Agile Methods 101 Bar Camp 2007

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Overview of the agile methods. Ths presentation addresses the questions - what is an agile method, and when should you use one. Presented at the Agile BarCamp, Wellington, New Zealand 7 December …

Overview of the agile methods. Ths presentation addresses the questions - what is an agile method, and when should you use one. Presented at the Agile BarCamp, Wellington, New Zealand 7 December 2007

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  • 1. Agile Methods 101 Diane Strode
  • 2. Primary source
    • The agile methods : an analytical comparison of five agile methods and an investigation of their target environment.
    • Master of Information Sciences (Information Systems) Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    • Available:
  • 3. Proposed Agile Method First Published Journal Article Book 1 Dynamic Systems Development Method DSDM 1995 1997 2 Crystal methods Crystal 1998 2002 3 RUP (configured) dX 1998 4 Extreme Programming XP 1999 2000 5 Adaptive Software Development ASD 2000 6 Scrum Scrum 1999 2002 7 Pragmatic Programming PP 2000 8 Internet Speed Development ISD 1999 9 Agile Modeling AM 2002 10 Feature Driven Development FDD 2002 11 Open Source Software Development OSS 2002 12 Lean Development LD 2002 2003
  • 4. Purpose
    • DSDM - a framework for RAD development
    • Scrum – a method for project management of iterative development
    • XP – a method for software development in high change environments using small teams and standard software engineering techniques to satisfy customer needs and maintain effective teams
    • ASD - a framework for managing software development projects that are under intense time pressure and have rapidly changing requirements. Based on complex adaptive systems theory. Uses RAD techniques
    • Crystal methods - for designing a methodology to suit a specific project
  • 5. DSDM, XP, Scrum, ASD, Crystal Methods – common factors
    • Published between 1995 – 2002 in the USA and UK
    • Methods address business problems and provide technical solutions
    • Practitioner based
    • Project manager and developer perspective
    • Incremental development
    • Iterative development with 1 month iterations optimal
    • Projects undergoing constant change
  • 6. DSDM, XP, Scrum, ASD, Crystal Methods – common factors
    • Active user involvement
    • Feedback and learning
    • Teamwork and empowered teams
    • Communication between all stakeholders is critical
    • Small teams of 3-10 programmers is optimal
    • Frequent meetings, daily is optimal
    • Working software is the main product of development
    • Modelling techniques are not mandated
    • Minimise documentation
  • 7. Agile Method Combinations
    • Proposed by others
    • XP and Scrum
    • XP and Crystal methods
    • XP and ASD
    • XP and RUP
    • XP and DSDM
    • RUP and Scrum
  • 8. Agile Method Combinations
    • Proposed from my research
    • DSDM – a framework – use with techniques from any other agile method (XP or Scrum)
    • XP and Scrum – XP provides software development techniques/Scrum provides management practices
    • XP and Crystal - XP acts as the base method which is tailored for each project using Crystal principles
    • Scrum, ASD and Crystal can use any software engineering techniques as long as those techniques achieve the goals of the methodology
  • 9. When should you use an agile method?
    • Research study
    • Nine projects, different organisations, different types of organisation, questionnaire
    • Calculated agile method usage
    • Looked at correlation between agile method usage and factors in the development environment
  • 10. Factors investigated
    • Organisation factors
      • social interaction is trustful, collaborative, competent…
    • Domain factors
      • Internet application domains …
    • Technological factors
      • automated testing, object-oriented technology…
    • Project factors
      • time pressure, requirements stability…
    • People factors
      • CRACK customers, experienced developers…
  • 11. Target environment for agile methods
    •   Statistically significant correlation between usage and factor for the following factors (about 32 factors were investigated)
    • 1. The organisation values feedback and learning. Social interaction in the organisation is trustful, collaborative, and competent
    • 2. The organisation values teamwork, is flexible and participative, and encourages social interaction. The project manager acts as a facilitator
    • 3. The organisation enables empowerment of people
    • 4. The management style is that of leadership and collaboration
    • 5. The organisation is results oriented
    • 6. Leadership in the organisation is entrepreneurial, innovative, and risk taking
    • 7. The organisation is based on loyalty and mutual trust and commitment
    • 8. Projects undergoing constant change 
  • 12.
    • Is this generalisable, or cause and effect?
    • - No –
    • sample too small, as usual, further studies needed!
    • Keep in mind that you may have fewer problems using an agile method if these factors are present in your organisation or project