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Velocity 2010: The 90 Minute Optimization Life Cycle - Faster by default before our eyes?

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Rated one of the top 10 sessions at Velocity 2010 by attendees. ...

Rated one of the top 10 sessions at Velocity 2010 by attendees.

By now, we’ve all internalized Steve Souders’ rules for optimizing web performance, but the question is: do you need to spend 6 months and raise an army of top developers to make your sites fast by default?

In this workshop, Joshua Bixby and Hooman Beheshti of Strangeloop subject an unsuspecting website – the Velocity home page – to real-time optimization, following Google and Yahoo’s rules for high-performance websites.

Over the course of the workshop, witness the entire optimization life cycle:

* Using various measurement tools to benchmark current performance, focusing on load time, start render time and round trips.
* Implementing A/B segmentation to measure key business metrics like conversion, bounce rate and page views/visit.
* Iterating through acceleration best practices.
* Analyzing results from different geographical locations using different browsers.

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  • How much was fast enough? It was anybody’s guess.
  • And guess they did.This is Zona’s formula for patience, the basis for the “eight second rule.” Unfortunately, things like tenacity, importance, and natural patience aren’t concrete enough for the no-nonsense folks that run web applications.
  • And guess they did.This is Zona’s formula for patience, the basis for the “eight second rule.” Unfortunately, things like tenacity, importance, and natural patience aren’t concrete enough for the no-nonsense folks that run web applications.
  • One example of this is performance experimentation that Google’s done. Google’s a perfect lab. Not only do they have a lot of traffic, they also have computing resources to do back-end analysis of large data sets. Plus, they’re not afraid of experimentation – in fact, they insist on it. So they tried different levels of performance and watched what happened to visitors.
  • The results, which they presented at Velocity in May, were fascinating. There was a direct impact between delay and the number of searches a user did each day – and to make matters worse, the numbers often didn’t improve even when the delay was removed. You may think 0.7% drop isn’t significant, but for Google this represents a tremendous amount of revenue.
  • Microsoft’s Bing site is a good lab, too. They looked at key metrics, or KPIs, of their search site.
  • They showed that as performance got worse, all key metrics did, too. Not just the number of searches, but also the revenue (earned when someone clicks) and refinement of searches.
  • Microsoft’s Bing site is a good lab, too. They looked at key metrics, or KPIs, of their search site.
  • Shopzilla overhauled their entire site, dramatically reducing page load time, hardware requirements, and downtime.
  • They saw a significant increase in revenues
  • Microsoft’s Bing site is a good lab, too. They looked at key metrics, or KPIs, of their search site.
  • One example of this is performance experimentation that Google’s done. Google’s a perfect lab. Not only do they have a lot of traffic, they also have computing resources to do back-end analysis of large data sets. Plus, they’re not afraid of experimentation – in fact, they insist on it. So they tried different levels of performance and watched what happened to visitors.
  • Website owners are sending out increasingly huge web pages through a pipeline whose ability has not grown in the same proportion.Web page objects, then and now:1995: The average web page contained just 2.3 objects. That means just 2.3 calls to whatever data centers were serving the site.Today: The average web page contains a whopping 75.25 objects – everything from CSS to images to Javascript. That means 75.25 server round trips are needed to pull all the page’s resources to the user’s browser. The result: pages that load slowly and inconsistently.Page size, then and now:1995: The average page size was a lean 14.1k.Today: The average page size is a bloated 498k.

Velocity 2010: The 90 Minute Optimization Life Cycle - Faster by default before our eyes? Velocity 2010: The 90 Minute Optimization Life Cycle - Faster by default before our eyes? Presentation Transcript

