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Strategic Management BUSM 3200                     These Lecture Slides summarize the key points covered in the respective...
The Required Text:         The text is         COMPULSORY         • To do the assignment         • Case studies as shown  ...
Learning outcomes for Chapter One:        • Summarise the strategy of an organisation in a ‘strategy          statement’. ...
Definitions of strategy (1)              ‘..the determination of the long-run goals and        objectives     of an enter...
Definitions of strategy (2)         ‘..a pattern in a stream of decisions’         Henry Mintzberg         ‘..the long-t...
From the text:BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS                    1-6
Another good interpretation of Strategy:              “If you don’t have a strategy you will be . . .                   pa...
WHAT DO WE MEAN BY STRATEGY ?  ♦ What is our present situation?          ●     Business environment and industry condition...
WHAT IS STRATEGY ABOUT?       ♦ Strategy is all about How:             ●    How to outcompete rivals.             ●    How...
Strategic decisions   BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS                 1-10
WHY CRAFTING AND EXECUTING           STRATEGY ARE IMPORTANT TASKS  ♦ Strategy provides:          ● A prescription for doin...
WHY DO STRATEGY ?  ♦ A firm does strategy:           ●     To improve its financial performance.           ●     To streng...
1.1           Identifying a Company’s Strategy—What to Look ForCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rig...
Does strategic planning always lead to           success?  The formal planning model does not consider:  ♦ The unpredictab...
Three horizons for strategy (1)         Horizon 1 :            Extend and defend core business.         Horizon 2 :     ...
Three horizons for strategy (2)     Figure 1.2      Three horizons for strategy     Source: M. Baghai, S. Coley and D. Whi...
Stakeholders                Stakeholders are those individuals or groups                that depend on an organisation to ...
Levels of strategy (1)        Corporate-Level Strategy is concerned with the         overall purpose and scope of an orga...
Levels of Strategic ManagementBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS            1-19
Different levels of strategy         Strategy success depends on the conceptualization at the          top and implementa...
Levels of strategy (2): an example                                        News Corporation                         Corpora...
Strategy statements               Strategy statements should have three main               themes:        the fundamental...
Working with strategy (1)        All managers are concerned with strategy:        Top managers frequently formulate and  ...
Working with strategy (2)        Organisations may also use strategy specialists:        Many large organisations have in...
Strategy’s three branches (1)         CONTEXT – internal and external.         CONTENT – strategic options.         PRO...
Strategy’s three branches (2)     Figure 1.3     Strategy’s three branchesBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS  ...
The exploring strategy model     Note this very     well !!     Figure 1.4     The Exploring Strategy ModelBUSM 3200- Stra...
Strategic position                The strategic position is concerned with                the impact on strategy of the ex...
Strategic position: the key areasBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS         1-29
Strategic position        Fundamental questions for Strategic Position:        • What are the environmental opportunities ...
Strategic choices                Strategic choices involve the options                for strategy in terms of both the   ...
Strategic choices: the key areasBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS          1-32
Strategic choices        Fundamental questions for Strategic Choice:        • How should business units compete?        • ...
Strategy in action                Strategy in action is about how                strategies are formed and how            ...
Strategy in action: the key areasBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS              1-35
Strategy in action        Fundamental questions for Strategy in Action        • Which strategies are suitable, acceptable ...
The strategy checklistBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS                       1-37
Strategy is Evolving        A key aspect of strategy is that it changes over         time        Initially a planned or ...
Emergent and Deliberate Strategies                                                 Re: MintzbergBUSM 3200- Strategic Manag...
Why a Firm’s Strategy Evolves over Time  ♦ Managers modify strategy in response to:          ●     Changing market conditi...
Exploring strategy in different contexts        The Exploring Strategy Model can be applied in many        contexts.      ...
The strategy lenses (1)           The strategy lenses are ways of looking at           strategy issues differently in orde...
The strategy lenses (2)        Strategy can be seen as:        Design        Experience        Variety (Ideas)        ...
Strategy as design       Strategic management is seen as a       process that is analytical and       rational. Need to ev...
Strategy as experience       Strategy is a result of decisions       arising from the ‘cumulative       wisdom or experien...
