6/6 slave labor in factories


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6/6 slave labor in factories

  1. 1. Human TraffickingOverviewSex Trafficking in the U.S.Labor Trafficking in the U.S.Agriculture & FarmsDomestic WorkHostess & Strip ClubsRestaurants & Food ServiceFactoriesPeddling & Begging RingsHospitality IndustryOther IndustriesRecognizing the SignsInternational TraffickingTrafficking FAQsState-by-State ResourcesCalendar of EventsThe NHTRC Human Trafficking Report a Tip Access Training Resources Map Get Involved ContactFactory/production work becomestrafficking through the use of force, fraud,or coercion. Traffickers may subject victimsto physical confinement in locked factoriesor plants."I was an easy target for my trafficker. I was a desperate mother looking for away to provide for my three children. I was told that I would have a good jobwith good pay and a place where to live. When I got here I was locked in thefactory and forced to work 17 to 18 hours a day, seven days a week."- Flor Molina, Survivor of forced laborLabor traffickinginmanufacturinghas beenknownto occur inthegarment industry andinfoodprocessingplants inthe UnitedStates.Victims, bothmenandwomen, have beenforcedto work 10-12 hourdays, 6-7 days per week withlittle or no break time. People may betraffickedinto garment industry jobs suchas sewing, assembling,pressing, or packingapparel. Others may be forcedto work infoodprocessingoperations that include slaughtering, preserving, canningandpackinggoods for distribution. Immigrant workers, bothdocumentedandundocumented, are oftenrecruitedinto theseindustries. Some documentedimmigrants include H-2Bvisaholderswho arrive inthe U.S. to performnon-agricultural labor ortemporary services.Several workers paidlarge fees to laborrecruiters who broughtthemto the U.S. with falsifieddocuments. Whenthe workersarrivedinthe U.S., they learnedthat theirdebts hadincreasedandthat they hadto workat acanningplant inasmall, rural towninKansas to pay the debt. The recruiters requiredthat the workerslive inovercrowdedconditions inhousingthat they provided. Because of its isolatedlocationtheworkers hadto rely onthe recruiters forfoodandbasic supplies. The recruiters tookthe majority ofthe workers’ paychecks, claimingthat the money went to theirdebt, housingandfood.*Basedoncalls receivedby the National HumanTraffickingResource Center. Identifyingdetailshave beenchangedto protect confidentiality.When does it become trafficking?Factory/productionwork becomes traffickingwhenthe employeruses force, fraudand/or coercionto maintaincontrol over theworker andto cause the worker to believe that he or she has noother choice but to continue to work. Commonmethods ofcontrol include:Force–Physical confinement inlockedfactories or plants;placement inspecific productionline tasks that the worker cannot abandon;physical or sexual abuse;constant surveillance.Fraud–Misrepresentationof the work, workingconditions, wages, andimmigrationbenefits of thejob;payment schemes that compensate worker by units of productionrather thanhourly wage andthus grossly underpay workers;manufacturingplants facingcomplaints may close downandrelocateelsewhere without payingworkers for their labor;alteredor bogus contracts;visafraude.g. allowingalegitimate visato expire or failingto provide apromisedvisa, thereby increasingthe worker’svulnerability to threats of deportationandlimitinghis or her alternative job options.Factories/Manufacturing E-mail PrintShareSIGN UP BLOG SEARCH LOGINABOUT USABOUT US WHAT WE DOWHAT WE DO HUMAN TRAFFICKING TAKE ACTIONTAKE ACTION RESOURCESRESOURCES MEDIAMEDIA GIVEGIVEconverted by Web2PDFConvert.com
