2012 Human Trafficking Report: Country Profiles N-S (5/7)
NAMIBIA259for identifying potential victims of trafficking and referringthem to organizations providing protective services. TheInterior Ministry’s Women and Children’s Victim AssistanceUnit continued to operate facilities in over 200 police stationsthroughout the country that provided temporary shelterfor an unknown number of trafficking victims and referredvictims to NGOs offering services. In 2011, the Institute forJudicial Support, a government body that provides legaladvice to the impoverished, began to offer legal assistance toabused women and children, including an unknown numberof trafficking victims. The government offered very limitedreintegration assistance to repatriated trafficking victims. Thegovernment encouraged victims to assist in the investigationand prosecution of trafficking offenders. The government didnot provide temporary residency status or legal alternativesto the removal of foreign victims to countries where theymight face hardship or retribution and it continued to deportforeign trafficking victims without screening them for possiblevictimization. Although NGO contacts reported no instancesof trafficking victims having been detained, fined, or jailed forunlawful acts committed as a result of having been trafficked,the lack of formal identification procedures impaired thegovernment’s ability to ensure that no trafficking victimsreceived such penalties.PreventionThe Government of Mozambique demonstrated decreasedtrafficking prevention efforts during the reporting periodand lacks a single national body to coordinate anti-traffickingefforts across ministries. A national action plan to combathuman trafficking exists as a subsection of the government’scurrent five-year anti-crime plan, and the MOJ began draftingan independent plan specific to trafficking. The Ministry ofLabor employed labor inspectors, but they were too few innumber, lacked resources such as transportation, and hadgenerally not received adequate training regarding humantrafficking. Consequently, the government did not adequatelymonitor for child trafficking and labor violations, especiallyon farms in rural areas, and judges frequently dismissedcases because inspectors did not properly prepare evidence.The number of public awareness campaigns decreased fromthe previous year, when the government was more active indistributing information on human trafficking to students,outgoing travelers, community leaders, and businesses. Thegovernment did not make an effort to reduce the demandfor commercial sex acts during the year. In July and August2011, the Caucus of Women Parliamentarians led delegationsof public officials and civil society leaders to the cities ofQuelimane and Nampula to conduct two days of trainingfor local officials and to raise awareness among the publicof the legal remedies provided by anti-trafficking, spousalprotection, and family laws.NAMIBIA (Tier 2 Watch List)Namibia is a country of origin, transit, and destination forwomen, children, and possibly men subjected to forced laborand sex trafficking. Victims lured by promises of legitimatework for adequate wages may instead be forced to work longhours and carry out hazardous tasks in urban centers and oncommercial farms. Traffickers in Namibia exploit Namibianchildren, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, andZimbabwe, through forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding,fishing, and domestic service as well as in prostitution. Touristsfrom southern Africa and Europe are among the clienteleof children in prostitution in Namibia. Children are forcedto care for the children of farm or factory workers and arealso coerced to engage in criminal activity, including drugsmuggling and robberies. Some adults subject the childrenof their distant relatives to sex trafficking or forced labor.Among Namibia’s ethnic groups, San girls are particularlyvulnerable to be trafficked for prostitution and forced laboron farms or in domestic service. Allegations arose during theyear regarding the labor conditions at Chinese companies’construction sites in Namibia, including long hours and lowwages for both Chinese and Namibian staff.The Government of Namibia does not fully comply withthe minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking;however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Despitethese efforts, including its continued investigation of ninesuspected traffickers and the initiation of one potentialtrafficking investigation in 2011, the government did notdemonstrate evidence of overall increasing efforts to addresshuman trafficking over the previous year; therefore, Namibia isplaced on Tier 2 Watch List. The government failed to prosecuteor convict trafficking offenders during the year and has notyet prosecuted or convicted a trafficking offender under any ofits laws. During the year, the cabinet approved the Child Careand Protection Bill, which now awaits parliamentary debateand passage. The government also completed its renovation ofthree additional shelters for victims of gender-based violence,including trafficking. Although the government continuedpublic awareness campaigns, it took no action to prosecutesex trafficking offenders and protect such victims.Recommendations for Namibia: Greatly increase effortsto investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses and convictand punish trafficking offenders under existing legislation,including the Prevention of Organized Crime Act (POCA);train law enforcement officials on the anti-traffickingprovisions of the POCA and other relevant legislation; establisha formal process for the identification of victims and theirsubsequent referral to care among law enforcement,immigration, labor, and social welfare officials; continue todedicate adequate time and resources to complete ongoingshelter and safe house renovations; strengthen coordinationof anti-trafficking efforts across the government; conductnational anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns; andcollect data and maintain databases on trafficking cases.ProsecutionThe Government of Namibia made modest anti-trafficking lawenforcement efforts during the year, as it failed to prosecuteor convict trafficking offenders. In May 2009, the governmentenacted the POCA of 2004, which explicitly criminalizes allforms of trafficking. Under the POCA, persons who participatein trafficking offenses or aid and abet trafficking offenders maybe imprisoned for up to 50 years and fined up to the equivalent
260NEPALof $133,000, penalties which are sufficiently stringent andcommensurate with punishments prescribed for other seriouscrimes, such as rape. The government, however, has yet toprosecute or convict a trafficking offender under the POCAor other relevant laws. In August 2011, the government, inpartnership with UNODC, held an inter-ministerial workshopto plan its development of comprehensive anti-traffickinglegislation that would include specific provisions relating totrafficking crimes committed against children and adults;however, the Ministry of Justice did not begin to draft thislegislation during the year. The pending Child Care andProtection Bill, drafted in 2009 – which includes a provisionagainst child trafficking – was approved by the cabinet inMarch 2012 and referred to parliament for debate and passage.The government continued to make efforts to address labortrafficking, especially forced child labor. In August andSeptember 2011, the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare(MLSW), in collaboration with the Police, the Ministry ofGender Equality and Child Welfare (MGECW), and theNamibian Central Intelligence Agency investigated a potentiallabor trafficking case involving numerous youth and children;although the prosecutor general recommended a criminalcomplaint be filed as a violation of forced labor provisions ofthe 2007 Labor Act, no alleged offenders have been arrested.In the previous reporting period, the MLSW followed-upon 111 cases of child labor discovered in 2009, leading theNamibian Police Force’s Woman and Child Protection Unit(WACPU) to open criminal investigations in nine cases whereemployers failed to obey compliance orders received in 2009.In 2011, WACPU reported its continued investigation of thesecases, which were then forwarded for prosecution; althoughprosecutors reported withdrawing the cases due to a lackof evidence, other officials noted that prosecutors did notknow how to use existing laws to prosecute these cases andneed training on addressing human trafficking. Despite theacknowledged need for training of police and prosecutorson trafficking and relevant existing laws, and while officialsparticipated in trainings sponsored by UNICEF or foreigngovernments, the government did not provide such training toits staff or support NGOs that did so during the year; humantrafficking is not covered as part of any institutionalized basictrainings. However, during the year, in partnership withUNICEF and NGOs, the government began development ofa new police curriculum on gender-based violence, includingtrafficking. Despite its attention to forced labor cases, thegovernment continued to take no action to prosecute sextrafficking in Namibia during the year.ProtectionOverall, the Namibian government did not demonstrateincreasing efforts to protect trafficking victims. Althoughthe government discovered children in one suspected labortrafficking ring, it identified fewer victims than in previousyears. Despite the existence of government-operated sheltersand services for victims of crime, the government did notreport their use by trafficking victims in 