Tails do not look like paddles when viewed from the side. Tails may look like feathers, but not short tufts. Swims with a porpoise-like motion. MAYFLIES
    15A
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/259877/bgimage
  • 15b – Three tails that look like oars or paddles when viewed from the side. Spindly body with large eyes. Walks, does not swim. DAMSELFLY; classify within DRAGONFLIES AND DAMSELFLIES
    15c – Not as in 15a or 15b. (16)
    http://watermonitoring.uwex.edu/wav/monitoring/coordinator/ecology/odonata.html
  • 16a – Always 2 tails. Abdomen is not soft and grub-like. No gills along sides of abdomen. Gills may be present on underside of thorax. Swims weakly with sharklike side-to-side motion. No clearly visible jaws. STONEFLIES
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/263360/bgimage
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/179312
  • 16b – Two tails. Long slender jaws. Strong swimmer. DIVING BEETLE; classify withinBEETLES. Uncommon in Rivanna basin riffles.
    16c – Not as in 16a or 16b. (17)
  • 17a – Long, soft abdomen (but with 3 pairs of jointed legs). Often but not always yellow-orange. No significant elongate structures coming off side of abdomen (though hairs may be visible under magnification). NON-CASEMEMAKING CADDISFLY; classify within MOST CADDISFLIES
    17b – Not as in 17a. (18)
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/111032573
  • 18a – Body is at least four times as long as it is wide. (19)
    18b – Body not so long and slender as described in 18a. (20)
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/363690/bgimage
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/111459162
  • 19a – Thin elongate structures produce outward along both sides of abdomen. These structures are sometimes mistaken for legs (the creature actually has just six legs). There may also be fluffy gill structures producing from underside of abdomen. [Do not confuse with netspinning caddisflies, which have fluffy abdominal gills but no elongate structures producing outward from the side (see 14a)]. Substantial jaws are visible on large and medium-sized specimens. HELGRAMMITES and ALDERFLIES
  • 19b – No elongate structures producing from side of abdomen. Often assumes comma-like shape when lying on net, sheet, or at bottom of container. Usually deep brown, almost black. Sometimes amber or pale amber. There is a cavity with a hinged lid on the underside of the end of the abdomen that houses white filamentous gills. These may be extended from cavity when the organism needs oxygen. When extended they are visible without magnification. RIFFLE BEETLE LARVA; classify within BEETLES
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/251080/bgimage
  • 20a – Legs are visible when viewed from above. (21)
    20b – Legs and most body structures are not visible from above because they are located beneath a broad, flattened, oval-shaped structure. Often but not always copper-colored. WATER PENNY; classify within BEETLES.
    legs. (13)
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/111459164
  • 21a – Hard wing coverings originate on thorax and extend over the entire abdomen, like a ladybug. A line is formed where they meet, and runs lengthwise along the top of the abdomen (use magnification). Usually less than 1/8” long. ADULT RIFFLE BEETLE or LONG-TOED WATER BEETLE; classify within BEETLES.
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/222624/bgimage
    http://www.pbase.com/tmurray74/image/114324576
  • 21b – No wing coverings as described in 21a. Very often longer than 1/8”, ranging up to over an inch. DRAGONFLY; classify within DRAGONFLIES AND DAMSELFLIES.
    http://bugguide.net/node/view/263808/bgimage
  • Miscellaneous:
     
    Cone with hairs coming out of the wide end – BLACKFLY pupae.
    Cylindrical membranous sack with smoothly rounded ends – pupating MOST CADDISFLY
    http://www.nwnature.net/macros/efl_2008/april/images/P1130653.jpg