7/7 Trafficking Report 2012 conventions, organizations & closing info

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  • 1. 382RELEVANTINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONSCountry UN Protocol to Prevent,Suppress & Punishr c in in PersonsILOConvention 182,Elimination ofWorst Forms ofChild LaborOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child onthe Sale of Children,Child Prostitution andChild Porno raphyOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child inrmed Con ictILOConvention29, ForcedLabourILOConvention105,Abolitionof ForcedLabourSignature ati ati ne i n a re tan eati ati n Signature ati ati ne i n aSignature ati ati ne i n aati ati n ati ati ng ani tan X X a X a XAlbania X X X X a X a X XAlgeria X X X X a X a X XAng la X X a X a X XAntigua & Barbuda X X X X X XArgentina X X X X X X X X XArmenia X X X X X X X X XAu tralia X X X X X X X X XAu tria X X X X X X X X XAzerbaijan X X X X X X X X XBa ama X X X X XBahrain X a X X a X a X XBanglade h X X X X X X XBarbad X X X XBelaru X X X X a X a X XBelgium X X X X X X X X XBelize X a X X X X X X XBenin X X X X X X X X XB li ia X X X X X X a X XB nia & erzeg ina X X X X X X X X XB t ana X X X X a X X X XBrazil X X X X X X X X XBrunei X X aBulgaria X X X X X X X X XBur in a X X X X X X X X XBurma X a X a XBurundi X X X a X X X Xamb dia X X X X X X X X Xamer n X X X X X X XCanada X X X X X X X XCa e erde X X X X a X a X XCentral A ri an e X a X X X X XChad X a X X X X X X XChile X X X X X X X X XChina C X a X X X X XC l mbia X X X X X X X X XC m r X X a X XRELEVANT INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS
  • 2. RELEVANTINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONS383Country UN Protocol to Prevent,Suppress & Punishraf c in in PersonsILOConvention 182,Elimination ofWorst Forms ofChild LaborOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child onthe Sale of Children,Child Prostitution andChild Porno raphyOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child inArmed Con ictILOConvention29, ForcedLabourILOConvention105,Abolitionof ForcedLabourSignature ati ati nA e i n a rA e tan e Aati ati n Signature ati ati nA e i n aSignature ati ati nA e i n aati ati n ati ati nC ng e X X X a X a X XC ng C X a X X a X X X XC ta i a X X X X X X X X XC te d ire X X a X a X XCr atia X X X X X X X X XCuba X X X X X XC ru X X X X X X X X XCze h e ubli X X X X X X Xenmar X X X X X X X X Xjib uti X a X X X X X X Xmini an e ubli X X X X a X X Xuad r X X X X X X X X Xg t X X X X a X a X Xl Sal ad r X X X X X X X X Xuat rial uinea X X X X a X XEritrea X a X a X XE t nia X X X X X X X XEthi ia X X X Xiji X X X X Xinland X X A X X X X X Xran e X X X X X X X X Xab n X a X X X X X X Xambia he X X X X X X X Xe rgia X X X X a X a X Xerman X X X X X X X X Xhana X X X X Xree e X X X X X X X X Xuatemala X a X X X X X X Xuinea X a X X a X Xuinea Bi au X X X X X X X Xu ana X a X X a X a X Xaiti X X X X X X Xndura X a X X a X a X Xungar X X X X X X X X Xeland X X X X X X X X Xndia X X X X X X X Xnd ne ia X X X X X X X
  • 3. 384RELEVANTINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONSCountry UN Protocol to Prevent,Suppress & Punishraf c in in PersonsILOConvention 182,Elimination ofWorst Forms ofChild LaborOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child onthe Sale of Children,Child Prostitution andChild Porno raphyOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child inArmed Con ictILOConvention29, ForcedLabourILOConvention105,Abolitionof ForcedLabourSignature ati ati nA e i n a rA e tan e Aati ati n Signature ati ati nA e i n aSignature ati ati nA e i n aati ati n ati ati nran X X a X X Xra X a X X a X a X Xreland X X X X X X X Xrael X X X X X X X X Xtal X X X X X X X X Xamai a X X X X X X X X Xa an X X X X X X Xrdan X a X X X X X X Xaza h tan X a X X X X X X XKenya X a X X X X X XKiribati X a X X XK rea KK rea e X X X X X XKu ait X a X X a X a X XKyrgyz e ubli X X X X a X a X Xa X a X X a X a Xat ia X X X X X X X X Xeban n X X X X X X X Xe th X X X X X X X X XLiberia X a X X X X XLibya X X X X a X a X XLithuania X X X X a X X X XLu emb urg X X X X X X X X Xa ed nia X X X X X X X X Xadaga ar X X X X X X X X Xala i X a X X X X X X Xalay ia X a X X a X a Xaldi e he X X X XMali X X X X a X X X XMalta X X X X X a X X X XMar hall landMauritania X a X X a X XMauritiu X a X X X X X XMe i X X X X X X X X XMi r ne ia SM X a X XM ld a X X X X X X X X XM ng lia X a X X X X X X X