Strategy as variety      Strategy is not necessarily planned      or directed from the top      Rather it ‘emerges’ from w...
Adaptive tension (page 37)     Figure C.iv     Adaptive tensionBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS             ...
Simple RulesBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS                  1-48
Strategy as discourse       Strategy here focuses on the       dynamics of interactions       between the manager and     ...
The strategy lenses summary     Table C.ii    A summary of the strategy lensesBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) G...
Just for INFO only         Professor Henry Minztberg, well          known academic in Strategic          Management has a...
A Key Issue in SM        Competitive Advantage        As you do you complete the chapter readings and         assignment...
The Quest for Competitive Advantage  ♦ Competitive Advantage          ●     Meeting customer needs more effectively,      ...
IS OUR STRATEGY A WINNER?                                                                   The Strategic                 ...
WHAT MAKES A STRATEGY           A WINNER?  ♦ A winning strategy must pass three tests:          ●     The Fit Test        ...
STRATEGIC APPROACHES  ♦ Building a competitive advantage by:          1. Striving to become the industry’s low-cost       ...
Chapter summary (1)          Strategy is the long-term direction of an organisation. A           ‘strategy statement’ sho...
Chapter summary (2)        • Research on strategy context, content and process shows          how the analytical perspecti...
PRACTICE ESSAY QUESTIONS                IMPORTANT NOTE: →              These questions are provided for your reference on...
Sample Essay Question        Our understanding of how strategy         development in organizations can be         enhanc...
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SM Lecture One : Introducing Strategy

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Transcript of "SM Lecture One : Introducing Strategy"

  1. 1. Strategic Management BUSM 3200 These Lecture Slides summarize the key points covered in the respective chapters in your recommended text; these slides do NOT substitute, at all, the required reading of the assigned chapter from the text. These slides also may contain additional supplementary material extracted from other texts and sources outside your text book.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-1
  2. 2. The Required Text: The text is COMPULSORY • To do the assignment • Case studies as shown in the lecture schedule needs to be read from the text • Examination topics and content taken from this book • PLEASE PURCHASE ASAP!BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-2
  3. 3. Learning outcomes for Chapter One: • Summarise the strategy of an organisation in a ‘strategy statement’. • Identify key issues for an organisation’s strategy according to the Exploring Strategy model. • Distinguish between corporate, business and operational strategies. • Understand how different people contribute to strategy at work. • Appreciate the contributions of different academic disciplines and theoretical lenses to practical strategy analysis.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-3
  4. 4. Definitions of strategy (1)  ‘..the determination of the long-run goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resource necessary for carrying out these goals’ Alfred Chandler  ‘Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value’ Michael Porter Sources: A.D. Chandler, Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of American Enterprise, MIT Press, 1963, p. 13 M.E. Porter, ‘What is strategy?’, Harvard Business Review, 1996, November–December, p. 60BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-4
  5. 5. Definitions of strategy (2)  ‘..a pattern in a stream of decisions’ Henry Mintzberg  ‘..the long-term direction of an organisation’ Exploring Strategy Sources: H. Mintzberg, Tracking Strategy: Toward a General Theory, Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 3BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-5
  6. 6. From the text:BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-6
  7. 7. Another good interpretation of Strategy: “If you don’t have a strategy you will be . . . part of somebody else’s strategy.” - Alvin Toffler This definition reminds us of the importance of staying ahead of the game in SM; if not you will be overtaken and subsumed by your rivals!BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-7
  8. 8. WHAT DO WE MEAN BY STRATEGY ? ♦ What is our present situation? ● Business environment and industry conditions ● Firm’s financial and competitive capabilities ♦ Where do we want to go from here? ● Creating a vision for the firm’s future direction ♦ How are we going to get there? ● Crafting an action plan that will get us thereCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–8
  9. 9. WHAT IS STRATEGY ABOUT? ♦ Strategy is all about How: ● How to outcompete rivals. ● How to respond to economic and market conditions and growth opportunities. ● How to manage functional pieces of the business. ● How to improve the firm’s financial and market performance.Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–9
  10. 10. Strategic decisions BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-10