2011. The governmentcontinued to lack systematic procedures for its officials to use inproactively identifying trafficking victims and referring themto care. Police previously had been trained to contact WACPUif they discover a woman or child victim, and WACPU policeare subsequently responsible for referring victims – on an adhoc basis, as is done for victims of all crimes – to temporaryshelter and medical assistance provided by NGOs or otherentities. The MGECW provided social workers to assist policein counseling victims of violent crimes, including humantrafficking; however, officials noted that social workers andother first responders remain unaware of trafficking indicators.The government continued its renovation of buildings to beused for long-term accommodation for women and childvictims of gender-based violence and human trafficking; twofacilities continued operation, while three were renovatedduring the reporting period. The government continued itsoperation of three ”one-stop” facilities for providing care forvictims of gender-based violence, including trafficking, inWindhoek, Oshakati, and Rundu, which offered overnightaccommodation, medical examinations, and space for socialworkers to provide counseling and psychosocial support.There are no such facilities for the care of men who arevictims of trafficking. The government may grant temporaryor permanent residency to foreign victims on a case by casebasis; however, with the quick enforcement of immigration lawforeign trafficking victims – including children – were mostlikely deported for immigration violations before identificationas trafficking victims.PreventionThe Namibian government continued its efforts to preventhuman trafficking during the reporting period. Under theleadership of the MGECW, the inter-ministerial committee,which coordinated government activities on gender-basedviolence and trafficking, began drafting the 2012-2016national action plan, which awaits finalization. Nonetheless,coordination and communication across government entitieson anti-trafficking efforts are not yet effective enough tofacilitate understanding of and progress on trafficking issues.The government continued its “Zero Tolerance Against Gender-Based Violence and Trafficking in Persons” media campaignincluding TV and radio broadcasts on human trafficking. Inaddition, the police and MGECW partnered with several NGOson an anti-trafficking and prostitution demand reductioncampaign. With donor funding, the MGECW launched anawareness campaign on gender-based violence and trafficking,including TV and radio spots and placement of billboards.Unlike in 2010, the MLSW did not make efforts to raiseawareness of child labor issues, including child trafficking.NEPAL (Tier 2)Nepal is mainly a source country for men, women, and childrenwho are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Nepalimen are subjected to forced labor, most often in the MiddleEast and, to a lesser extent, within the country. Nepali womenand girls are subjected to sex trafficking in Nepal, India, andthe Middle East, and also are subjected to forced labor in Nepaland India as domestic servants, beggars, factory workers, mineworkers, and in the adult entertainment industry. They aresubjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in other Asiandestinations, including Malaysia, Hong Kong, and SouthKorea. The Chinese district of Khasa on the border withNepal is an emerging sex trafficking destination for Nepaliwomen and girls. Nepali boys also are exploited in domesticservitude and – in addition to some Indian boys – subjectedto forced labor in Nepal, especially in brick kilns and theembroidered textiles industry. An NGO noted that forced laborof Nepali children in Nepali and Indian circuses has declineddramatically due in large part to the rescues spearheaded bythat organization. Bonded labor exists in agriculture, brick
NEPAL261kilns, and the stone-breaking industry, often based on caste.Traffickers generally target uneducated people, especiallyfrom socially marginalized and traditionally excluded groups.Many Nepali migrants seek work in domestic service,construction, or other low-skilled sectors in Gulf countries,Malaysia, Israel, South Korea, and Lebanon with the helpof Nepal-based labor brokers and manpower agencies. Theymigrate willingly but some subsequently face conditionsindicative of forced labor, such as withholding of passports,restrictions on movement, nonpayment of wages, threats,deprivation of food and sleep, and physical or sexual abuse.Many are deceived about their destination country, theterms of their contract, or are subjected to debt bondage,which can in some cases be facilitated by fraud and highrecruitment fees charged by unscrupulous agents. A recentAmnesty International study found that migrant workers whoreported experiencing problems during their migration paidan average of up to the equivalent of approximately $1,400in fees to recruitment agents before their departure, almostthree times the average annual income for Nepalese, andthe equivalent of 10 to 12 months worth of average wages inthe Gulf labor markets. However, some Nepalese have paidas much as up to the equivalent of $12,000 to recruitmentagencies. Many workers migrate via India; this is illegal underthe 2007 Foreign Employment Act that requires all workersto leave for overseas work via the Kathmandu airport. Manymigrants leave by land to avoid legal migration registrationrequirements and to avoid paying bribes that some officialsrequire at the airport to secure migration documents. A recentInternational Trade Union Confederation report noted thatmany employment agencies force migrant workers to travelvia India in order to avoid insurance coverage or a properdocumentation system and to avoid obligations to payworkers their entitlements. Unregistered migrants – thosewho travel via India or independent recruiting agents – aremore vulnerable to forced labor. Bangladeshis transit Nepalfor employment in the Gulf and are at risk of being trafficked.The Government of Nepal does not fully comply with theminimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however,it is making significant efforts to do so. The governmentdeveloped two policy initiatives providing minimum standardsfor trafficking victim care and standard operating proceduresfor shelter homes, endorsed a national plan of action on humantrafficking, and increased prosecutions. Problems remained,however. Anti-trafficking structures were ineffective, andtrafficked Nepali migrant workers did not receive sufficientsupport from the government. Anti-trafficking laws were notwell implemented, and some funds allocated for protection inprevious years remain unspent. Victim identification effortswere weak, with child sex trafficking victims sometimes beingreturned to their abusers in the wake of raids. Incidents oftrafficking-related complicity by government officials persistedand were unaddressed through law enforcement means.Recommendations for Nepal: Increase law enforcementefforts against all forms of trafficking and against governmentofficials who are found to be complicit in trafficking; showevidence of efforts to investigate, prosecute, and punishoffenses of labor trafficking involving Nepalese migrantsexploited abroad; show evidence of prosecuting and punishingNepalese labor recruiters for charging excessive recruitmentfees or engaging in fraudulent recruitment; institute a formalprocedure to identify victims of trafficking and refer themto protection services; ensure that trafficking victims are notpunished for involvement in prostitution or forgery of officialdocuments; raise awareness among government officials andthe public of the existence of forced prostitution of Nepaliwomen and girls in Nepal; publicize the lift of the ban onwomen working as domestic workers in the Gulf; work withIndian officials to establish a procedure to repatriate Nepalivictims of trafficking in India; decentralize the system to filecomplaints under the Foreign Employment Promotion Boardas a means to facilitate victims’ access to legal remedy; developa comprehensive witness protective mechanism; providecitizenship documents to returnee female victims of traffickingand their children; and ratify the 2000 UN TIP Protocol.ProsecutionThe Government of Nepal maintained law enforcementefforts during the reporting period. Nepal prohibits most –but not all – forms of trafficking in persons, including theselling of human beings and forced prostitution, through itsHuman Trafficking and Transportation Control Act (2007)and Regulation (2008) (HTTCA). The HTTCA also prohibitsother offenses that do not constitute human trafficking, such aspeople smuggling and purchasing commercial sex. Prescribedpenalties range from 10 to 20 years’ imprisonment, which aresufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribedfor other serious crimes, such as rape. The Bonded Labor(Prohibition) Act (2002) prohibits bonded labor but has nopenalties. According to the Office of Attorney General, 229offenders were convicted in 157 district court cases triedunder the HTTCA, compared with 174 offenders convictedin the previous fiscal year in 119 cases. It is not known howmany of these convictions were for human trafficking sincethe same law also prohibits other crimes. In addition, labortrafficking cases may be prosecuted as foreign employmentviolations, resulting in smaller penalties than if tried under theHTTCA. The National Judicial Academy, with foreign funding,managed and conducted a three-day training-of-trainersprogram in September for 20 government officials. Manygovernment officials do not prosecute under the traffickinglaw due to lack of awareness about the law and challenges inevidence collection. Some NGOs report that law enforcementauthorities do not consider domestic forced prostitution ofadults to be a trafficking issue.The incidence of trafficking-related complicity by governmentofficials remained a problem. Observers report that traffickersuse ties to politicians, business persons, state officials, police,customs officials, and border police to facilitate trafficking,including the paying of bribes for protection and favors.Some Nepali officials work with traffickers in providing falseinformation in genuine Nepali passports, or in providingfraudulent documents. Politically connected perpetratorsoften enjoyed impunity from prosecution and punishment.There were no investigations, prosecutions, or convictions ofgovernment officials for complicity in trafficking during thereporting period.P