  • 4. RELEVANTINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONS385Country UN Protocol to Prevent,Suppress & Punishraf c in in PersonsILOConvention 182,Elimination ofWorst Forms ofChild LaborOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child onthe Sale of Children,Child Prostitution andChild Porno raphyOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child inArmed Con ictILOConvention29, ForcedLabourILOConvention105,Abolitionof ForcedLabourSignature ati ati nA e i n a rA e tan e Aati ati n Signature ati ati nA e i n aSignature ati ati nA e i n aati ati n ati ati nM ntenegr X a X X a X a X XM r X a X X X X X X XM zambi ue X X X X a X a X XNamibia X X X X X X X X XNe al X X X X X X XNetherland he X X A X X X X X X XNe ealand X X X X X X X X XNi aragua X a X X a X a X XNiger X X X X X X a X XNigeria X X X X X X X XN r ay X X X X X X X X Xman X a X X a X a X Xa i tan X X X X X Xalauanama X X X X X X X X Xa ua Ne uinea X X Xaraguay X X X X X X X X Xeru X X X X X X X X Xhili ine X X X X X X X X Xland X X X X X X X X Xrtugal X X X X X X X X XQatar X a X X a X a X Xmania X X X X X X X X Xu ia X X X X X X Xanda X X X X a X a X XSt Lu ia X X X X XSt in ent & the ren X X X X a X a X XSaudi Arabia X X X X a X a X XSenegal X X X X X X X X XSerbia X X X X X X X X XSey helle X X X X X X X XSierra Le ne X X X X X X X XSinga re X X X XSl a e ubli X X X X X X X X XSl enia X X X X X X X X XS l m n land X X XS malia X X X
  • 5. 386RELEVANTINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONSCountry UN Protocol to Prevent,Suppress & Punishraf c in in PersonsILOConvention 182,Elimination ofWorst Forms ofChild LaborOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child onthe Sale of Children,Child Prostitution andChild Porno raphyOptional Protocol tothe Convention on thei hts of the Child inArmed Con ictILOConvention29, ForcedLabourILOConvention105,Abolitionof ForcedLabourSignature ati ati nA e i n a rA e tan e Aati ati n Signature ati ati nA e i n aSignature ati ati nA e i n aati ati n ati ati nS uth A ri a X X X X a X X X XS uth SudanS ain X X X X X X X X XSri Lanka X X X X X X X XSudan X X a X X X XSuriname X a X X X X XS aziland X X X XS eden X X X X X X X X XS itzerland X X X X X X X X XSyria X X X X a X a X Xajiki tan X a X X a X a X Xanzania X X X X a X a X Xhailand X X X a X a X Xim r Le te X a X X a X a Xg X X X X X X X X Xngarinidad & bag X X X X Xuni ia X X X X X X X X Xurkey X X X X X X X X Xurkmeni tan X a X X a X a X XUganda X X X a X a X XUkraine X X X X X X X X XUnited Arab Emirate X a X X XUnited Kingd m X X X X X X X X XUnited State X X X X X X X XUruguay X X X X X X X X XUzbeki tan X X X X a X a X Xenezuela X X X X X X X X Xietnam X X X X X XYemen X X a X a X Xambia X a X X X X Ximbab e X X a X X
  • 6. RELEVANTINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONS387
  • 7. 388TRAFFICKINGVICTIMSPROTECTIONACT(TVPA)TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION ACT:MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR THE ELIMINATION OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONSTrafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, Div. A of Pub. L. No. 106-386, § 108, as amended.(A) Minimum standardsFor purposes of this chapter, the minimum standards for theelimination of trafficking applicable to the government of acountry of origin, transit, or destination for victims of severeforms of trafficking are the following:(1) The government of the country should prohibit severeforms of trafficking in persons and punish acts of suchtrafficking.