  • 90 Minute Optimization Life Cycle “Fast by Default” before our eyes Author of presentation
  • Today’s Hosts Hooman Beheshti Joshua Bixby VP Products President Strangeloop Strangeloop © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 2
  • Agenda • Why is faster better • Making a site faster •Measurement •Diagnosis • Demos • What did we miss • Q&A © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 3
  • Methodology © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 4
  • Why is faster better? http://www.webperformancetoday.com/2010/06/15/everything- you-wanted-to-know-about-web-performance/ (http://bit.ly/8YB3ET ) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 5
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 6
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 7
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 8
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 9
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 10
  • Impact of page load time on average daily searches per user 0.00% -0.10% -0.20% -0.30% -0.40% -0.50% -0.60% -0.70% 50ms 100ms pre- 200ms post- 200ms post- 400ms pre-header header header ads post-header © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 11
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 12
  • Impact of additional delay on business metrics 0.00% -0.50% Percent change -1.00% -1.50% -2.00% -2.50% -3.00% -3.50% -4.00% -4.50% -5.00% 50 200 500 1000 2000 Added delay Queries per visitor Query refinement Revenue per visitor Any clicks Satisfaction © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 13
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 14
  • Shopzilla had another angle  Big, high-traffic site  16 month re-engineering ◦ 100M impressions a day ◦ Page load from 6 seconds to ◦ 8,000 searches a second 1.2 ◦ Uptime from 99.65% to ◦ 20-29M unique visitors a 99.97% month ◦ 10% of previous hardware ◦ 100M products needs © 2010 Strangeloop Networks http://en.oreilly.com/velocity2009/public/schedule/detail/7709 Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 15
  • 5-12% increase in revenue © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 16
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 17
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 18
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 19
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 20
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 21
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 22
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 23
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 24
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 25
  • Measurement: © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 26
  • Where should we start? Ylsow from Page Speed from © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 27
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 28
  • Example: Gomez © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 29
  • HTTP Watch © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 30
  • Webpagetest.org © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 31
  • Visualizing the problem © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 32
  • Web Performance Problem Definitions • Backend: Time from when the user makes the request to when the last byte of the HTML document arrives. Includes the time for the initial request to go up, the Web server to stitch together the HTML, and for the response to come back. • Frontend: Shorthand for everything after the HTML document arrives. In reality, includes backend time (primarily reading static files) and network time, as well as true frontend activities such as parsing HTML, CSS, and JS, and executing JS. © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 33 www.strangeloopnetworks.com 33
  • Front-end Problem is getting worse 75.25 600 Average Number of Objects 70 Average Page Size (K) 498 500 Average Number of Objects 60 Total Bytes (K) 400 49.92 312.05 50 300 40 200 25.7 30 20 100 93.7 2.3 14.1 10 0 0
  • Waterfall chart 35 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 35
  • Waterfall chart HTML 36 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 36
  • Waterfall chart HTML Resources 37 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 37
  • Waterfall chart Start Document Fully Render Complete Loaded 38 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 38
  • Waterfall component breakdown DNS lookup DNS Lookup • Takes one packet in each direction • Time is limited to the latency of the connection (DSL/Cable/etc) for the single round trip 39 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 39
  • Waterfall component breakdown TCP Connection TCP Connection • 3 packets - ClientServer (SYN) - ServerClient (SYN/ACK) - ClientServer (ACK) • Time is limited to the latency of the connection (DSL/Cable/etc) for the single round trip 40 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 40
  • Waterfall component breakdown Time To First Byte Time to First Byte • Time from the request packet (usually 1) to the first packet of the response • Includes the latency of the connect ion (DSL/Cable/etc) for a single round trip • Also includes whatever server think time was involved in generating the response 41 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 41
  • Waterfall component breakdown Content Download Download • Time it takes for the entire content of the response to get to the browser • Mostly limited by the bandwidth limit of the connection (DSL/Cable/etc) 42 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 42
  • Let’s Accelerate The unsuspecting victim © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 43
  • © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 44