  2. 2. Coercion –Threats of deportation;threats of dismissal if workers attempt to unionize or addressworkingconditions (wages andhour violations, workplace safety, discrimination/harassment);exploitationof aforeignnational’s unfamiliarity withlocal labor laws or workers’ rights;confiscationofpassports andvisas;debt manipulation.*The above list is not comprehensive orcumulative. One element of force, fraudorcoercionmay bepresent, ormany.Vulnerabilities / Enabling FactorsLow Profit Margins–Domestic manufacturingis drivenby competitionfromoffshore industrieswhere labor is outsourced, particularly ingarment andapparel manufacturing. As aresult, factoryworkers are particularly vulnerable to exploitationandtraffickingwhenworkinginhighproduction,lowprofit operations where there is ademandfor cheapor free labor.Tiered Production System –Foodandgarment productionare decentralized, wherebyretailers/buyers purchase goods frommanufacturingcompanies that inturnemploy varioussubcontractors to prepare or produce those goods. Subcontractors who arrange the actual labor areresponsible for payingandsupervisingworkers, but may fall outside the scope of retailer-manufacturer agreements governingovertime, workplace safety, discrimination/harassment, andtheright to organize andbargaincollectively. This structure creates anunregulatedwork environmentwhereby traffickingvictims are oftenexploitedby their subcontractingsupervisors or employers.Immigration Status–Traffickers oftenuse threats of deportationanddocument confiscationtomaintaincontrol over foreignnational workers inthe productionindustry. H-2Bworkers, (temporaryimmigrant workers)are particularly vulnerable because their legal status inthe UnitedStates is tiedtotheir employment, andbecause they oftenhave extendedfamilies intheir home countries who dependontheir wages. Traffickers impose hefty debts to immigrant workers for job recruitment fees,transportationcosts andvisaprocessing. Additionally, traffickers prey onimmigrant workers’unfamiliarity withthe language, laws andcustoms of the U.S. to further manipulate or exploit them.Relevant Press ReleasesU.S. v. Kil Soo Lee-Kil Soo Lee, owner of the Daewoosagarment factory inAmericanSamoa, wasconvictedonnumerous federal charges, includinginvoluntary servitude, extortionandmoneylaundering. The defendant, chargedin2001 inU.S. District Court inHawaii, illegally confinedandusedas forcedlabor over 200 Vietnamese andChinese garment workers.FromMarch1999 throughNovember 2000, Lee andhis managers conspiredto use arrests,deportations, fooddeprivationandbeatings to force workers to operate the Daewoosafactory. Theworkers were recruitedfromChinaandfromstate-ownedlabor export companies inVietnam.Evidence presentedat trial revealedthat recruits paidfees of approximately $5,000 to $8,000 to gainemployment at the Daewoosafactory andriskedretaliationif deported.David, et al. v. Signal International LLC- A current class actionlawsuit has beenbrought onbehalf of over 500 guestworkers fromIndiaworkers who were traffickedinto the U.S. throughthe H-2Bguestworker programwithdishonest assurances of becominglawful permanent U.S. residents andsubjectedto squalidlivingconditions, fraudulent payment practices, andthreats of serious harmupontheir arrival.The complaint alleges that recruitingagents hiredby the marine industry company, SignalInternational, heldthe workers’ documents, coercedtheminto payingextraordinary fees forrecruitment, immigrationprocessingandtravel, andthreatenedthe workers withserious legal andphysical harmif they didnot work under the Signal-restrictedguestworker visa. The complaint alsoalleges that once inthe U.S., the menwere requiredto live inSignals guarded, overcrowdedlaborcamps, subjectedto psychological abuse anddefraudedout of adequate payment for their work.converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
  3. 3. Top ResourcesHumanTraffickingNational HumanTraffickingResourceCenterSex TraffickingintheU.S.RecognizingtheSignsTheVictimsClient QuotesContactPolaris ProjectP.O. Box 53315Washington, D.C. 20009Tel: 202-745-1001Fax: 202-745-1119Email Polaris ProjectWhat We DoNational Human Trafficking HotlinePolicyAdvocacyClient ServicesTraining and TechnicalAssistancePublic Outreach and CommunicationsFellowship ProgramConnect Search Join Our NetworkPrivacy Policy | Copyright 2013 Polaris Project.Sitemap Loginsearch the site enter your emailMore Client Stories"Many things have changed forme since coming to PolarisProject. I now believe it’s nevertoo late to begin again."converted by Web2PDFConvert.com