  11. 11. WHY CRAFTING AND EXECUTING STRATEGY ARE IMPORTANT TASKS ♦ Strategy provides: ● A prescription for doing business. ● A road map to competitive advantage. ● A game plan for pleasing customers. ● A formula for attaining long-term standout marketplace performance. Good Strategy + Good Strategy Execution = Good ManagementCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–11
  12. 12. WHY DO STRATEGY ? ♦ A firm does strategy: ● To improve its financial performance. ● To strengthen its competitive position. ● To gain a sustainable competitive. advantage over its market rivals. ♦ A creative, distinctive strategy: ● Can yield above-average profits. ● Makes competition difficult for rivals.Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–12
  13. 13. 1.1 Identifying a Company’s Strategy—What to Look ForCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–13
  14. 14. Does strategic planning always lead to success? The formal planning model does not consider: ♦ The unpredictability of the real world (turbulence) ♦ The role of lower-level managers- they may not implement effectively ♦ That success is often unplanned or serendipitous (element of luck and timing?) ♦ Other reasons? ♦ So there is always an interesting debate as to whether strategic planning always lead to higher performanceCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–14
  15. 15. Three horizons for strategy (1) Horizon 1 : Extend and defend core business. Horizon 2 : Build emerging businesses. Horizon 3 : Create viable options.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-15
  16. 16. Three horizons for strategy (2) Figure 1.2 Three horizons for strategy Source: M. Baghai, S. Coley and D. While, The Alchemy of Growth, 2000, Texere Publishers: Figure 1.1, p. 5BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-16
  17. 17. Stakeholders Stakeholders are those individuals or groups that depend on an organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends. Later in the course, we will cover the implementation issues of SM Here you will learn that decision making is a highly politicized process and many stakeholders will be involvedBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-17
  18. 18. Levels of strategy (1) Corporate-Level Strategy is concerned with the overall purpose and scope of an organisation and how to add value to business units. Business-Level Strategy is concerned with the way a business seeks to compete successfully in its particular market. Operational Level Strategy is concerned with how different parts of the organisation deliver the strategy in terms of managing resources, processes and people.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-18
  19. 19. Levels of Strategic ManagementBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-19
  20. 20. Different levels of strategy  Strategy success depends on the conceptualization at the top and implementation down the levels  Each lower level needs to translate strategy into operational plans  Shows the importance of integration and coordination.  Example how would a decision to move in a strategic direction affect business functions such as marketing, HR, finance, operations, etc  Also important to note this because later in this course we will learn the differences between  Corporate Level Strategy  Business Level StrategyBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 20
  21. 21. Levels of strategy (2): an example News Corporation Corporate- diversifying from print level journalism into social strategy networking. Website and marketing Business-level improvements at My Space to attract more strategy users. MySpace engineers Operational strategy increasing processing Capacity.BUSM 3200- Strategic 1-21
  22. 22. Strategy statements Strategy statements should have three main themes: the fundamental goals that the organisation seeks, which draw on the stated mission, vision and objectives the scope or domain of the organisation’s activities and the particular advantages or capabilities it has to deliver all these.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-22
  23. 23. Working with strategy (1) All managers are concerned with strategy: Top managers frequently formulate and control strategy but may also involve others in the process. Middle and lower level managers have to meet strategic objectives and deal with constraints. All managers have to communicate strategy to their teams. All managers can contribute to the formation of strategy through ideas and feedback.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-23
  24. 24. Working with strategy (2) Organisations may also use strategy specialists: Many large organisations have in-house strategic planning or analyst roles. Strategy consultants can be engaged from one of many general management consulting firms (e.g. Accenture, IBM Consulting, PwC). There are a growing number of specialist strategy consulting firms (e.g. McKinsey &Co, The Boston Consulting Group).BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-24
  25. 25. Strategy’s three branches (1) CONTEXT – internal and external. CONTENT – strategic options. PROCESS – formation and implementation.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-25
  26. 26. Strategy’s three branches (2) Figure 1.3 Strategy’s three branchesBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-26
  27. 27. The exploring strategy model Note this very well !! Figure 1.4 The Exploring Strategy ModelBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-27
