PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

Page 1 of 39
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

Federal Urdu University Abdul Haq Campus
B.S. Commerce 1st year

WRITERS:
MAS B...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

BOOK REFERENCES:
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Principles of psychology (T-M-JOUSPH UMARA).
Introduc...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

ARTICLE REFERENCES:
Beasley, K. (1987) “The Emotional Quotient.” Mensa Magazine...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

PREFACE
Assalamualaikum!
These project collocations about our subject of
“PSYCH...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

CONTENTS
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WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
ORIGIN OF INTELLIGENCE.
DEFIN...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

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O IINTRODUCTIION
O NTRODUCT ON
O MIINOSOTTA TE...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
INTRODUCTION OF INTELLIGENCE:
Like beauty, humor, and courage, intelligence is a...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

3. Linguistic/Verbal Intelligence:
It is basically refers to your language. The...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
The ability of a person concerns with the body movements is called “Body
Kinesth...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Achievements of artificial intelligence such as games, cross words, solving prob...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

4. Sex:
It is not true that males are more intelligent than females. However,
s...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
6. Race:
No one race is endowed with better intelligence than others. Difference...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
EXCEPTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: [ik-sep-shuh-nl]
“Forming an exception or rare instanc...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
A score b/w 51 to 36 under the Stanford Binet is the Moderate
Retardation.
Sever...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Known as factor analysis to examine a number of mental aptitude tests,
Spearman ...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
some kind of attitude measurement

.

Strengths:
Psychometric is based upon atte...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Associative memory
Spatial visualization
Naturalistic Intelligence

4. Multiple ...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Logical-mathematical Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Musical Intelligenc...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
situations using past experiences and current skills.”

6. PASS THEORY OF INTELL...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
In 1904, the ministry of public instruction in Paris gave detailed test, then th...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Paterson and Longstaff revolutionized the Minnesota clerical test with new sets ...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
3.Stanford Binet Test:
Introduction:
Stanford Binet Test is the fourth standardi...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

2. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales:
The intelligence scale developed by DAVID ...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
4. Wide Range Achievement Test:
 Introduction:
WRAT is used to pick out the per...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
aptitudes, musical aptitude (based on the discrimination of pitch, sensitivity, ...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Maximum numbers of questions are deliberately delivered to assess how well
you h...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Your mental alertness, business potential, memory, vocabulary, perception and
me...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
will most likely debate for a thousand more. This section will present the vario...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Emotional Intelligence:
There are many possible definitions of emotional intelli...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people
can...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
person’s abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence, it
ge...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Emotions convey information: Happiness usually indicates a desire to join
with o...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”