262NETHERLANDSProtectionThe Government of Nepal made limited efforts to protectvictims of trafficking in the reporting period, but preparedand approved two policy documents to help facilitate victimprotection. The Government of Nepal does not have a formalsystem of proactively identifying victims of trafficking amonghigh-risk persons with whom they come in contact and, asa result, some victims were penalized for acts committedas a result of being trafficked. Victim identification did nottake place in brothel raids. As a result, some child victimswere arrested and then bailed out by their traffickers; thisbail further indebted the girls to their exploiters. Some sextrafficking victims were jailed.Interviewees in a December 2011 Amnesty International studyof 149 returned or prospective migrant workers highlightedthe lack of support Nepali migrant workers received from theDepartment of Foreign Employment, the Foreign EmploymentPromotion Board, and Nepali diplomatic missions indestination countries, when migrant workers sought redressfor abuses – including fraudulently advertised employmentterms – committed by Nepali labor recruiters. The governmentcontinued to run emergency shelters in Saudi Arabia, Qatar,Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates. The Ministry of Labor’sCommittee to Hear the Issue of Undocumented Workersestablished a up to the equivalent of a $125,000 fund toassist exploited undocumented workers, which could includetrafficking victims. While the Foreign Employment PromotionBoard collected fees from departing registered migrant workersfor a welfare fund, most of the funds remain unused, as manymigrants are unaware of their entitlement to these benefits.The Ministry of Women, Children, and Social Welfare(MWCSW), in consultation with NGOs, prepared and approvedtwo policy initiatives: the National Minimum Standards forVictim Care and the Standard Operating Procedures for shelterhomes. The MWCSW reported it continued to partially fundeight NGO-run shelter homes for female victims of trafficking,domestic violence, and sexual assault. The MWCSW alsoreported it continued to fund emergency shelters across thecountry for victims of trafficking and other forms of abuse,run by local women’s cooperatives. The government reportedthat it assisted 438 females in government-funded shelters inthe 2010-2011 fiscal year, although there was no informationwhether these females were trafficking victims or victims ofother forms of abuse. Most of the funds the government hasallocated for protection efforts have remained unspent, andin practice many trafficking victims did not receive legallymandated compensation. The government did not have anofficial process to refer victims to shelters. All facilities thatassist trafficking victims were run by NGOs and most provideda range of services, including legal aid, medical services,psychosocial counseling, and economic rehabilitation. Someof these shelters limited victims’ freedom of movement andcontrolled their access to money. There were insufficientfacilities to meet the needs of all survivors and there were noprotective services for males. Limited protections for victimsnegatively affected law enforcement efforts. The governmentdid not routinely encourage trafficking victims to participatein investigations against their traffickers, but anecdotal reportsnoted that individual police officers increasingly encouragedvictims’ participation.PreventionThe Government of Nepal increased its efforts to preventhuman trafficking during the reporting period. In August 2011,the National Committee for Controlling Human Traffickingestablished a secretariat and the government appointed acoordinator under the oversight of a joint secretary. TheSecretariat organized the government’s participation in thefifth annual national anti-trafficking day. NGOs state that themajority of the District Committees for Controlling HumanTrafficking do not function well or are not active. The lackof political stability and resources has hampered translatingcommitments into actions. The prime minister visited aleading anti-trafficking NGO in October 2011. The governmentendorsed the National Plan of Action on Trafficking in Personsin March 2012.Chapter 9 of the 2007 Foreign Employment Act (FEA)criminalizes the acts of an agency or individual sendingworkers abroad through fraudulent recruitment promisesor without the proper documentation, prescribing penaltiesof three to seven years’ imprisonment for those convicted.Fraudulent recruitment puts workers at significant risk oftrafficking. The Foreign Employment Tribunal – which hearscases based on the FEA – is based in Kathmandu withoutbranch offices. This limits the ability of victims outside ofthe capital to file cases. The government reported data onprosecutions and convictions under the FEA, but given capacityconstraints was unable to provide the number of prosecutionsand convictions under the fraudulent recruitment section ofChapter 9 of the Act. During the year, the Foreign EmploymentPromotion Board continued to conduct safe migration radioprograms throughout the country, and increased the reachof its programs to all 75 districts, compared to 50 districtsthe previous year. The government worked with UNICEF andUNHCR to increase birth registrations. In order to reducethe demand for commercial sex acts, the government raidedestablishments suspected of child sex tourism and arrestedclients; however, with poor identification procedures, somesex trafficking victims also were arrested. All Nepali militarytroops and police assigned to international peacekeepingforces were provided pre-deployment anti-trafficking trainingfunded by a foreign government. Nepal is not a party to the2000 UN TIP Protocol.NETHERLANDS (Tier 1)The Netherlands is a source, destination, and transit countryfor men, women, and children subjected to trafficking inpersons, specifically forced prostitution and forced labor. TheNetherlands, Nigeria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Guinea,Romania, and China are the top eight countries of origin foridentified victims of mostly forced prostitution, accordingto the government, although victims from Macedonia andUganda also were found. Men and boys are subjected to forcedprostitution and various forms of forced labor, including inagriculture, horticulture, catering, food processing, cleaning,and illegal narcotics trafficking. Male victims were primarilyfrom Poland, Hungary, Nigeria, Angola, Sierra Leone, andGuinea in 2011 but also were seen from Ghana, China,Romania, Portugal, Suriname, and the Netherlands. There aresome reports that foreign diplomats posted in the Netherlandssubject their staff to domestic servitude. Groups vulnerable totrafficking include unaccompanied children seeking asylum,women with dependent residence status obtained through
NETHERLANDS263fraudulent or forced marriages, women recruited in Africa,and East Asian women working in massage parlors. Criminalnetworks often are involved in forced prostitution and forcedlabor involving foreigners, while those involved in forcedprostitution of Dutch residents may work independently andexploit one to two victims at a time. In 2011, the governmentreported an increased number of underage Dutch residentsas victims, who are increasingly controlled through force andviolence and recruited over the Internet.The Government of the Netherlands fully complies withthe minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.The government continued to employ a multi-disciplinaryapproach to its anti-trafficking efforts, which resulted in thedetection of more trafficking victims, increased investigationof forced labor, and an overall increase in the convictionof trafficking offenders. It continued to pursue pragmaticapproaches to improve victim care and increase victimincentives to cooperate with law enforcement. Sentences forconvicted traffickers, however, remained consistently lowduring the year.Recommendations for the Netherlands: Ensure convictedtrafficking offenders receive sentences commensurate withthe seriousness of the crime; continue to develop pragmaticapproaches to victim outreach within illegal and legal laborsectors, including potential victims inadvertently held indetention centers; ensure sufficient shelter capacity for thedelivery of comprehensive and specialized services fortrafficking victims; continue to employ innovative methodsto uncover and prosecute forced labor; continue to offer anti-trafficking training to improve identification of victims andprosecution of traffickers in Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Sabaislands; expand the government’s international leadershiprole to share best practices with other countries, in particularits practices on victim identification and assistance, protectionof