  28. 28. Strategic position The strategic position is concerned with the impact on strategy of the external environment, the organisation’s strategic capability (resources and competences), the organisation’s goals and the organisation’s culture.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-28
  29. 29. Strategic position: the key areasBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-29
  30. 30. Strategic position Fundamental questions for Strategic Position: • What are the environmental opportunities and threats? • What are the organisation’s strengths and weaknesses? • What is the basic purpose of the organisation? • How does culture shape strategy?BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-30
  31. 31. Strategic choices Strategic choices involve the options for strategy in terms of both the directions in which strategy might move and the methods by which strategy might be pursued.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-31
  32. 32. Strategic choices: the key areasBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-32
  33. 33. Strategic choices Fundamental questions for Strategic Choice: • How should business units compete? • Which businesses to include in the portfolio? • Where should the organisation compete internationally? • Is the organisation innovating appropriately? • Should the organisation buy other companies, form alliances or go it alone?BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-33
  34. 34. Strategy in action Strategy in action is about how strategies are formed and how they are implemented. The emphasis is on the practicalities of managing.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-34
  35. 35. Strategy in action: the key areasBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-35
  36. 36. Strategy in action Fundamental questions for Strategy in Action • Which strategies are suitable, acceptable and feasible? • What kind of strategy-making process is needed? • What are the required organisation structures and systems? • How should the organisation manage necessary changes? • Who should do what in the strategy process?BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-36
  37. 37. The strategy checklistBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-37
  38. 38. Strategy is Evolving A key aspect of strategy is that it changes over time Initially a planned or deliberate strategy could be implemented BUT:  Changes will occur  The planned strategy may need to be modified or abandoned altogether In the process, new strategies may ‘emerge’ This is the work of Professor Henry MintzbergBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-38
  39. 39. Emergent and Deliberate Strategies Re: MintzbergBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-39
  40. 40. Why a Firm’s Strategy Evolves over Time ♦ Managers modify strategy in response to: ● Changing market conditions ● Advancing technology ● Fresh moves of competitors ● Shifting buyer needs ● Emerging market opportunities ● New ideas for improving the strategyCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–40
  41. 41. Exploring strategy in different contexts The Exploring Strategy Model can be applied in many contexts. In each context the balance of strategic issues differs: Small Businesses (e.g. Purpose and Growth issues) Multinational Corporations (e.g. Geographical Scope and Structure/Control issues) Public Sector Organisations (e.g. Service/Quality and Managing Change issues) Not For Profit Organisations (e.g. Purpose and Funding issues; Multiple Stakeholders) The issues and challenges of doing SM in these different contexts will be uniqueBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-41
  42. 42. The strategy lenses (1) The strategy lenses are ways of looking at strategy issues differently in order to generate many insights. Looking at problems in different ways will raise new issues and new solutions. This topic reminds us that there is always the ‘human dimension’ in SM Lenses = Perspectives to planningBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-42
  43. 43. The strategy lenses (2) Strategy can be seen as: Design Experience Variety (Ideas) Discourse Read the Commentary on Strategy Lenses starting on page 27 of the text. Read up especially the sections on “implications for management”BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-43
  44. 44. Strategy as design Strategic management is seen as a process that is analytical and rational. Need to evaluate and look for the ‘best option’ Planning is top-down Figure C.i Design lensBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-44
  45. 45. Strategy as experience Strategy is a result of decisions arising from the ‘cumulative wisdom or experiences’ of the mangers who are involved in decision making Strategy is likely to build on what was done before; limited change. Figure C.ii Experience lensBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-45
  46. 46. Strategy as variety Strategy is not necessarily planned or directed from the top Rather it ‘emerges’ from within and around the organization as it responds to changes. New ideas emerge as a result of unpredictable and competitive pressures. Figure C.iii Variety lensBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-46
  47. 47. Adaptive tension (page 37) Figure C.iv Adaptive tensionBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-47
  48. 48. Simple RulesBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-48