This four-branch model represents what today has become called the ability
mode...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
The TEIQue provides an operationalization for Petrides and Colleagues' model tha...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
“In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that
crit...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
They are relatively new in the field and need a lot of improvement to stand the
...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
3. What emotions mean to you?
4. How do you manage emotions?
Advice to Encounter...
PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”
Try a cooling-off period.
Do something to get you off the anger track.
Seek posi...
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  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Page 1 of 39
  2. 2. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Federal Urdu University Abdul Haq Campus B.S. Commerce 1st year WRITERS: MAS BEGUM. SHEHZADI PRVEEN. SUHEBA. MISBAHULLAH M.WAQAS. M. ZAMEER 0312-2886762 AMIR HUSSAIN. HUSSAIN KHAN 0346-2439540 EHTESHAM-UL-HAQ. M.SIDDIQ-UL-HAQ 0331-2657537 M.QAISER. M.NASEEM 0334-3663909 SANA ANJUM. SIRAJ MUHAMMAD SHEIKH BILAL. S.M.ZAHID 0333-3085371 BILALZAHID3@hotmail.com M.SHABBIR. SHAMSHIR UDDIN 0346-3158105 Malick_786@hotmail.com M.AFNAN. GHOUSE UDDIN 0322-2428242 m_Afnan_g91@yahoo.com pearllibra_1989@hotmail.com m_Afnan_1991@yahoo.com NOAMAN KHAN. HABIB KHAN 0322-3397362 smartonecool@yahoo.com smartonecool98@hotmail.com COMPOSERS:  AMIR HUSSAIN.  M.AFNAN.  NOMAN KHAN. COMPILERS: PROOF READERS: M.AFNAN. M.AFNAN. NOAMAN KHAN. NOMAN KHAN Page 2 of 39
  3. 3. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” BOOK REFERENCES:     Principles of psychology (T-M-JOUSPH UMARA). Introduction to psychology (FERNALD/FERNALD), Fourth Edition. Psychology (CHAMELLE B.WORTMAN, ELIZABETH F. LOTUS), Third Edition. Psychology Testing And Assessment (RONALD JAY COHAN, MARK E. SWERDILK).  Introduction To Psychology (LINDA L. DAVIDOFF). SITES REFERENCES:                             www.wikipedia.com www.iupui.com www.fags.org www.medterms.com www.penngifted.org www.pacode.com www.det.uuu.edu.uu www.charteredpsychologist.co.uk www.psywww.com www.education.com www.mindisorders.com www.psychology.wiki.com www.library.thinkquest.org www.wilderdoom.com www.sitemaker.umich.edu www.socail.jrank.org www.stateuniversity.com www.allpsych.com www.about.com www.dictionaryreference.com www.urduenglishdictionary.com www.nature.com www.epm.sagepub.com www.generalpsychology.wordpress.com www.personality-and-aptitude-career-test.com www.unh.edu.com www.statemaster.com www.abacon.com Page 3 of 39
  4. 4. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” ARTICLE REFERENCES: Beasley, K. (1987) “The Emotional Quotient.” Mensa Magazine - United Kingdom Edition Gardner, H. (1975) The Shattered Mind, New York: Knopf. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. Hein, S. "Emotional Intelligence." Found online at http://eqi.org/. Payne, W.L. (1985). A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; selfintegration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problemsolving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming-out/letting go). A Doctoral Dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: The Union For Experimenting Colleges And Universities Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition, and personality, 9(3), 185-211. Thorndike, R. L., & Stein, S. (1937). An evaluation of the attempts to measure social intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 275-284. Wechsler, D. (1940). No intellective factors in general intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 444-445. Page 4 of 39
  5. 5. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” PREFACE Assalamualaikum! These project collocations about our subject of “PSYCHOLOGY”. The topic of our group is “INTELLIGENCE”. Our group tried their best on collection of matter on intelligence from different resources. Our motive, a competition is not with other rather our competition is with our selves. Our aim is not to pass the exams of university, but to pass the exams of our lives. We did our level best for this project. All the references related to the project attached here with which justified its originality to search more and more about “INTELLIGENCE”. We made this project under the supervision of Ma’am SABA YASEEN (Faculty of Psychology). She teaches us with the aim of developing confidence and knowledge in our personality. We will be looking ahead for the readers of this project. We will be thankful to you, if you point out our mistakes. FROM, The Desk Of All Group Members…….. Page 5 of 39
  6. 6. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” CONTENTS          WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? ORIGIN OF INTELLIGENCE. DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE. TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE: EMOTIIONAL IINTELLIIGENCE EMOT ONAL NTELL GENCE COGNIITIIVE IINTELLIIGENCE COGN T VE NTELL GENCE                         LIINGUIISTIIC IINTELLIIGENCE L NGU ST C NTELL GENCE SPATIIAL MOTOR IINTELLIIGENCE SPAT AL MOTOR NTELL GENCE MUSIICAL IINTELLIIGENCE MUS CAL NTELL GENCE BODY KIINESTHETIIC IINTELLIIGENCE BODY K NESTHET C NTELL GENCE IINTER PERSONAL IINTELLIIGENCE NTER PERSONAL NTELL GENCE IINTRA PERSONAL IINTELLIIGENCE NTRA PERSONAL NTELL GENCE NATURALIIST IINTELLIIGENCE NATURAL ST NTELL GENCE FACTRS AFFECTIING IINTELLIIGENCE FACTRS AFFECT NG NTELL GENCE O ENVIIRONMENTAL O ENV RONMENTAL O HEREDIITY O HERED TY O CULTURAL O CULTURAL O SOCIIO--ECONOMIIC O SOC O ECONOM C NATURE OF IINTELLIIGENCE NATURE OF NTELL GENCE EXCEPTIIONAL IINTELLIIGENCE EXCEPT ONAL NTELL GENCE O MENTAL RETARDED O MENTAL RETARDED O MENTALLY GIIFTED O MENTALLY G FTED THEORIIES OF IINTELLIIGENCE THEOR ES OF NTELL GENCE O IINTRODUCTIION O NTRODUCT ON O TRIIARCHII THEORY O TR ARCH THEORY O GENERAL IINTELLIIGENCE O GENERAL NTELL GENCE O PSYCHOMETRIIC THEORY O PSYCHOMETR C THEORY O PASS THEORY O PASS THEORY O MULTIIPLE IINTELLIIGENCE O MULT PLE NTELL GENCE O IINFORMATIION PROCESSIING THEORY O NFORMAT ON PROCESS NG THEORY O PRIIMARY MENTAL THEORY O PR MARY MENTAL THEORY MEASUREMENTS OF IINTELLIIGENCE MEASUREMENTS OF NTELL GENCE Page 6 of 39
  7. 7. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING”                 O IINTRODUCTIION O NTRODUCT ON O MIINOSOTTA TEST O M NOSOTTA TEST O THE STANFORD TEST O THE STANFORD TEST O THE W ECHSLERS SCALES O THE W ECHSLERS SCALES O WIIDE RANGE ACHIIEVEMENT TEST O W DE RANGE ACH EVEMENT TEST O APTIITUDE TEST O APT TUDE TEST O ACHIIEVEMENT TEST O ACH EVEMENT TEST O READIING TEST O READ NG TEST O DIIAGNOSTIIC TEST O D AGNOST C TEST O THE MIILLER ANALOGIIES TEST O THE M LLER ANALOG ES TEST WHAT IIS EMOTIIONAL IINTELLIIGENCE WHAT S EMOT ONAL NTELL GENCE HIISTORY OF IINTELLIIGENCE H STORY OF NTELL GENCE ABIILIITY BASED MODEL AB L TY BASED MODEL THE FOUR BRANCH MODEL THE FOUR BRANCH MODEL TRAIIT E..II MODEL TRA T E MODEL MIIX MODEL OF E..II.. M X MODEL OF E ALEXIITHEMIIA ALEX THEM A E..II.. IIN OUR LIIFE E N OUR L FE Page 7 of 39