unaccompanied foreign minors, and its pragmatic, self-critical approach to improving anti-trafficking results.ProsecutionThe Dutch government continued to develop and pursueinnovative and effective approaches to addressing humantrafficking through law enforcement means. The Netherlandsprohibits all forms of trafficking through criminal code Article273, which prescribes maximum sentences ranging from eightto 18 years’ imprisonment. These penalties are sufficientlystringent and commensurate with those prescribed for otherserious crimes, such as rape. In 2010, the last year for whichfinal trafficking statistics were available, the governmentprosecuted 135 suspected trafficking offenders, convicting 107.This is a significant increase from the 69 offenders convictedin 2009. The average sentence for convicted traffickingoffenders was approximately 21 months, the same averagefor sentences imposed in 2009 and 2008. In accordancewith the law, convicted offenders generally serve only two-thirds of their sentences, suggesting that many convictedtrafficking offenders likely serve little more than a year injail. Local police complain that low sentences for traffickerscontinued to result in the reappearance of the same offendersand thus the continued exploitation of trafficking victimswithin the regulated commercial sex sector. In February 2012,the government submitted a draft amendment to Parliamentto amend the trafficking law to increase the maximum prisonsentence from eight to 12 years’ imprisonment for a singletrafficking offense.The government continued to increase its prosecution forforced labor in 2011; the National Prosecutor’s office reportedit registered 24 labor exploitation investigations in 2011,compared to 11 in 2010. Furthermore, it reported there were10 labor trafficking cases since 2010, and the governmentobtained convictions for 12 persons. In April 2011, police,public prosecutors, and the local government launched a majoroperation to investigate human trafficking in The Hague’sred-light district. The operation resulted in the identificationof 54 potential trafficking victims and five ongoing criminalinvestigations. In December, police launched an investigationof suspected forced labor along the country’s highwaysinvolving Bulgarian toilet cleaners. In October, police andthe labor inspectorate began a joint large-scale investigationinto allegations of forced labor involving Philippine seamenworking in the country’s inland shipping sector. In October, acourt imposed a prison sentence of 2.5 years on an asparagusfarmer for subjecting Polish, Romanian, and Portugueseworkers to conditions of forced labor.One local official noted judges consistently hand down moresevere penalties for rape than for sex trafficking. There wereno reported official cases of trafficking-related complicity in2011; however, Amsterdam police believe that police assignedto anti-prostitution law enforcement efforts carry inherenttemptations for corruption. The force therefore requires anti-trafficking officers in Amsterdam to pass three examinationsin a specialized, 256-hour training course focused on workingwith trafficking victims and policing of the sex industry.Potential officers also must sign a code of conduct before theyare eligible to work in this sensitive sector.ProtectionThe Netherlands made appreciable progress in its efforts toproactively identify and assist trafficking victims. In 2011,Comensha, the government-funded national victim registrationcenter and assistance coordinator, registered 1,222 potentialtrafficking victims, an increase from 993 victims registeredin 2010 and a consistent increase from previous years. Themajority of these 1,222 victims were identified by the police.The government continued to operate an extensive networkof facilities providing a full range of trafficking-specializedservices for children, women, and men; the governmentprovided victims with legal, financial, and psychologicalassistance, shelter, medical care, social security benefits, andeducation financing. Victims in government shelters werenot detained involuntarily. Comensha reported a shortage ofaccommodation for trafficking victims requiring shelter in2011. Dutch authorities provided temporary residence permitsto allow foreign trafficking victims to stay in the Netherlandsduring a three-month reflection period, during which victimsreceived immediate care and services while they consideredwhether to assist law enforcement. The government providedpermanent residence status to some victims. In 2011, thegovernment granted 347 temporary residency permits to
264NETHERLANDStrafficking victims, approximately the same number it grantedin 2010; 280 permits were granted in 2009.During the year, the government increased its focus onhorticultural and agricultural sectors in the country,resulting in an increase in men identified in forced laborsectors. Authorities identified 226 males, compared to 113the previous year. Since January 2008, the government hasprovided unaccompanied children who are seeking asylumwith intensive counseling in secure shelters that protect themfrom traffickers; the government extended this pilot until theend of 2014. The government encouraged victims to assist inthe investigation and prosecution of traffickers although itlacked figures on the percentage of trafficking victims thatfiled charges against their traffickers during 2011. The NationalProsecutor’s Office reported that most victims did not file acomplaint, fearing retaliation by traffickers or deportationby officials.During the reporting period, the government continued tohouse trafficking victims in three specialized shelters basedon the success of an initial pilot project to determine whetherthe practice increases victim cooperation; according to thegovernment, 72 of the 112 victims participating in the projectfiled charges against their traffickers. The government alsodecided to extend a pilot project in which male traffickingvictims are offered shelter until the end of 2012. There wereno reports that any victims were punished for unlawful actscommitted as a direct result of being trafficked. However, oneNGO expressed concern that some unidentified traffickingvictims may be mistakenly detained by law enforcementwho may have missed signs of trafficking. To facilitate safeand voluntary repatriation, the Ministry of Foreign Affairshas developed a system to evaluate victims’ safety in fivecountries of return.PreventionThe government continued to pursue innovative approachesto prevent trafficking and address demand for commercialsex acts and forced labor during the reporting period. In 2011,the Foreign Ministry began informing foreign diplomats’domestic staff members, without their employers present,how to report cases of abuse. The government-funded victimprotection agency launched a social media campaign to raisepublic awareness about other forms of trafficking outsideof the sex industry. Furthermore, in August 2011, nationalpolice conducted an Internet chat session to inform youngadults about the practice of local pimps seducing youngwomen and then coercing them into sex trafficking andforced prostitution in the Netherlands. The human traffickingtask force presented its 2011-2014 action plan in July 2011;one activity includes a field study analysis of seven humantrafficking cases involving forced labor and sex traffickingidentified as sources of best practices in criminal investigations.The Task Force also published a separate 2011-2014 NationalAction Plan to address trafficking that occurs within thecountry involving locally-resident pimps and Dutch girls inDecember 2011.The government continued to demonstrate strong anti-trafficking leadership by transparently reporting andpublishing self-critical, public reports on its anti-traffickingefforts. According to a survey published by police forces in May2011, only nine out of 25 regional police forces complied withstrict internal guidelines on combating human trafficking. Thegovernment-funded, autonomous Office of the Dutch NationalRapporteur on Trafficking monitored the government’santi-trafficking efforts and, in January 2012, published aninventory of human trafficking cases prosecuted between2006 and 2010. In 2011, the Social Affairs Ministry continuedits awareness campaign informing citizens and certain targetgroups, including trade unions and work councils, aboutthe existence of labor exploitation in the Netherlands. Themilitary provided training on the prevention of traffickingand additional training on recognizing trafficking victims fortroops being deployed abroad on missions as internationalpeacekeepers.Bonaire, St. Eustatius and SabaOn October 10, 2010, the Kingdom of the Netherlandsobtained a new constitutional structure under which the“Netherlands Antilles” ceased to exist as an entity within theKingdom. As of that date, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba (theBES islands) became part of the Netherlands. On September27, 2010, the government adjusted the Criminal Code of theBES islands to reflect the new structure. The criminal codecontains a prohibition of trafficking in persons, both forsexual and labor exploitation (Art 286f). The governmentreported this article is similar to the human trafficking articlein the country’s criminal code, although prescribed penaltiesare lower, ranging from six years for the lowest-level singleoffense, to 15 years in the case of a trafficking victim’s death.The BES islands are a transit and destination area for womenand children who are subjected to trafficking in persons,specifically forced prostitution, and for men and womenin conditions of forced labor. The women in