  49. 49. Strategy as discourse Strategy here focuses on the dynamics of interactions between the manager and subordinates – one of engaging in problem framing, debating and then communicating the decisions. It focuses on the complexities of human dynamics in SMBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-49
  50. 50. The strategy lenses summary Table C.ii A summary of the strategy lensesBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-50
  51. 51. Just for INFO only  Professor Henry Minztberg, well known academic in Strategic Management has an excellent text on SM called the “Strategy Safari”  The term safari is used because strategy is complex and mangers are in search of the ideal approach.  In this book he highlights the different “schools of thought” in Strategy  If you don’t read the book you can always Google the essence of his writingBUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-51
  52. 52. A Key Issue in SM Competitive Advantage As you do you complete the chapter readings and assignment in the weeks to come, keep thinking about how the different topics you are covering affect the issue of competitive advantage This is the key issue in SM How to gain and how to sustain competitive advantage The work of Professor Michael Porter focuses on this. We cover this in great detail in Lecture 5.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-52
  53. 53. The Quest for Competitive Advantage ♦ Competitive Advantage ● Meeting customer needs more effectively, with products or services that customers value more highly, or more efficiently, at lower cost. ♦ Sustainable Competitive Advantage ● Giving buyers lasting reasons to prefer a firm’s products or services over those of its competitors.Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–53
  54. 54. IS OUR STRATEGY A WINNER? The Strategic Fit Test The Competitive Winning The Performance Advantage Test Test StrategyCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–54
  55. 55. WHAT MAKES A STRATEGY A WINNER? ♦ A winning strategy must pass three tests: ● The Fit Test  Does it exhibit dynamic fit with the external and internal aspects of the firm’s overall situation? ● The Competitive Advantage Test  Can it help the firm achieve a significant and sustainable competitive advantage? ● The Performance Test  Can it produce good performance as measured by the firm’s profitability, financial and competitive strengths, and market standing?Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–55
  56. 56. STRATEGIC APPROACHES ♦ Building a competitive advantage by: 1. Striving to become the industry’s low-cost provider (efficiency). 2. Outcompeting rivals on differentiating features (effectiveness). 3. Focusing on better serving a niche market’s needs (efficiency andor effectiveness). 4. Offering the lowest (best) prices for differentiated goods (best-cost provider).Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–56
  57. 57. Chapter summary (1)  Strategy is the long-term direction of an organisation. A ‘strategy statement’ should cover the goals of an organisation, the scope of the organisation’s activities and the advantages or capabilities the organisation brings to these goals and activities.  Corporate-level strategy is concerned with an organisation’s overall scope; business-level strategy is concerned with how to compete; and operational strategy is concerned with how resources, processes and people deliver corporate- and business-level strategy.  Strategy work is done by managers throughout an organisation, as well as specialist strategic planners and strategy consultants.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-57
  58. 58. Chapter summary (2) • Research on strategy context, content and process shows how the analytical perspectives of economics, sociology and psychology can all provide practical insights for approaching strategy issues • The Exploring Strategy Model has three major elements: understanding the strategic position, making strategic choices for the future and managing strategy-in-action. • Strategic issues are best seen from a variety of perspectives, as exemplified by the four strategy lenses of design, experience, variety and discourse.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-58
  59. 59. PRACTICE ESSAY QUESTIONS IMPORTANT NOTE: →  These questions are provided for your reference only – they are only INDICATIVE of the standard of questions you might expect in the final exam.  DO NOT use these questions to “spot”  The RMIT examiner will post advice on the exam on the Learning Hub closer to the exam; you are required to pay attention to that advise  The questions here show the range of topics that could be tested from this lecture; they are NOT exhaustive  To score a high grade it is important to LINK the theory to applications and examples. Where from?  You have been assigned specific cases to read from the text. Each case study will show you the kinds of strategic decisions the case company needs to make. You can draw from these examples.  You have selected a case company for your project; you may use examples from there.  You are supposed to read widely from the business press about local, regional and international companies strategies. You can use examples from there as well.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 6-59
  60. 60. Sample Essay Question Our understanding of how strategy development in organizations can be enhanced through employing different strategy lenses. Give examples to illustrate your understanding.BUSM 3200- Strategic Management (Jan 2013) GDS 1-60
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