(2) For the knowing commission of any act of sextrafficking involving force, fraud, coercion, or in whichthe victim of sex trafficking is a child incapable ofgiving meaningful consent, or of trafficking whichincludes rape or kidnapping or which causes a death,the government of the country should prescribepunishment commensurate with that for grave crimes,such as forcible sexual assault.(3) For the knowing commission of any act of a severe formof trafficking in persons, the government of the countryshould prescribe punishment that is sufficientlystringent to deter and that adequately reflects theheinous nature of the offense.(4) The government of the country should make seriousand sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms oftrafficking in persons.(B) CriteriaIn determinations under subsection (a)(4) of this section, thefollowing factors should be considered as indicia of seriousand sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms of traffickingin persons:(1) Whether the government of the country vigorouslyinvestigates and prosecutes acts of severe forms oftrafficking in persons, and convicts and sentencespersons responsible for such acts, that take place whollyor partly within the territory of the country, including,as appropriate, requiring incarceration of individualsconvicted of such acts. For purposes of the precedingsentence, suspended or significantly reduced sentencesfor convictions of principal actors in cases of severeforms of trafficking in persons shall be considered, ona case-by-case basis, whether to be considered as anindicator of serious and sustained efforts to eliminatesevere forms of trafficking in persons. After reasonablerequests from the Department of State for dataregarding investigations, prosecutions, convictions, andsentences, a government which does not provide suchdata, consistent with the capacity of such governmentto obtain such data, shall be presumed not to havevigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted, orsentenced such acts. During the periods prior to theannual report submitted on June 1, 2004, and onJune 1, 2005, and the periods afterwards untilSeptember 30 of each such year, the Secretary of Statemay disregard the presumption contained in thepreceding sentence if the government has providedsome data to the Department of State regardingsuch acts and the Secretary has determined that thegovernment is making a good faith effort to collectsuch data.(2) Whether the government of the country protectsvictims of severe forms of trafficking in persons andencourages their assistance in the investigation andprosecution of such trafficking, including provisions forlegal alternatives to their removal to countries in whichthey would face retribution or hardship, and ensuresthat victims are not inappropriately incarcerated, fined,or otherwise penalized solely for unlawful acts as adirect result of being trafficked, including by providingtraining to law enforcement and immigration officialsregarding the identification and treatment of traffickingvictims using approaches that focus on the needs of thevictims.(3) Whether the government of the country has adoptedmeasures to prevent severe forms of trafficking inpersons, such as measures to inform and educate thepublic, including potential victims, about the causesand consequences of severe forms of trafficking inpersons, measures to establish the identity of localpopulations, including birth registration, citizenship,and nationality, measures to ensure that its nationalswho are deployed abroad as part of a peacekeepingor other similar mission do not engage in or facilitatesevere forms of trafficking in persons or exploit victimsof such trafficking, and measures to prevent the use offorced labor or child labor in violation of internationalstandards.(4) Whether the government of the country cooperateswith other governments in the investigation andprosecution of severe forms of trafficking in persons.