  8. 8. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” INTRODUCTION OF INTELLIGENCE: Like beauty, humor, and courage, intelligence is a quantity. We recognize and admire, but one which is very difficult to define. We may think of it as a combination of things like, under standing, the ability to see relation ship, to reason, and the ability to learn. ORIGIN OF WORD INTELLIGENCE: Basically, “INTELLIGENCE” is a “Latin” word, derived from “INTELLIGERE”, which means “to understand” or “to know”. It was first started to use in “1350-1400”, by a Latin psychology. DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE: Intelligence, like love, is one of those concepts which are easy to recognize then to define. Some of the basic definitions of intelligence define by different psychologists are as follow: “ Individuals ability to understand complex ideas, to adopt effectively to the environment, to learn from experiences, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by careful thoughts” OR “The degree to which one can adopt to one’s environment” TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE: There are many types of intelligence, of which ten are basic, which are as follow: 1. Emotional Intelligence: These concerns with the emotions of once, means to know the feelings of persons called “Emotional Intelligent”. 2. Cognitive Intelligence: Cognitive means “to understand” or “to memorize”. So, this intelligence is the ability of a person to memorize some thing. Page 8 of 39
  9. 9. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 3. Linguistic/Verbal Intelligence: It is basically refers to your language. The sense of one’s how to combine words to express the meanings clearly, or it said to have skills of reading, writing, speaking, called “Linguistic/verbal Intelligence”. For example; Poets are the best example in having this intelligence, as they are pioneer in having the intelligence to combine words. 4. Spatial Motor Intelligence: Spatial motor intelligence indicates how well a person can perform or in what manner he/she can do his/her work or the ability of a person to show his her specialties called “spatial motor intelligence” For example; How Sailors can read map and conduct ship or you can say in what manner, by what technique sculptors make sculptures. 5. Musical Intelligence: The skills of composing or producing music or the ability of arranging musical notes is called “Musical Intelligence”. For example; Mozart is one of the famous cases of a person with high musical ability. He was born in Austria. He was famous because he played classical music by violin at the age of seven and at the age of fourteen he composed many classical songs. He was the only one, with having musical intelligence at this childhood age. 6. Body-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Page 9 of 39
  10. 10. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” The ability of a person concerns with the body movements is called “Body Kinesthetic Intelligence”. For example; Dancers may say to have this intelligence. Every dancer has their own capability of body movements. Other examples are Athletes; some have ability to run fast, some can jump high and so on. 7. Inter-Personal Intelligence: Inter-Personal Intelligence is about to relating one person to other person or you can say the way of understanding other’s behavior / action / reactions called “Inter-Personal Intelligence”. For example; Teachers, sale man, managers, and all the persons concerns to communication with other persons. 8. Intra-Personal Intelligence: Intra-Personal Intelligence is about to understand our own selves that how we can change our selves. Means to know the way of living of your owns and to know the abilities you have and how to use it. For example; We are our own example because its range is limited to our own selves. 9. Naturalist Intelligence: Naturalist Intelligence concerns to the person’s ability to observe and then understand his / her surroundings. For example; Biologist, farmers, hunters are best example. 10. Artificial Intelligence: The Artificial intelligence concerns to unreal intelligence. It is intelligence of both machines and branches of computer which aims to create style and design of intelligent agents. Page 10 of 39
  11. 11. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Achievements of artificial intelligence such as games, cross words, solving problems and so on. FACTORS AFFECTING INTELLIGENCE: There are many factors affecting intelligence, of which some common affects are as follow: 1. Biological Factor: The Biological Factor according to scientist and psychologist, if the person or people having the sense and perform the every day activities is known as “Biologically Intelligent”. So, the biological factor affects the intelligence greatly. 2. Environmental Factor: The role played by people to achieve their daily life goal is known as “Environmental Intelligence”. 3. Cultural Factor: Different cultures posse’s different patterns, which affect the person’s intelligence. Different cultures foster different patterns of ability. For instance, students from Sri Lanka showed higher score in verbal ability than the Americans. This can be explained by the fact that in Sri Lanka, the philosophers and the poets were admired rather than the scientists or engineers. Page 11 of 39
  12. 12. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 4. Sex: It is not true that males are more intelligent than females. However, studies show that boys excel girls in spatial ability, in problem solving, and numerical ability whereas girls excel boys in memory, reasoning, and fluency. The difference is not due to solve problems since they will be the heads of the families. Girls have been trained to do light work since they will be the homemakers, anyway. 5. Health: Better the Health Better will be the IQ of a person; means the healthy person have the more intelligence. Studies have shown that high IQ goes with healthy condition of the body. In school; healthy children have better chances of learning, they can concentrate better in their studies and they are often active and enthusiastic about classroom activities. Page 12 of 39
  13. 13. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 6. Race: No one race is endowed with better intelligence than others. Differences in achievement of races are due to better opportunities and facilities found in developed countries. 7. Socio-economic Status: Studies have shown us that children from higher socio-economic scored higher in intelligence test. Studies have shown that children from higher socio-economic scored higher in intelligence tests. Again, greater opportunities and money account for this. The rich can send their children to better schools and can provide stimulating environment to their children. However, there are geniuses and idiots among them as there are among the poor. NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE: A set of inherit, distinguishing, characteristics, including way of thinking, feeling and acting, that human tends to have is called “nature”. The nature of intelligence is known as “Perception”. In nature of intelligence two points are very important; 1. Self Understanding. 2. Personal Development. After these two points the people improve their individual education, career planning, and in making decisions about their own lives. Page 13 of 39