prostitution inboth the BES islands’ regulated and illegal commercial sexsectors are highly vulnerable to human trafficking, as areunaccompanied children on the islands. Local authoritiesbelieve that men and women also have been subjected toinvoluntary domestic servitude and other forms of forced laborin the agricultural and construction sectors. Some migrantsin restaurants and local businesses may be vulnerable todebt bondage.In June 2011, the Netherlands, also representing BES, signeda new memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Aruba,Curacao and St. Maarten to increase cooperation on anti-trafficking to improve victim identification and prosecutionof traffickers on the islands. Part of the MOU includesestablishment of a “twinning” system for officials fromthe four countries of the Kingdom and the BES to provideeach other with technical support toward developing anti-trafficking investigations and prosecutions, as well as shelterand information campaigns. In January 2012, anti-traffickingexperts from the Netherlands delivered a two-day anti-trafficking training in the BES islands involving 40 officialsfrom 10 organizations. Although formal interagency anti-trafficking working groups operated in Bonaire, Saba, andSt. Eustatius, neither local authorities nor the Government ofthe Netherlands reported the identification of any potentialtrafficking victims. Moreover, no trafficking prosecutions orconvictions were initiated on these islands during the reportingperiod. The central government continued to provide in-kindsupport for human trafficking hotlines in St. Maarten andBonaire, but there were no awareness campaigns specificallytargeting potential clients of the sex trade in the BES islandsin an effort to reduce demand for commercial sex acts.
NEWZEALAND265NEW ZEALAND (Tier 1)New Zealand is a source country for underage girls subjectedto internal sex trafficking and a destination country for foreignmen and women subjected to forced labor. Foreign men,largely from Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand, aresubjected to conditions of forced labor, including debt bondage,aboard foreign-flagged fishing vessels in New Zealand waters.Alleged conditions experienced by workers on these boats –most of which are Republic of Korea (South Korea)-flagged– include confiscation of passports, imposition of significantdebts, physical violence, mental abuse, and excessive hoursof work. Prior press reports and the UN Inter-Agency Projecton Human Trafficking have indicated that fishermen fromVietnam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia are also allegedlyvictims of forced labor on fishing vessels in New Zealandwaters. Foreign women, including some from China andSoutheast Asia, may be recruited from their home countries bylabor agents for the purpose of prostitution and may be at riskof coercive practices. A small number of girls and boys, oftenof Maori or Pacific Islander descent, are trafficked domesticallyto engage in street prostitution while some are victims of gang-controlled trafficking rings. Some Asian and Pacific Islanderindividuals migrate voluntarily to New Zealand to work inthe agricultural sector and are subsequently forced to work inconditions different from what was stipulated in their contracts.Some foreign workers report being charged excessive – andescalating – recruitment fees, experiencing unjustified salarydeductions and restrictions on their movement, having theirpassports confiscated and contracts altered, or being subjectedto a change in working conditions without their permission– all indicators of human trafficking.The Government of New Zealand fully complies with theminimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Duringthe reporting period, the government initiated research toinvestigate the extent of human trafficking in the fishingsector and in the legalized sex trade; however, it made noconvictions or prosecutions under the country’s traffickinglegislation. Additionally, the government is undertaking alegal review of national anti-trafficking legislation to ensureits compliance with international norms. While a traffickinginvestigation continued at the end of the reporting period,and potential victims were identified and provided withsome services, the government did not formally identify anypersons as trafficking victims during the year.E E E B ERecommendations for New Zealand: Draft and enactlegislation that will expand New Zealand’s current anti-trafficking legal framework to prohibit and adequately punishall forms of human trafficking; update the 2009 national planof Action to reflect the current trafficking in persons situationin the country; make greater efforts to assess the full extentof sex and labor trafficking occurring in New Zealand;significantly increase efforts to investigate and prosecute bothsex and labor trafficking offenders; investigate and prosecuteemployment recruiting agencies or employers who subjectforeign workers to debt bondage or involuntary servitude;continue and increase efforts to proactively screen vulnerablepopulations, including women in prostitution, foreign workers,and illegal migrants, in order to identify and assist traffickingvictims; increase efforts to identify and assist child sextrafficking victims; continue to make proactive efforts toidentify victims of labor trafficking, particularly amongpopulations of vulnerable foreign laborers; and implementan ongoing anti-trafficking awareness campaign directed atclients of both the legal and illegal sex trades.ProsecutionThe Government of New Zealand made efforts to investigatesuspected trafficking offenses but failed to convict and punishany trafficking offenders during the reporting period. NewZealand does not have a comprehensive anti-traffickinglaw. Although the government maintains that its traffickinglaws comply under the 2000 UN TIP Protocol, it announcedduring the year that it would undertake a review of its lawsto ensure that they are in fact consistent with internationalanti-trafficking norms and the 2000 UN TIP Protocol. CurrentNew Zealand statutes which explicitly define human traffickingprovide a narrow definition of trafficking as a transnationaloffense, while other provisions, specifically those found in theCrimes Act of 1961, address some forms of forced labor anddomestic trafficking offenses. It appears that New Zealand lawdoes not criminalize all forms of forced labor. First, althoughslavery is prohibited, its definition only covers situations of debtbondage and serfdom; thus, this prohibition does not coverforced labor obtained by means other than debt, law, custom,or agreement that prohibits a person from leaving employment.Because the prohibition of trafficking is limited to transnationalactions such as the abduction, use of force or threat, or force,coercion, or deception to arrange entry into New Zealand – anddoes not include reference to exploitation, there appears tobe no legal prohibition on the domestic recruitment, transfer,or transportation of adults for the purpose of exploitation.Furthermore, there do not appear to be additional prohibitionscovering types of forced labor, such as that which is coercedby overt force or compelled by other means, which do not fitinto the laws’ narrow definition of slavery. The Dealing inSlaves statute and the Prostitution Reform Act criminalizesex trafficking. These statutes prohibit inducing or compellinga person to provide commercial sexual services and, withregard to children, provide a broader prohibition to includefacilitating, assigning, causing, or encouraging a child toprovide commercial sexual services. While statutory penaltiesfor these crimes are generally commensurate with thoseprescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape, the maximumpenalty of seven years’ imprisonment prescribed for the sextrafficking of children is not commensurate with penaltiesimposed for rape or with the maximum penalty of 14 years’imprisonment prescribed for inducing or compelling thecommercial sexual services of an adult. Previous researchindicates that children have been prostituted, includingby gangs, and the government acknowledges the risk ofexploitation of some children. However, there were no suchvictims identified or cases reported during the year.The Crimes Act of 1961 and the Wages Protection Act of 1983prohibit fraudulent employment and recruiting practices,though the government has never prosecuted suspectedtrafficking offenders under these laws, which prescribesufficiently stringent penalties of up to 20 years’ imprisonment