(5) Whether the government of the country extraditespersons charged with acts of severe forms of traffickingin persons on substantially the same terms and tosubstantially the same extent as persons charged withother serious crimes (or, to the extent such extraditionwould be inconsistent with the laws of such country orwith international agreements to which the country is aparty, whether the government is taking all appropriatemeasures to modify or replace such laws and treaties soas to permit such extradition).(6) Whether the government of the country monitorsimmigration and emigration patterns for evidence ofsevere forms of trafficking in persons and whether lawenforcement agencies of the country respond to anysuch evidence in a manner that is consistent with the
  • 8. 389TRAFFICKINGVICTIMSPROTECTIONACT(TVPA)vigorous investigation and prosecution of acts of suchtrafficking, as well as with the protection of humanrights of victims and the internationally recognizedhuman right to leave any country, including one’s own,and to return to one’s own country.(7) Whether the government of the country vigorouslyinvestigates, prosecutes, convicts, and sentencespublic officials who participate in or facilitate severeforms of trafficking in persons, including nationalsof the country who are deployed abroad as partof a peacekeeping or other similar mission whoengage in or facilitate severe forms of trafficking inpersons or exploit victims of such trafficking, andtakes all appropriate measures against officials whocondone such trafficking. After reasonable requestsfrom the Department of State for data regardingsuch investigations, prosecutions, convictions, andsentences, a government which does not provide suchdata consistent with its resources shall be presumed notto have vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted,or sentenced such acts. During the periods prior to theannual report submitted on June 1, 2004, and on June1, 2005, and the periods afterwards until September30 of each such year, the Secretary of State maydisregard the presumption contained in the precedingsentence if the government has provided some datato the Department of State regarding such acts andthe Secretary has determined that the government ismaking a good faith effort to collect such data.(8) Whether the percentage of victims of severe forms oftrafficking in the country that are non-citizens of suchcountries is insignificant.(9) Whether the government of the country, consistentwith the capacity of such government, systematicallymonitors its efforts to satisfy the criteria describedin paragraphs (1) through (8) and makes availablepublicly a periodic assessment of such efforts.(10) Whether the government of the country achievesappreciable progress in eliminating severe forms oftrafficking when compared to the assessment in theprevious year.(11) Whether the government of the country has madeserious and sustained efforts to reduce the demand for(A) commercial sex acts; and(B) participation in international sex tourism bynationals of the country.Two boys in Ghana prepared to cast a net into Lake Volta. Fromthe shores of Central America to the South Pacific, enslavementon the seas is growing problem within the world’s fishing fleet.
  • 9. 390INTERNATIONALPEACEKEEPERSSTOPPING HUMAN TRAFFICKING, SEXUAL EXPLOITATION,AND ABUSE BY INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPERSIn response to a Congressional mandate, this section summarizes actions taken by the United Nations (UN), the North AtlanticTreaty Organization (NATO), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to prevent trafficking inpersons or the exploitation of victims of trafficking.UNITED NATIONS (UN)The United Nations continues to implement its 2003 zero-tolerance policy “Special Measures for Protection from SexualExploitation and Sexual Abuse” (ST/SGB/2003/13), which applies to approximately 120,000 uniformed personnel (troops,military observers, and police), international and national staff members, contractors, consultants, and volunteers servingin peacekeeping and humanitarian missions around the world. During the reporting period, there were 60 allegations ofsexual