  14. 14. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” EXCEPTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: [ik-sep-shuh-nl] “Forming an exception or rare instance; unusual; extra ordinary.” OR “Unusually excellent; superior: an exceptional violent." MENTAL RETARDATION (MR): Mental Retardation is a generalized disorder, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with onset before the age of 18. It has historically been defined as and Intelligence Quotient score under 70. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environment. If we want to study about the exceptional Intelligence then we find two main factors in the exceptional intelligence.  The Mentally Retarded.  The Mentally Gifted. The Mentally Retarded: The person whose general intelligence has from childhood been significally below average who chronically has trouble functioning in normal everyday setting is usually called ―Mentally Retarded‖. There are about 6 million mentally retarded people in the United State, the cause of their retardation include such physical factors as chromosomal defects, metabolic disorder and brain damage suffered at the birth and from various kind of environment deprivation. The different level of retardation is as following: Mild Retardation: A score b/w 67 and on the Stanford Binet test I.Q score is called Mild Retardation. Moderate Retardation: Page 14 of 39
  15. 15. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” A score b/w 51 to 36 under the Stanford Binet is the Moderate Retardation. Sever Retardation: The score b/w 35 to 20 it is called Sever Retardation. Labbled Retardation: If the score below 20 then the retardation is generally called Labbled Profound. The Mentally Gifted: In our culture the concept of genius has long been associated with negative stereotypes. The brilliant person is expected to be accenting, high strung, socially awarding short the genius is often seen as a bit of misfit, some one who has trouble coping in the world beyond test tubes & books. Simply the mentally gifted are expected higher from the society. Terman study more about the mentally gifted and make theories on the “Mentally Gifted Children”, but he also realize that the environment, culture, family, colleagues and relatives response is also effect on the intellectual activity of intelligence. The person who has every type of facility, he will pronounced of establish him in well manner that is called the God gifted People in the world. THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE: While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects within psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes 'intelligence.' Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability; while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills and talents. The following are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years. 1. General Intelligence Theory: (Charles Spearman) [chahrlz speer-muh n] Page 15 of 39
  16. 16. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Known as factor analysis to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on other. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed (Spearman, 1904). 2. Psychometric Intelligence Theory: [sahy-kom-i-tree] Psychometric exactly means, measuring the mind and, in one sense, any systematic attempt to assess mental characteristics could come into this category. The term however, is usually used to describe specific tests for personality, intelligence or Page 16 of 39
  17. 17. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” some kind of attitude measurement . Strengths: Psychometric is based upon attempts to measure and express numerically the characteristics of behavior in individuals. It is therefore usually seen as an objective and scientific way of describing people and their behavior. This technique, of course, provides lots of quantitative data which is easy to analyze statistically. Psychometric tests are usually easy to administer. Weaknesses: Constructing valid and reliable tests is very difficult. Tests usually contain culture bias, especially intelligence tests. There is the danger that the classification of an individual as possessing a particular trait or ability will tend to encourage conformity to that trait. The psychometric approach implies a nonbeliever view of people: that is to say, a view that people are capable of being classified and measured. The opposing view to this would argue that humans are essentially individuals and not liable to classification. This is an idiographic view. The view is frequently taken that the very fact that something is measured makes it exist as a concept. It is often argued that 'intelligence is what intelligence tests measure'. The concept of intelligence might not have existed at all if Binet had not set out to measure it. Intelligence came to be defined in terms of test performance rather than as an entity itself. 3. Primary Mental Abilities Theory (Louis L. Thurstone): Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurston’s theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities" (Thurston, 1938). The abilities that he described were: Verbal comprehension Reasoning Perceptual speed Numerical ability Word fluency Page 17 of 39
  18. 18. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Associative memory Spatial visualization Naturalistic Intelligence 4. Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner): One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures. The eight intelligences Gardner described are: Visual-spatial Intelligence Verbal-linguistic Intelligence Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence Page 18 of 39
  19. 19. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Logical-mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Musical Intelligence Intra personal Intelligence 5. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Robert Sternberg): Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life" (Sternberg, 1985, p. 45). While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents. Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence’ Sternberg’s theory suggests that there are three basic kinds of intelligence.  Componential Intelligence or Analytic intelligence: “Involves the abilities to thing critically and analytically”. OR “This component refers to problem-solving abilities.”  Contextual or Practice Intelligence: “Useful in solving everyday problems”. OR “This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.”  Creative or experiential intelligence:  “Emphasize insight and the ability to formulate new ideas.” OR “This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new Page 19 of 39
  20. 20. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” situations using past experiences and current skills.” 6. PASS THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE : The Planning Attention Simuliance Successive (PASS) theory was describe by JAKE A.Noglievi and Thomas Rojahn, is a way to provide important intelligence to understand gender differences in basic cognitive process. PASS theory’s, assumptions include verbal fluency, forgiven language, speech valuation, understanding and writing and math’s calculation. Bays seem to found to do better. These task was then organized these causes, Planning Attention and simillious and successive procession to show the understanding of Gardner’s theory. 7. INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY: Information processing theory is testing of cognitive development. Information processing theorist proposed that like the computer the human mind is a system that process information through the application of logical links and strategies like for the comment and matter of the information it can processes. Just as the computer can made into better information processing by changes in its hardware. (E.g. circuits boards and microchips and its software “Programming‖). So do the children become more sophiscated, Thinkers through changes in their brain and sensory system (Hardware and in the card strategies “Software that they have”). MEASUREMENTS OF INTELLIGENCE: The earliest formula of intelligence test required a person to perform such simple tasks as deciding which two weights was heavier or showing how forcefully he could squeeze his hand. However, this was obvious proved to be inaccurate. Page 20 of 39