266NEWZEALANDand a fine in an amount equivalent to $250,000. Thesepenalties are commensurate with those prescribed for otherserious crimes, such as rape. The Immigration Act prohibitsretention or control of a person’s passport or any other travelor identity document, though there were no prosecutions forpassport confiscation during the year. During the reportingperiod, the government initiated six criminal investigationsconcerning forced labor on South Korean-flagged fishing vesselsoperating in New Zealand waters and under charter by NewZealand registered companies; these investigations remainedongoing at the close of the reporting period. Reports regardingforced labor on the South Korean-flagged fishing vesselsrevealed several abuses, including mental and physical abuse,sexual harassment, and withholding of payment or alteredcompensation. Although the government has charged the sixSouth Korean-flagged fishing vessels for environment – relatedoffenses, including the dumping of fish to evade quotas, it hasyet to charge them with alleged forced labor of crew members.ProtectionThe government demonstrated efforts to protect humantrafficking victims during the reporting period. The country’slaws require that victims of crime, including human trafficking,receive access to and information about services includingmedical care, legal aid, and psycho-social counseling; thegovernment offers these services to individuals on a case-by-case basis. Also on a case-by-case basis, the New Zealandpolice, provide amenities, such as food and shelter, to meetthe immediate needs of victims of crime and refer them toNGOs or other service providers.Over 120 possible victims of forced labor aboard foreignchartered vessels in the commercial fishing industry wereidentified by NGOs and the government during the reportingperiod. The majority of these individuals, all men, claimedsevere underpayment of wages, and some also allegedexperiencing additional abuse. These conditions aboard thevessels led to several crews leaving their ships en masse duringthe reporting period. Thirty-two Indonesian fishermen wereprovided immediate welfare, including short-term shelter andfood during the initial phase of one subsequent investigation.Additionally, immigration officials granted six crew memberstemporary visas, with work rights, to remain in the countryto represent the crews’ interests in the recovery of wages, toprovide testimony regarding fish dumping in contraventionof environmental regulations, and to assist in the ongoinginvestigation of human trafficking aboard the vessels. Theremaining members of this crew returned to Indonesia.Members of other crews have been repatriated.New Zealand’s laws authorize temporary residency to victimsof trafficking for up to 12 months and makes them eligible for avariety of government-provided or government-funded services.During the reporting period, a citizen of New Zealand wasrepatriated from the Philippines after being subjected to humantrafficking. Upon her return to New Zealand, she receivedappropriate trafficking victim support services, includingmedical and counseling services.PreventionThe Government of New Zealand continued to make effortsto prevent trafficking during the reporting year. The Ministryof Social Development continued to distribute brochures ontrafficking indicators in six languages to regional departments,which distributed them to community groups, as well asthose in the sex trade and the horticulture and viticultureindustries. At the Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurchinternational airports, the Department of Labor displayedposters warning people of trafficking vulnerabilities andproviding websites where migrant workers can seek additionalhelp. In the months preceding the Rugby World Cup, hostedby New Zealand in September and October 2011, ImmigrationNew Zealand worked with law enforcement agencies inpotential source countries, such as Australia, South Africa,Hong Kong, and Singapore to develop a strategy to preventtransnational trafficking, including through the relocation oflaw enforcement staff and other resources.During the reporting period, Immigration New Zealandstarted a nationwide operation increasing the monitoringof brothels to ensure compliance with applicable laws andto identify victims of human trafficking, including forcedlabor or debt bondage. The Department of Labor establisheda working group to examine issues that affect vulnerablemigrant workers, specifically those on dairy farms, and thegovernment funded a study based in Auckland on migrantwomen in the legal sex trade to explore conditions that maylead to their exploitation and coercion.In response to a series of academic, NGO, and press reportson the significant prevalence of forced labor aboard SouthKorean-flagged fishing vessels operating in New Zealandwaters, the Government of New Zealand commissioned aministerial inquiry in September 2011 to examine the extent ofallegations of trafficking and mistreatment of crews, complaintsof underpayment, questions about vessel safety standards, andreported breaches of fisheries and environmental regulations.The ministerial inquiry released its final report in March 2012,outlining 15 recommendations, of which six were immediatelyaccepted by the government; other recommendations, somerequiring legislative changes, are said to be long-term andremain under consideration. Perhaps the most significantrecommendations are those that call on the government toamend the Fisheries Act of 1996 to restrict foreign charteredvessels operating within New Zealand’s exclusive economiczone to those under direct charter agreements, and to requireall crews on these vessels to be covered under New Zealandemployment contracts guaranteeing adequate wages andworking conditions.The government’s inter-agency working group on trafficking,led by the Department of Labor, met twice during the reportingperiod. The government did not take significant steps toreduce the overall demand for commercial sex acts in thedecriminalized commercial sex industry. During the reportingperiod, the Department of Labor developed an online trainingmodule on trafficking in persons to make compulsory for allnew staff. The government trained customs, immigration, labor,and police officers on identifying victims of trafficking andon victim interview techniques. Front-line customs officersreceived training aimed at raising their awareness of traffickingindicators and were provided templates of possible questionsto ask if they encounter suspected victims of human trafficking.No women in prostitution were identified as trafficking victimsby compliance inspectors during their interviews of womenin brothels. In November 2011, a man was found guilty forfacilitating child sex tourism to Thailand through a website. Hewas the first person in New Zealand to be charged with suchan offense, and in February 2012 he was sentenced to threeyears’ imprisonment. The government provided anti-trafficking
NICARAGUA267training to military personnel prior to their deployment abroadon international peacekeeping missions.NICARAGUA (Tier 1)Nicaragua is principally a source and transit country formen, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking andforced labor. Nicaraguan women and children are subjectedto sex trafficking within the country as well as in neighboringcountries, most often in other Central American states, Mexico,and the United States. Trafficking victims are recruited inrural areas for work in urban centers, particularly Managua,Granada, and San Juan del Sur, and subsequently coercedinto prostitution. Nicaraguan girls are reportedly subjectedto sex trafficking along the country’s Atlantic Coast. To alesser extent, adults and children are subjected to conditionsof forced labor in agriculture and domestic servitude withinthe country and in Costa Rica, Panama, and other countriesin the region. During the year, authorities reported a potentialforced labor case involving 18 Nicaraguan men who werefalsely recruited for work in Guatemala and were insteadtaken to Mexico to be trained in criminal activity by a drugtrafficking organization; 10 of the men escaped and returnedhome. Nicaragua is a destination country for a limited numberof women and children from neighboring countries exploitedin sex trafficking. Managua, Granada, Esteli, and San Juandel Sur are destinations for foreign child sex tourists from theUnited States, Canada, and Western Europe.The Government of Nicaragua fully complies with the minimumstandards for the elimination of trafficking in persons. Thegovernment significantly improved its anti-trafficking lawenforcement efforts during the reporting period, specificallythrough an increased number of investigations, prosecutions,and convictions of traffickers. During the year, authoritiesopened a shelter for human trafficking victims, despite limitedresources; however, victim services remained uneven across thecountry. The government maintained anti-trafficking preventionefforts in partnership with civil society organizations.E B ERecommendations for Nicaragua: Continue to investigateand prosecute all forms of human trafficking, and convictand punish trafficking offenders; institute clear, formal, andproactive procedures for identifying trafficking victims amongvulnerable populations; ensure that victims identified withinthe country and repatriated Nicaraguan victims are referredto appropriate services; provide adequate funding forspecialized services for trafficking victims, including the newshelter, as well as for specialized anti-trafficking police units;develop a unified system for tracking trafficking lawenforcement data and statistics; partner with civil societyorganizations to ensure that victims receive long-term careand reintegration services; provide foreign victims with legalalternatives to deportation; increase training and resourcesfor government officials in order to identify and provideservices to victims of sex trafficking and forced labor; instituteefforts to reduce the demand for commercial sexual exploitationof children; continue to strengthen mechanisms at the locallevel to raise awareness and to identify and respond totrafficking cases; and continue to raise awareness of all formsof human trafficking through increased public awarenessefforts and campaigns.ProsecutionThe Government of Nicaragua sustained progress in itslaw enforcement efforts against human trafficking duringthe reporting period. Nicaragua criminalizes all forms ofhuman trafficking through Article 182 of its penal code, whichprohibits trafficking in persons for the purposes of slavery,sexual exploitation, and adoption, prescribing penaltiesof seven to 12 years’ imprisonment. In January 2012, thisarticle was amended, increasing penalties