exploitation and abuse against UN peacekeeping personnel, compared with 85 such allegations in 2010. The majorityof the allegations affected the UN missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Haiti and Sudan.Twenty-two allegations involved children under 18 years of age, and in 14 other cases the age could not be determined. TheUN completed 23 investigations and deemed 10 of the allegations credible; 56 cases were still under investigation in 2011. Nocomprehensive information is available on the number of cases of disciplinary action such as suspension, dismissal, censure,demotion, and referral to employers. The UN reports that in 2011 it followed up 60 times with affected Troop ContributingCountries, but only received 26 responses concerning the outcomes of disciplinary actions. In late 2011, the Conduct andDiscipline Unit at UN Headquarters launched a review of current practices and procedures in peacekeeping missions to preventsexual exploitation and abuse; there is no information on when the review will be completed. While all UN Missions haveestablished victim assistance mechanisms, there is no data available on the number of alleged or confirmed victims receivingassistance through these mechanisms during the reporting period.NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO)The North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s anti-trafficking policy was adopted in 2004 and updated in 2007. Provisions includetraining for personnel of NATO-led missions, support for host country law enforcement in anti-trafficking investigations,guidelines prohibiting contractors from engaging in trafficking, and evaluations of implementation of efforts as part of ongoingreviews. Since 2007, NATO’s Assistant Secretary General for Defense Policy and Planning has served as the Senior Coordinatoron Counter-Trafficking in Human Beings. However, this is a collateral-duty position and there is no information on any newanti-trafficking activities in 2011. NATO has six ongoing missions involving the deployment more than 135,000 troops. Duringthe reporting period, there were no reports of NATO personnel or units engaging in or facilitating human trafficking.ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE(OSCE)The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe’s Code of Conduct for Staff and Mission Members prescribes generalconduct of officials and staff while on mission, with specific instruction on preventing human trafficking. In a direct responseto the OSCE Action Plan, the organization’s human resources department issued guidance reiterating the high standards ofbehavior expected for all OSCE officials in mission areas, as well as for OSCE staff attending conferences and other officialevents. During the reporting period there were no reports of OSCE personnel engaging in or facilitating human trafficking.
  • 10. INTERNATIONALPEACEKEEPERS391
  • 11. 392ORGANIZATIONSCOMBATINGTRAFFICKINGINPERSONSOr ani ation Framework DocumentRelevant to TIPTIP Focal PointUnited Nationsun rgun d rgh hr rg engli h b die hr e ialtheme htmil rghtt il rg a n rmati nre ur eL ubli ati n Byregi n l bal lang en indehtmr t l t re ent Su re and uni hra king in er n E e ially men andChildren Su lementing the United Nati nC n enti n Again t ran nati nal rganizedCrime A ESUnited Nati n l bal lan A ti n tC mbat ra king in er nA ESL C n enti nC r ed Lab ur C n enti nC Ab liti n r ed Lab ur C n enti nC r t rm Child Lab urC n enti nC me ti rker C n enti n &S e ial a rteur n ra kingin er n E e ially men andChildrenS e ial a rteur nC ntem rary rm Sla eryS e ial a rteur n the alehildren hild r tituti n and hildrn gra hyAfrican Union (AU)a ri a uni n rguagad ug u A ti n lan t C mbatra king in uman Being E e iallymen and ChildrenAU C mmi i n nitiati e again t ra kingCam aign AU C MMN AAssociation of Southeast Nations(ASEAN)a ean e rga ean e rg htmASEAN e larati n Again t ra king iner n arti ularly men and ChildrenN ACommonwealth of Independent States(CIS)i min k byi min k by age h idin u ian