  • A Few Points of Clarification • We’re using this page because it’s more fun! • We’ll use it to describe where performance pain points are, but that doesn’t mean the page actually has these problems • What we’re going to do: Improve performance incrementally Not so good Awesome (slow) (fast) * The real Velocity site is somewhere in the middle! © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 45
  • Performance Summary http://bit.ly/au01VY / © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 46
  • Waterfall First View Repeat View © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 47
  • Per Object © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 48
  • Content Analysis by Type © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 49
  • Content Analysis by Domain © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 50
  • Show Me Where It Hurts Problem Analysis © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 51
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections (too much orange) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 52
  • Too Many Connections 97 Connections (almost one per request) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 53
  • Too Many Connections © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 54
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections (too much orange) • Too many bytes (too much blue) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 55
  • Too Many Bytes By Type By Domain © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 56
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections (too much orange) • Too many bytes (too much blue) • Concurrency © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 57
  • Concurrency • Browsers can only open and use so many connections at once • www.browserscope.org © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 58
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections (too much orange) • Too many bytes (too much blue) • Concurrency • Bad Caching for repeat views © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 59
  • Bad Repeat View Full Fetches Validation © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 60
  • Bad Repeat View Connections Bytes © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 61
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections (too much orange) • Too many bytes (too much blue) • Concurrency • Bad Caching for repeat views • No CDN (the greens are too big) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 62
  • The Green Problem #1: No CDN TTFB © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 63
  • Time To First Byte • HTTP overhead • Subjected to latency every time • The more objects, the bigger the problem • Concurrency helps, but not a lot GET /javascripts/application.js?1276735447 HTTP/1.1 Accept: */* Referer: http://en.oreilly.com/velocity2010/ Accept-Language: en-us User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 5.2; Trident/4.0; .NET CLR 1.1.4322; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.0.4506.2152; .NET CLR 3.5.30729) Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Host: en.oreilly.com Cookie: _session_id=6e76e8d4a4eccc63b4be7937e719ca9e © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 64
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections (too much orange) • Too many bytes (too much blue) • Concurrency • Bad Caching for repeat views • No CDN (the greens are too big) • Too Many Roundtrips (too many greens) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 65
  • The Green Problem #2: Roundtrips First View Repeat View 80 Requests 78 Requests 27 Requests 14 Requests © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 66
  • The Green Problem #2: Roundtrips • Every fetch still pays the HTTP overhead penalty  TTFB is still a problem • Exacerbated by concurrency issues • Getting worse as number of objects per page grows • Generally, the hardest problem to solve © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 67
  • Performance Problems • Too many connections • Too many bytes (too much blue) • Concurrency • Bad Caching for repeat views • No CDN (the greens are too big) • Too Many Roundtrips (too many greens) • Others © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 68
  • Examples of Other Problems • Blocking Javascript • 3rd party calls (http://stevesouders.com/p3pc/) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 69
  • What does it look like http://bit.ly/a6COcQ © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 70
  • Summary © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 71
  • Let’s Fix It!! © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 72
  • Set-Up © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 73
  • Testing Environment WebPageTest Client SERVICE (CLOUD) O’Reilly Datacenter (East Coast) (West Coast) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 74
  • Possible Deployments SERVICE (CLOUD) APPLIANCE VIRTUAL © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 75
  • Acceleration Methodology © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 76
  • Stepwise Acceleration • Start from the beginning and fix the easy stuff • Step by step acceleration of the page – Apply techniques/methods/etc and see the result – Try to make it as fast as possible © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 77
  • Kind of Like a Video Game Easy Hard Page Performance Level © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 78
  • Page Performance Kind of Like a Video Game Not Good Enough Level © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 79
  • Strangeloop Site Optimizer UI © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 80
  • Step 1: Low Hanging Fruit © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 81
  • Keep-Alive • Solves the too-many connection problem (Less Orange!) • Will help alleviate the TCP connection setup overhead 97 Connections © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 82