to 10 to 14 years’imprisonment and broadening the scope of offenses that can beprosecuted as human trafficking; these reforms will come intoeffect in May 2012. A separate statute, Article 315, prohibitsthe submission, maintenance, or forced recruitment of anotherperson into slavery, forced labor, servitude, or participationin an armed conflict; this offense carries penalties of five toeight years’ imprisonment. These prescribed punishmentsare sufficiently stringent and commensurate with penaltiesprescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Authoritiesmaintained anti-trafficking units in the capital, established inlate 2010, within the intelligence and judicial police forces, aswell as within the Women’s Police Commission, with a totalof 14 officers in these central offices. Additionally, a policeofficer was designated as an anti-trafficking point personin each of the country’s 16 departments and each of thecapital’s 10 districts; these officers received anti-traffickingtraining and were appointed to work with the specializedunits in investigating cases. although authorities held quarterlyworking meetings to develop and track case data, a lack ofcentralized data often resulted in conflicting data on lawenforcement efforts.During the reporting period, police investigated 26 potentialtrafficking cases, including two labor trafficking cases, andjudicial authorities initiated 21 prosecutions, compared with19 investigations and five prosecutions initiated during theprevious reporting period. All accused trafficking offendersapprehended during the year were reported to be in preventivedetention. The government convicted nine trafficking offendersduring the reporting period, and sentenced them to seven to12 years’ imprisonment; in comparison, during the previousreporting period, authorities reported five convictions.Nicaraguan authorities collaborated with the governmentsof neighboring countries to investigate jointly traffickingcases and repatriate returning trafficking victims from abroad.In partnership with civil society organizations, authoritiesprovided specialized training on trafficking investigativetechniques to over 1,500 law enforcement officers, and theNicaraguan foreign ministry trained its consular officials inseveral countries on how to identify trafficking victims. Therewere no reported investigations, prosecutions, or convictionsfor official complicity during the year.ProtectionThe Government of Nicaragua significantly increasedefforts to protect trafficking victims during the last year byopening a dedicated shelter in the capital and identifying
268NIGERa greater number of victims, although specialized servicesremained uneven across the country. There were no formalprocedures for identifying trafficking victims among high-risk populations, such as adults and children in prostitution.Police reported identifying 85 potential trafficking victimsin 2011, a significant increase from 18 victims identifiedin 2010. It is unclear, however, how many of these victimsreceived specialized services, though 16 were assisted atthe new government-run shelter opened in Managua in2011, which cost up to the equivalent of $100,000. Duringthe reporting period, 16 adult women received services atthe shelter, which is managed by the women’s police anti-trafficking unit with a staff of five officers. Authorities werestill in the process of developing protocols to govern the useof the shelter, which is designed to provide temporary lodging.The regional departments most affected by human traffickinglacked adequate services. However, NGOs operated shelters forat-risk children and female adult victims of domestic abuse inRio San Juan, Esteli, Rivas, and Managua, and the governmentoperated one short-term shelter for children who are victimsof domestic or sexual abuse in Managua. It was unclear howmany trafficking victims were assisted at these shelters duringthe reporting period, though one NGO reported assisting 15child trafficking victims, 10 of whom were referred by thegovernment. While the government did not provide fundingto these NGOs, officials referred victims to them for assistance.Victims received limited medical and psychological assistancefrom the government, as well as education when appropriate,though longer-term care was minimal. Services and shelterfor male victims remained limited.The government encouraged victims to participate in traffickinginvestigations and prosecutions, though some were reluctantto do so due to social stigma and fear of retribution fromtraffickers. During the year a record 44 victims testified inthe prosecution of their traffickers. There were no reports ofvictims being penalized for unlawful acts committed as a directresult of being trafficked. Although there is no trafficking-specific legal alternative to the removal of foreign victims tocountries where they may face hardship or retribution, victimsoften were allowed to remain in the country temporarily.PreventionThe Nicaraguan government maintained efforts to preventtrafficking during the last year, mostly in partnership withcivil society organizations and with foreign governmentfunding. The government-run anti-trafficking coalition,which is composed of government and civil society actors,was responsible for coordinating anti-trafficking efforts andimplementing its strategic plan, and met every two months.The coalition continued to organize regional working groupsto address trafficking at the local level in the country’s 15departments and two autonomous regions, and trained over500 members of these groups. The regional groups variedin effectiveness, with some still in the developmental stage.Different government entities coordinated with the coalitionon awareness efforts and reported reaching over 22,000Nicaraguans with messages on general women’s issues andhuman trafficking. There were no reported investigations ofchild sex tourism during the reporting period. The governmentreported no initiatives to reduce demand for commercialsexual acts or for forced labor.NIGER (Tier 2 Watch List)Niger is a source, transit, and destination country for children,women, and men subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.Caste-based slavery practices continue primarily in thenorthern part of the country. Nigerien boys are subjected toforced begging or forced labor within the country, as well as inMali and Nigeria, by corrupt marabouts (religious instructors);these individuals, or other loosely-organized clandestinenetworks, may also place Nigerien girls into domestic servitudeor the sex trade. Nigerien children are subjected to forcedlabor in gold mines, agriculture, and stone quarries withinthe country. Girls are subjected to prostitution along theborder with Nigeria, particularly along the main highwaybetween the towns of Birni N’Konni and Zinder. Nigeriengirls reportedly enter into “marriages” with citizens of Nigeriaand foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia and the UnitedArab Emirates, after which they are forced into domesticservitude upon arrival in these countries. In the Tahoua regionof Niger, girls born into slavery are forced to marry men whobuy them as “fifth wives” and subsequently subject them toforced labor and sexual servitude; their children are born intoslave castes. Traditional chiefs play a primary role in this formof exploitation, either through enslaving children in theirown families or arranging “marriages” for other powerfulindividuals. A small number of girls in forced marriages maybe prostituted by their “husbands,” and a larger number areexploited in the sex trade after fleeing their nominal marriages.Nigerien women and children are recruited from Niger andtransported to Nigeria, North Africa, the Middle East, andEurope where they are subsequently subjected to domesticservitude and sex trafficking. There were unconfirmed reportsduring the year that Chinese workers were forced to labor at apetroleum refinery in Niger. Niger is a transit country for men,women, and children from Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon,Gabon, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Togo migrating en route toAlgeria, Libya, and Western Europe; some may be subjected toforced labor in Niger as domestic servants, mechanics, welders,laborers in mines and on farms, or in bars and restaurants.The Government of Niger does not fully comply with theminimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Thegovernment has not shown evidence of increasing efforts toaddress human trafficking compared to the previous year;therefore, Niger is placed on Tier 2 Watch List for a thirdconsecutive year. Niger was granted a waiver from an otherwiserequired downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has awritten plan that, if implemented, would constitute makingsignificant efforts to meet the minimum standards for theelimination of trafficking and is devoting sufficient resourcesto that plan. During the year, the government took some stepsto finalize a national legal framework to combat traffickingand the president spoke publicly about the government’scommitment to pursue vigorous law enforcement actionagainst slavery, child prostitution, exploitive child begging,and other forms of human trafficking. It was notable that thispublic proclamation explicitly referenced particular forms oftrafficking and included a vow to apply severe penalties totraffickers, as senior Nigerien officials had previously exhibitedan unwillingness to acknowledge the persistence of traditionalslavery, and government efforts to apply criminal penaltiesto those who exploit others for compelled service have beenvirtually nonexistent.