nlyAgreement n the C erati n the C SMember State in C mbatting ra king iner n uman rgan and i uer gramme C erati n the MemberState the C mm n ealth nde endentState in mbating uman ra kingN ACoordinated ekon inisterial Initiativea ainst Traf ckin (CO IT)n tra king rg inde htmlC MM Mem randum Under tanding nC erati n Again t ra king in reaterMek ng Sub egi nSe nd C MM Sub egi nal lanA ti nUN nter Agen y r je t n umanra king UN ACouncil of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)b rg Ci il Se urity and the umanimen i n reating a a e and e ure regi nhild entre in egA i i n r the Balti Sea regi n byCBSS SummitE ert r u r C erati n n Children ati k ri rity a era k r e again t ra kingin uman Being ith u nAdult BE ert r u n Children at i kCouncil of Europe (COE)e inte int t dghl m nit ring tra kingde ault en aC E C n enti n n A ti n Again t ra kingin uman Beingr u E ert n A ti n Again tra king in uman BeingE AINTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL AND SUB-REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONSCOMBATING TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
  • 12. ORGANIZATIONSCOMBATINGTRAFFICKINGINPERSONS393Or ani ation Framework DocumentRelevant to TIPTIP Focal PointEconomic Community of West AfricanStates (ECOWAS)e a intEconomic Community of Central AfricanStates (ECCAS)eea e a rge larati n n the ight again t ra king iner nEC AS nitial lan A ti n again tra king in er n e tendeduntilint EC AS ECCAS egi nal lanA ti n t C mbat ra king in er ne e ially men and ChildrenAnti ra king UnitEuropean Union (EU)htt e eur a eu anti tra king inde a ti nBru el e larati n n re enting andC mbating ra king in uman Beingire ti e n re enting and C mbatingra king in uman Being andr te ting i timEur ean Uni n Anti ra kingC rdinat rLea ue of Arab States (LAS)arableague nline rg la inde jin Arabi nlyArab rame rk A t n C mbating ra kingin er nArab nitiati e t C mbat ra king iner nN AOr ani ation of American States (OAS)a rg en de ault aa rg d engli h trata ark lan t C mbat ra king in er n inthe e tern emi here A ESXLC rdinat r Again t ra kingin er nOr ani ation of Islamic Conference (OIC)htt m e rg Yeni Sitekumanlar ana d kumanlar K Sarti dCharter the rgani ati n the lamiC n eren eN AOr ani ation for Security andCooperation in Europe (OSCE)e rge rg thbSCE A ti n lan t C mbat ra king inuman Beinglat rm r A ti n Again t uman ra kingS e ial e re entati e andC rdinat r n ra king inuman BeingRe ional Conference on i ration (RC )(Puebla Group)r m rgegi nal C n eren e n Migrati n lanA ti nN ASouthern African DevelopmentCommunity (SADC)ad intad int inde br e ageSA C egi nal lan A ti n n ra kingin er nN ASouth Asian Association for Re ionalCooperation (SAARC)aar e rghtt aar e rg u er le ntra king dSAA C C n enti n n re enting andC mbating ra king in men and Childrenr r tituti negi nal a k r e
  • 13. 394GLOSSARY/PHOTOCREDITSPHOTO CREDITSn ide r nt er an Sochor Latin Content Getty ima esLe atum Foundation and Geneva GlobalAP Photo/Mukhtar KhanStuart Franklin/Ma num PhotosAP Photo/Kumar A. MaheshSimon RawlesPrevent uman Traf ckin Or ani ationAP Photo/Lefteris PitarakisCourtesy of Hampton Universityohan Ordone /AFP/Getty Ima esReuters/Sultan HadiwijayaLe atum Foundation and Geneva GlobalChris Ratcliffe/Bloomber via Getty Ima esXavier Plassat/Pastorial Land CommissionCourtesy of the CNN Freedom ProjectCourtesy of the CNN Freedom ProjectTan Chhin Sothy/AFP/Getty Ima esBBC World Service TrustAP Photo/Shannon Stapleton PoolNicolas Asfouri/AFP/Getty Ima esAP Photo/David GoldmanAP Photo/Spanish PoliceReuters/Andrew BirajPrevent Human Traf ckin Or ani ationSusan Meiselas/Ma num Photosright AP Photo/Michael Kooren, Poolle t AP Photo/Karel Prinsloo, FileAP Photo/Ra Ma boolU bek German Forum for Human Ri hts via ResponsibleSourcin NetworkCopyri ht Nadia TodresCourtesy of the CNN Freedom ProjectLe atum Foundation and Geneva GlobalDaniel Berehulak/Getty Ima esAP Photo/Pavel RahmanAP Photo/Oded BaliltyJoseph R. Kerr, Catalyst FoundationIan Berry/Ma num PhotosVannak Anan PrumGLOSSARY