  • Compression • Addresses the too-many-bytes problem (Less Blue!) • We’ll compress textual content (html/css/etc) • Not the only solution to less blue, but the easiest © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 83
  • WebPageTest http://bit.ly/cKkjGz © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 84
  • Before and After ~17.8sec ~10.5sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 85
  • What We Helped: Keep-Alive 97 Connections  19 Connections © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 86
  • What We Helped: Compression © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 87
  • How Did We Do? Original KA+Comp Improvement First View 52% 40% 34% 31% 23% Repeat View 71% 62% 94% 51% 75% © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 88
  • How Does It Look http://bit.ly/917B61 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 89
  • Pros and Cons • Pros – Really easy to do – Single configuration switches in servers, proxies, or load balancers – Good benefit seen right away • Cons – Compression has processing overhead – On their own they’re just not enough © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 90
  • Step 2: Repeat View Problem © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 91
  • Poor Client Side Caching Original KA+Comp © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 92
  • Problem Still Exists ~6.2sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 93
  • How Do We Get Better Caching • RFC 2616, Section 13 • Caching headers should be used on static (non-changing) objects, so they can be cached browser-side – And by intermediate caching proxies • Validators are not enough © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 94
  • WebPageTest http://bit.ly/aCP3iX © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 95
  • Before and After ~2.0sec ~6.2sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 96
  • How Did We Do? KA+Comp With Good Caching Improvement Repeat View 70% 67% 42% © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 97
  • Pros and Cons • Pros – Good caching can have a major performance impact on repeat visits to a page – Sometimes it’s easy to do – Browsers generally pay attention (although interpretation may vary slightly) • Cons – The spec appears scary – Invalidation and stale content © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 98
  • Step 3: CDN © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 99
  • What Does a CDN do? • Global network of proxy caches • Get cacheable content close to users • Reduce TTFB (smaller greens) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 100
  • TTFB Problem © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 101
  • WebPageTest http://bit.ly/a9ZJcF © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 102
  • Before and After ~10.5sec ~8.3sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 103
  • TTFB Savings Per object TTFB savings of ~50% © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 104
  • How Did We Do? KA+Comp +CDN Improvement First View 21% 22% 17% Seconds Gained 0.7 sec 2.3 sec 2.7 sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 105
  • How Does It Look http://bit.ly/92DbI0 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 106
  • Pros and Cons • Pro – Good mitigation of the TTFB problem – Established industry: lots of vendors to choose from • Cons – Sometimes costly – May require code change (CDN’ed objects should be written to the CDN domain) © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 107
  • Step 4: Steroids- the Hard Stuff © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 108
  • We Can Get Better! Still too many roundtrips Still too many bytes Not Fast Enough!! © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 109
  • What to do Next? • Reduce Roundtrips – Combine images – Combine JavaScript – Combine CSS • Reduce Payload even more – Minify CSS and JavaScript – Add Image Compression • Increase Concurrency – Add a couple of domains to the mix © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 110
  • WebPageTest http://bit.ly/bbT3v4 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 111
  • Before and After ~3.8sec ~8.3sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 112
  • How Did We Do? +CDN 81 107 +Strangeloop 11 37 Improvement First View 19% 54% 45% 30% 31% Seconds Gained 0.5 sec 4.6 sec 4.1 sec © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 113
  • How Does It Look http://bit.ly/bNjKoW © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 114
  • Pros and Cons • Pros – Most significant benefit for the hardest part of the acceleration lifecycle – Address multiple performance points (sometimes multiple ones with the same technique) • Cons – It’s not easy – Regression © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 115
  • Congratulations - we are done…right? © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 116
  • 3rd Party Content © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 117
  • Server Think Time Server Think Time © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 118
  • Browsers? Performance differences across browsers 4 3 2 1 0 © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 119
  • Mobile Web fast by default © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 120
  • Flow Conversion ? ? ? 3.8 Seconds 11 Roundtrips © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 121
  • Regression “Our Developers have repeatedly redesigned the web site’s software to scale but the job is never done. It’s kind of like painting the Golden Gate Bridge, where every time you finish, it’s time to start over again. There are many lessons to be learned and we learn them the hard way by coding.” Jim Benedetto MySpace Vice President Technology © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 122
  • Q&A © 2010 Strangeloop Networks Strangeloop. Faster Websites. Automatically. 123