  21. 21. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” In 1904, the ministry of public instruction in Paris gave detailed test, then the development of intelligence test started and day by day different psychologist introduced different tests to check the intelligence. 1. Minnesota Clerical Test and Its Limitations: The Minnesota Clerical Test was introduced in 1931. Since then the employers have been utilizing it to measure your clerical skills; perceptual speed and accuracy, for different clerical jobs. It has been improved many a times. However, in 1979, Andrew, Page 21 of 39
  22. 22. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Paterson and Longstaff revolutionized the Minnesota clerical test with new sets of norms and inclusion of other sub-tests.  Sub-Tests of Minnesota Clerical Test: The classic Minnesota Clerical Test is comprised of two separately timed sub-tests; number comparison and name comparison. You are offered 100 identical and 100 dissimilar pairs of digital and letter combinations. You are required to choose the identical pair in each item.  Tips to Encounter Minnesota Clerical Test: While encountering a Minnesota Clerical Test you must keep following tips in your mind: 1- It is a multiple choice questionnaire. You can find only one correct answer in each item. 2- You will find very slight difference in each dissimilar pair. It may be a letter or a digit. 3- The identical pairs are mixed with dissimilar pairs randomly. 4- It is a speed test. Answer as quickly as possible. Keep in mind the time limitations. 5- It is more critically an accuracy test. One mistake shall cost you two scores. One of its own and other deducted from your correct answers. Reliability of the Minnesota Clerical Test „Reliability’ of a clerical test doesn’t mean its value to measure the best clerical skills in any group of candidates. It stands for one person’s consistent results on the same test, at different times. Anne Anastasi and Susana Urbina define it as “consistency of scores obtained by the same persons when they are re-examined with the same test on different occasions, r with different sets of equivalent items, or under other variables examining conditions.” (Psychological Testing) The manual of Minnesota Clerical Test provides sufficient data to analyze its reliability. You will find a lot of reason to believe that the test is reliable. The manual claims reliability from .81 to .87, which is good for its mode. Page 22 of 39
  23. 23. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 3.Stanford Binet Test: Introduction: Stanford Binet Test is the fourth standardized test to measure intelligence and cognitive skills of children and adults, of the ages from 2-65 years. Purpose: It can be determined by the level of intellectual and cognitive functioning in pre-schools, children, Adult, and assist in diagnosis of learning disability, mental retardation, mental gifted. Description: Stanford test was first published in1905, further developed in 1916 and revised in 1937, 1960, 1988. Test is of minimum 20-30 minutes, but in some cases it would be of 21/2 hours there. There are 15 sub tests of which 6 are for all ages. Result: The test score provide an estimate score of the level at which child is functioning base on a combination of sub-test, Psychologist may evaluate results by determining strengths and weaknesses and make overall recommendations, based on findings and observe behavioral actions. EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE OF THE STAN FORD-BINNET TEST If the examiner testing a nine-year old children , he have to ask question of the 8 year old ,if the child misses some question , the examiner drop the test and ask question of 7 year old and then of which level question he passed it will be called the child is of this level mind and its chronological age will be his real age. Formula of IQ : IQ = Mental Age x100 Chronological Age The multiplying the product of M.A and C.A to 100 It is just use for raise out the decimal point. Page 23 of 39
  24. 24. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 2. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales: The intelligence scale developed by DAVID WECHSLER includes several successive editions of three scales. One designed for adults, one for children, and one for preschool children.  ADULTS: He divided this scale into two parts: One is verbal scale Second one is performance scale VERBAL SCALE In verbal scale he asks some information, vocabulary, comprehension, arithmetic and similarities type of questions. PERFORMANCE SCALE But in performance scale there are some task like picture completion, picture arrangement and object assembly.  CHILDRENS: The Wechsler intelligence scale for children was first published in 1949. He emphasized in the manual is the fact that cognitive functions are interested, making it difficult if not impossible to obtain a pure measure of a function. A test purporting to measure processing speed. For example, may involve multiple abilities, such as visual discrimination ability. Further questions raised regarding the desirability of even trying to isolate specific abilities for measurement, because in read life cognitive tasks are rarely performed in isolation.  PRE SCHOOL CHILDRENS; This scale is designed for children whose is in the age of 4 to 6 years. In this accordingly, three composite scores may be obtained verbal IQ , performance IQ, and full scale IQ . Page 24 of 39
  25. 25. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 4. Wide Range Achievement Test:  Introduction: WRAT is used to pick out the person’s ability which is hidden in him/her self through direct and indirect instruments.  Purpose: It is used to measure basic skills through arithmetic and spelling tests. It is applicable for 5-75 years of persons. It’s time period is 30 minutes.  Precautions: Due to usage of screened instruments, examiner may mislead to observe skills, which results in over and under estimate in the observation of skills. That is why this test is not more efficient as comparable to others.  Description: In this test there are two alternating test. Both should be filled by person. Scores can be obtained by combining the scores of both tests. It is a group test of maximum 5 people. It includes reading of 15 letters, dictation of 40 letters and arithmetic. Arithmetic contains two sub-parts; 1st part consists of: o Counting. o Redding number’s symbol. o Solving simple arithmetic problem. 2nd part consists of: o Solving 40 arithmetic problems in 15 minutes.  Results: Results can be obtained by giving 1 for correct and 0 score for incorrect answers. Then the obtained marks are converted into standard scores. 5. Aptitude Test: Aptitude test is sometimes classified according to the breadth or generalities of the abilities they predict. Thus there were tests of abilities used in wide range of performances. The best known tests of general aptitude tests are of ―GENERAL INTELLIGENCE”. A number of tests are for mechanical Page 25 of 39