OF ACRONYMSECCAS E n mi C mmunity Central A ri an StateECOWAS E n mi C mmunity e t A ri an StateECPAT End Child r tituti n Child rn gra hy and ra king Children rSe ual ur eEU Eur ean Uni nILO nternati nal Lab ur rganizati nILO IPEC nternati nal Lab ur rganizati n nternati nal r gram r theEliminati n Child Lab urINTERPOL nternati nal Criminal li e rganizati nIOM nternati nal rganizati n r Migrati nNGO N n ernmental rganizati nOAS rganizati n Ameri an StateOSCE rganizati n r Se urity and C erati n in Eur eUN United Nati nUNDP United Nati n e el ment r grammeUNHCR United Nati n igh C mmi i ner r e ugeeUNICEF United Nati n Children undUN Women United Nati n Entity r ender E uality and the Em erment menUNODC United Nati n e n rug and Crime2000 UN TIP Protocol r t l t re ent Su re and uni h ra king in er n E e iallymen and Children Su lementing the United Nati n C n enti n Again tran nati nal rganized Crime(Palermo Protocol)
  • 14. GLOSSARY/PHOTOCREDITS395
  • 15. 396To us and to many readers, names like Prum and Yusrilseem as distant as their rural Cambodian and Indonesianhomelands, and we may seem equally distant to them. Yet thisReport ties these men inextricably to us, for their enslavementaboard fishing vessels represents a part of the internationalfishing industry that has for too long gone overlooked. InYusril’s case, his enslavement met the demand for cheap fishexports to the U.S. market – exported to otherwise reputableretail chains that sell slave-caught seafood just blocks fromthis office. Yet what’s so remarkable is just how unremarkablethese experiences are to thousands of Burmese, Cambodia,Indonesia, and Vietnamese men who are the expendablefodder for this global fishing industry every day. Two fatherswho only wanted to support their families, they found slaveryinstead. They and others like them suffer hellish conditionsfor years confined on boats – sometimes witnessing othersthrown overboard when too weak to work further. As thisReport has shown in recent years, when they do escape, theyfind themselves on unfamiliar shores, from Central Americaand West Africa to the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean.Avoiding responsibility or turning away because abusehappened farther than 12-kilometers from shore does nothonor Prum and Yusril’s suffering. The zones of impunity thattheir experiences highlight are not found only on the openwater, but onshore as well. The zone of impunity is not justcreated by a toxic nexus of corruption and collusion, but alsowhen consumers and businesses fail to act. Keeping productchains free of slavery is not just a moral imperative; it’s smartbusiness. Identifying slavery in seafood product chains helpsreward responsible buyers while holding the unscrupulousaccountable.When slaveryfootprint.org asks you the question “How manyslaves work for you?”, remember that these are not statistics,but people with hopes and dreams and courage. They arePrum and Yusril. We dedicate this Report to them and to thethousands of others they represent.A CLOSING NOTEThe staff of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons is:Maria Alejandra AcevedoSheela AhluwaliaMarielle AliFeleke AssefaShonnie R. BallTerri BallardCassidy BohmanCasey BranchiniBetsy BramonMarissa BresciaCarla BuryLuis CdeBacaSarah CurtisSonia Helmy-DentzelJennifer DonnellyDana DysonMarisa FerriMark ForstromAlison Kiehl FriedmanSara E. GilmerPaula GoodeCaitlin HeidenreichVeronica HernandezJulie HicksStephanie R. HurterTyra JacksonAnn M. KarlNan KennellyKendra L. KreiderAbraham LeeDarrion LockeMartha LovejoyKerry McBrideEricka MotenTim MulveyKim Marie NatoliElizabeth NorrisBlanca Adriana OntiverosApril ParkerJennifer A. PhillipsRachel Yousey RabaAmy O’Neill RichardLe’Shawnda RileyAmy RofmanLaura Svat RundletSean RutheAmy RustanChad C. SalitanKathryn SchneiderSarah ScottMai ShiozakiJane Nady SigmonDesiree M. SuoMark B. TaylorNatalya J. WallinRaquel ZanoniJanet ZinnCLOSINGNOTESpecial thanks to Lamya S. El-Shacke and the graphic services team at Global Publishing Solutions.