  26. 26. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” aptitudes, musical aptitude (based on the discrimination of pitch, sensitivity, rhythm, and other aspects). Aptitude Career Tests Measure Your Intellectual Capabilities: Aptitude career tests measure your readiness to perform well in a given situation or a particular domain. Your ability to comprehend instructions, to apply previously acquired knowledge and skills, to make good inferences and to manage your emotions while doing any of these objects can be defined as your aptitude. The career aptitude tests focus upon your analytical and abstract reasoning with reference to your verbal, numerical and spatial abilities. They are used to predict your future performance for leadership, mechanical, clerical, electrical and other specific fields. Aptitude Career Tests vs. Attainment Tests: The attainment assessment includes your testimonials and testing of your academic achievements. The scales to predict the achievement in reading, mathematics, social studies and science should the same (or similar) for the people from all groups. The aptitude career tests are means to analyze your specific or general capabilities to predict your future performance. They may differ for different groups depending upon their cultures and difference of circumstances. However, they have become an essential part of all psychological assessments. Aptitude Career Tests vs. IQ Tests The IQ Tests analyze your mental development to classify you as genius, average or even idiot. However, career aptitude tests do the same with intent to predict your future performance for a specific role. The former tries to express your intelligence with a numerical expression. The later calculates your score to see your comparative development of mental capabilities with other test takers. In most of the cases the aptitude tests are the same as IQ tests. However, due to courts' rulings, they neither use word of IQ nor interpret their scores as IQ scores are believed for. How to Encounter An Aptitude Career Test? Before starting your aptitude session, you shall be offered a solved practice question. The tester shall help you to understand the requirements of the examination. Then you will be delivered with a long multiple choices questionnaire to answer all of the items, within a time limit. Most probably you shall be unable to answer them all. It is not a problem! Page 26 of 39
  27. 27. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Maximum numbers of questions are deliberately delivered to assess how well you handle a stressful situation. Besides, this strategy tests your accuracy as well as speed. You may find certain items difficult to make a correct decision. Don't guess too much.... Simply skip them and come back, if possible, by finishing the remaining part of the session. Keep in mind that it is not your speed but correct answers that help the psychologists to predict your future potentials. The aptitude career test questionnaire is built in a way that difficulty level raises from beginning to the end. How Your Answers are Utilized? Ideally the career aptitude test results are used to analyze your reasoning capabilities on three levels. Your capabilities are compared with: 1) The pre-set requirements for the job. 2) The scores of the previously employed people, and 3) The average score across the candidates. What Characteristics Aptitude Career Tests Analyze? The aptitude career tests try to determine how well you likely perform a role in future. They analyze your skills including your verbal, numerical and spatial capabilities. They focus upon: • Your capability to think logically and analyze correctly. • Your areas of strength and weaknesses. • Your leadership qualities. • Your comprehension and communication skills. • Your capabilities that may be improved, and • Your hidden potentials for your specific role. The modern day psychology testing companies have devised specific aptitude career tests for specific jobs. You need not to take leadership aptitude tests to qualify for a clerical or mechanical post. The specialization helps the employers to make optimally best decisions within the shortest possible time. In general they analyze your Mental Aptitudes... Page 27 of 39
  28. 28. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Your mental alertness, business potential, memory, vocabulary, perception and mechanical Interests. They also measure your personality traits including your work habits, emotional balance, nervous strength, character, sociability, dominance, competitiveness, initiative, stamina, work motivation etc. You need to take them more seriously. They may play a detrimental role in selection of your career. Reading through the information about specific career aptitude tests at this website. You will get an idea of skills and capabilities that you are supposed to possess for your dream career. Your passion and persistence can help you to develop them if you don't have them. 6. Achievement Test: The most widespread use of achievement test is in schools. Any examination covering what has been studied in Elementary school, high school or college can be considered as an “achievement test”. 7. Reading Test: The ability to read is called “Reading Intelligence” and its test is called ―Reading Test‖. 8. Diagnostic Test: The pattern of Diagnostic test was originally originated by Binet test and PASS theory. binet use great assortment of items to test intelligence. This test helps to note the special strength and weakness. 9. The Miller Analogies Test: Another widely used examination is ―THE MILLER ANALOGIES TEST”. This is 100 items, multiple-choice analogy test that draws not only on the examinees ability to perceive relation ship, but also on general intelligence, vocabulary and academic learning. EMOTIONS: What is emotion? Feeling? Then what is a feeling? These terms are difficult to define even more difficult to understand completely people have been attempting to understand this phenomenon for thousands of years, and Page 28 of 39
  29. 29. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” will most likely debate for a thousand more. This section will present the various acquisition of Emotion. The main stream definition of emotion refers to a feeling, state involving, and thoughts, physiological changes, and an outward expression or behavior. Origin: ―Emotion ―is a ―Latin‖ word derived from ―Emover‖ Feldman Describe or defines in 1993. ―A life without Emotion would be virtually a life without motion.” Definition: “Emotions are feeling that generally have been Physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior”. Josh Jorgeo defines that. “Emotion is an experience that includes a subjective feeling a cognitive interpretation, a physical reaction and a behavioral expression” INTELLIGENCE: Intelligence refers to the capacity to reason validly about information. This use of the term emotional intelligence in this fashion is consistent with scientific literature in the fields of intelligence, personality psychology, and emotions. For example: Verbal intelligence concerns the mental ability to reason with and about verbal information, and of verbal knowledge to enhance thought. Spatial intelligence concerns the mental ability to reason with and about spatial information (i.e., the shape of objects and their orientation in space), and of spatial knowledge to enhance thought. Page 29 of 39
  30. 30. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Emotional Intelligence: There are many possible definitions of emotional intelligence, and many definitions can be found on the Internet. Many of these definitions stem from the popularizations of emotional intelligence found in the popular press, web sites and in popular books... A clear and scientifically useful definition of emotional intelligence, however, is recognizable because it takes the terms emotion and intelligence seriously. That is, the meaning of emotional intelligence has something specific to do with the intelligent intersection of the emotions and thoughts. For example: “Emotional intelligence represents an ability to validly reason with emotions and to use emotions to enhance thought.” Emotional Intelligence (E.I) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluates emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other claims it is an inborn characteristic. A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence: 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of “Social Intelligence” as the ability to get along with other people. 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life. Page 30 of 39
  31. 31. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength. 1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences. 1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; selfintegration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problemsolving, contraction/expansion, and tuning in/coming out/letting go).” 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis. 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence,” in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. 1995 - The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. The Ability Based Model: Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. The ability to perceive emotion, Incorporate emotion to facilitate thought, Understand emotions and To regulate emotions to promote personal growth. Measurement of the ability-based model: The current measure of Mayer and Salovey’s model of EI, the MayerSalovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items. Consistent with the model's claim of EI as a type of intelligence, the test is modeled on ability-based IQ tests. By testing a Page 31 of 39
  32. 32. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” person’s abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence, it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score. The Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence: The four branch model of emotional intelligence describes four areas of capacities or skills that collectively describe many of areas of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). More specifically, this model defines emotional intelligence as involving the abilities to: Accurately perceive emotions in oneself and others Use emotions to facilitate thinking Understand emotional meanings, and Manage emotions 1. PERCEIVING EMOTION. The initial, most basic, area has to do with the nonverbal reception and expression of emotion. Evolutionary biologists and psychologists have pointed out that emotional expression evolved in animal species as a form of crucial social communication. Facial expressions such as happiness, sadness, anger, and fear, were universally recognizable in human beings. Emotions researchers, evolutionary biologists, specialists in nonverbal behavior, and others, have made tremendous inroads into understanding how human beings recognize and express emotions. The capacity to accurately perceive emotions in the face or voice of others provides a crucial starting point for more advanced understanding of emotions. 2. USING EMOTIONS TO FACILITATE THOUGHT. The second area appeared every bit as basic as the first. This was the capacity of the emotions to enter into and guide the cognitive system and promote thinking. For example, cognitive scientists pointed out that emotions prioritize thinking. In other words: something we respond to emotionally, is something that grabs our attention. Having a good system of emotional input, therefore, should help direct thinking toward matters that are truly important. As a second example, a number of researchers have suggested that emotions are important for certain kinds of creativity to emerge. For example, both mood swings, and positive moods, have been implicated in the capacity to carry out creative thought. 3. UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS. Page 32 of 39
  33. 33. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Emotions convey information: Happiness usually indicates a desire to join with other people; anger indicates a desire to attack or harm others; fear indicates a desire to escape, and so forth. Each emotion conveys its own pattern of possible messages, and actions associated with those messages. A message of anger, for example, may mean that the individual feels treated unfairly. The anger, in turn, might be associated with specific sets of possible actions: peacemaking, attacking, retribution and revenge-seeking, or withdrawal to seek calmness. Understanding emotional messages and the actions associated with them is one important aspect of this area of skill. Once a person can identify such messages and potential actions, the capacity to reason with and about those emotional messages and actions becomes of importance as well. Fully understanding emotions, in other words, involves the comprehension of the meaning of emotions, coupled with the capacity to reason about those meanings. It is central to this group of emotionally intelligent skills. 4. MANAGING EMOTIONS. Finally, emotions often can be managed. A person needs to understand emotions convey information. To the extent that it is under voluntary control, a person may want to remain open to emotional signals so long as they are not too painful, and block out those that are overwhelming. In between, within the person's emotional comfort zone, it becomes possible to regulate and manage one's own and others' emotions so as to promote one's own and others' personal and social goals. The means and methods for emotional self-regulation has become a topic of increasing research in this decade. Other Comments on the Four Branch Model: The term, "branch," came into use in reference to the figures that presented the precursor and present models. Figures in both papers (1990 & 1997) contained lines that branched off from a central point. So, the term "branch" conveys no specific scientific meaning; calling the model a "four-area model" would have worked as well. The branches are arranged from the areas most specifically related to the emotions-area (perceiving emotions) to the areas most general to personality (managing emotions). Within each branch, skills can be identified that are early-developing (e.g., in childhood), and skills that await greater maturity. Page 33 of 39
  34. 34. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” This four-branch model represents what today has become called the ability model of emotional intelligence. The Trait E.I. Model: Petrides and Furnham (2000a) proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI [18]. Trait EI (or ‘trait emotional selfefficacy’) model a self perceived ability to identify and manage the emotions of ones self or of others and of group The Trait E.I. is “A constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower level of personality” The Trait E.I. refers to an individual self perception of their emotional abilities. It is measure by self report. MEASUREMENT OF THE TRAIT EI MODEL: There are many self-report measures of EI, including the EQi, the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), the Six Seconds Emotional Intelligence Assessment (SEI), the Schulte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), a test by Tett, Fox, and Wang (2005). From the perspective of the trait EI model, none of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional self-efficacy (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is an open-access measure that was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is currently available in 15 languages. Page 34 of 39
  35. 35. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” The TEIQue provides an operationalization for Petrides and Colleagues' model that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: 1. Well-Being. 2. Self-Control 3. Emotionality 4. Sociability. Alexithymia and EI: Alexithymia from the Greek words λέξις and θυμός (literally "without words for emotions") is a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973 to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. Viewed as a spectrum between high and low EI, the alexithymia construct is strongly inversely related to EI, representing its lower range. The individual's level of alexithymia can be measured with self-scored questionnaires such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) or the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) or by observer rated measures such as the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS). Mixed models of EI (Emotional Intelligence): The model introduced by Daniel Coleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Coleman’s model outlines four main EI constructs:  Self-awareness The ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions.  Self-management Involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.  Social awareness The ability to sense, understands, and reacts to others' emotions while comprehending social networks.  Relationship management The ability to inspire, influences, and develop others while managing conflict. Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Page 35 of 39
  36. 36. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” “In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers.” --John D. Mayer Reuven Bar-On’sEQ-i A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness. According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of no cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.” Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions. Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism. Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI): Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies. Emotional Intelligence Tests: Different Job Screening Tools: Since the beginning of the psychological testing, there has been a wide gap of opinion between the pro and anti-intelligence tests. There are well named theorists with all out logic to prove that success has nothing to do even with the highest level of IQ. But, on the other hand, the employers feel a lot of attraction toward the psychometrics for their claimed benefits and against managers’ idiosyncratic selections. In the recent years, the opinion of the human development experts has started to regain its due weight. The novel amalgamation of the new developments in science and human psychology has resulted in the emotional intelligent tests. Page 36 of 39
  37. 37. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” They are relatively new in the field and need a lot of improvement to stand the highly resourceful testing industry and skeptics. But it is an admitted fact that the concept is gaining ground for its famous romantic popularity. Daniel Goleman’s ―Emotional Intelligence‖ is undoubtedly one of the best sellers and… Peter Salovey, John Meyer, Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg and Jack Block have worked well to give a reliable professional reputation to the emotional intelligence tests. Emotional Intelligence Test VS IQ Tests: The emotional intelligence tests claim to measure your ability to know and manage emotions of your own and the people around you. The emotional intelligence includes your empathy and capability to handle relations with others too. Stability to emotions comes with knowledge, experience and age. The employers want to hire the people having ambitions, goals and drive to benefit their organizations. The emotional IQ tests try to measure your emotional capability in tough times. On the other hand the IQ tests measure your mental alertness to the items presented in a psychological session. They have nothing to do with your emotions, feelings, ideas, values etc. They want to measure certain aspects of your intelligence such as logical reasoning, math skills, spatial skills, understanding analogies, verbal skills etc. Furthermore, while taking a standardized intelligence test, your answer may be right or wrong. All CATS, SATS, GRE, and the like tests are clear examples. However, in emotional quotient tests (EQ) there is no concept of right or wrong answers. You can understand that the domains of IQ tests and the emotional intelligence tests are entirely different. One measures stability of your emotions and other measures the alertness of your mind. In fact you can’t compare them at all for their respective values. Structure of Emotional Intelligence Tests: The emotional intelligence tests include questions to know your level of loyalty to your company, your confidence and your commitment to your vision. The latest emotional IQ tests include the questions which measure four emotional capabilities of the model developed by John Mayer and Peter Salovey. 1. How accurately you perceive emotions in yourself and others? 2. How do you use your emotions to facilitate your thinking? Page 37 of 39
  38. 38. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” 3. What emotions mean to you? 4. How do you manage emotions? Advice to Encounter Emotional IQ Tests: What personality and emotional stability is required in one company may be negative traits in another. So different companies try to get develop emotional intelligence tests for their individual requirements. The best advice is to answer the questions as honestly as you are. This shall help the employer to decide whether you are fit for the position or not. You may try to know what emotional qualities are required for a particular job. But it is still important to be honest while taking emotional IQ tests. Criticism on Emotional Intelligence Tests: The emotional intelligence tests have generated more controversy than the traditional intelligence tests ever had. They are not only criticized by the standardized testing industry but also by the skeptics. They have double share in criticism... Some psychologists say that your academic achievement reports can corroborated with the results of the standard IQ tests. However, there is no corroboration for the emotional intelligence test results. Making Psychology Part Of Your Life: Managing Your Own Anger: A Very Useful Skill: In Discussing Emotional Intelligence, I noted that one suggested aspect of such intelligence is the ability to manage our own emotions. Perhaps the most difficult emotion of all to manage is anger, which all too often erupts into open rage. you probably know from your own experience that once it starts, anger tends to be selfperpetuating and sometimes self-amplifying,too.What begins as mild irritation can quickly move into strong anger and then, if we don’t take active step it, a virtual emotional explosion. What can you do to avoid such outcomes—to manage your own anger more effectively? Here are some useful steps: Step the process early. Page 38 of 39
  39. 39. PSYCHOLOGY “THE SCIENTIFIC ART OF LIVING” Try a cooling-off period. Do something to get you off the anger track. Seek positive explanations for the thing others say or do that make you angry. Whatever you do, don’t rely on ―catharsis‖—on getting it out of your system. Page 39 of 39

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