NIGER269E E B ERecommendations for Niger: Issue policy guidance torelevant agencies for full implementation of the anti-traffickinglaw; continue to respond to legal complaints filed by NGOswhile increasing efforts to initiate investigations and punishtrafficking offenders, particularly those guilty of slaveryoffenses, using the anti-trafficking law; hand down adequatesentences for individuals convicted of committing traffickingcrimes, and enforce court judgments; train law enforcementand judicial officials throughout the country on the provisionsof the anti-trafficking law and ensure the text of the law iswidely distributed; in coordination with NGOs andinternational organizations, train law enforcement officialsto identify trafficking victims proactively among vulnerablepopulations, such as women in prostitution, girls born intoslave castes, and children at worksites; develop systematicprocedures to refer identified victims to protective servicesand support NGO partners in providing victim care; increaseefforts to rescue victims of traditional slavery practices; initiatelaw enforcement investigations into suspected cases of localofficials colluding with traffickers or accepting bribes toobstruct criminal investigations of trafficking crimes,particularly traditional slavery; include civil societyrepresentatives in anti-trafficking policy discussions and ensurethey are given a platform to provide meaningful input topolicymaking decisions; allocate funding for the operation ofthe National Commission for the Coordination of the Fightagainst Trafficking in Persons and the National Agency for theFight against Trafficking in Persons; and implement an initiativeto raise public awareness about the new anti-trafficking law,specifically targeting vulnerable populations, and encouragevictims to exercise their rights under the law.ProsecutionThe Government of Niger demonstrated weak efforts toinvestigate and prosecute trafficking cases during the year,failing to implement its anti-trafficking law, Order No. 2010-86 on Combating Trafficking in Persons. This law prohibitsall forms of trafficking, including slavery and practices similarto slavery, and prescribes a punishment of five to 10 years’imprisonment for committing trafficking crimes againstadults. These prescribed penalties are sufficiently stringent,but not commensurate with penalties prescribed for otherserious crimes, such as rape. The law prescribes an increasedpenalty of 10 to 30 years’ imprisonment when the victimis a child. The law defines slavery and practices similar toslavery and specifically prohibits exploitative begging. Duringthe year, the law remained nonoperational, as it lacked thenecessary guidance for its implementation. In March 2012, thegovernment established, via decree, two coordinating bodiescharged with developing Niger’s anti-trafficking policies andguidance for implementing its laws, the first step towardmaking the anti-trafficking law operational. Other statutesprohibit some forms of trafficking, but were not used toprosecute cases during the reporting period. The country’spre-existing penal code prohibits slavery, procurement of achild for prostitution, and the encouragement of or profitingfrom child begging in articles 270 (as amended in 2003),292-293, and 181, respectively, and its labor code outlawsforced and compulsory labor in Article 4. The penal code’sprescribed penalty of 10 to 30 years’ imprisonment for slaveryoffenses is sufficiently stringent. The penalties prescribed inthe labor code for forced labor – fines ranging from up to theequivalent of $48 to $598 and from six days’ to one month’simprisonment – are not sufficiently stringent.During the reporting period, the government investigated twosuspected trafficking cases, but did not prosecute or convictany offenders, representing a decline in its efforts from theprevious year. It continued to fail to identify cases and initiateinvestigations independently, and only took law enforcementaction in a small number of instances after cases were broughtto its attention by local NGOs. Structural barriers impededvictims’ access to justice, as they were often uninformedabout their legal rights and lacked the necessary capacitiesand resources to seek punitive action against their exploiters.In December 2011, police arrested five marabouts suspectedof forcing children to beg, but released all suspects after twodays in police custody. In the same month, the governmentreported arresting two additional suspected child traffickerswho remained in pre-trial detention at the close of the reportingperiod; it did not provide details about the nature of the case.There were no reported developments in a 2010 case in whicha man was accused of re-enslaving two former slaves, andinformation was not available on a slavery case pending since2006, suggesting it is no longer pending. An NGO in Tahouareported a small number of slavery prosecutions that have beenongoing for years remained pending, but no alleged traffickershave been detained. In one infamous case during the year, thegovernment failed to initiate an investigation or prosecutionagainst a marabout in Agadez who was known to be forcing 350children to beg on the streets; some children remained in thecustody of the suspected trafficker at the end of the reportingperiod. The government did not provide specialized training tolaw enforcement officers on the identification and investigationof trafficking cases, but foreign donors provided some trainingto officials. In September 2011, Nigerien officials met withcounterparts in northern Nigeria to discuss cross-bordertrafficking, but this meeting did not yield discernible progresstoward a bilateral MOU between the two governments. Therewere reports that local officials chose not to pursue slavery casesbrought to their attention due to social or political connectionsof the alleged traffickers. There is no evidence of public officials’complicity in trafficking, though civil society representativesargued that judicial failure to focus adequately on slaverycases brought to their attention amounted to tacit complicity.No government officials were investigated, prosecuted, orconvicted for involvement in trafficking or trafficking-relatedcriminal activities during the reporting period.ProtectionThe government undertook few efforts to protect traffickingvictims during the year, and it relied almost exclusively onNGOs and international organizations to identify victimsand provide them with services. Authorities did not developor employ proactive measures to identify trafficking victimsamong vulnerable populations, such as women and girls borninto traditional slave castes or children at worksites. Moreover,there were no formal procedures to guide officials in referringidentified victims to protective services; police often did notknow where to refer victims for care. The government provided
270NIGERIAmedical assistance and temporary shelter in social servicefacilities to a small number of child victims and referredothers on an ad hoc basis to local NGOs for care, but it didnot provide services to adult victims or victims of hereditaryservitude. The majority of victims were identified and caredfor by NGOs without government involvement, and NGOcapacity was inadequate. Victims were often forced to returnto their villages after a few months if NGO resources ran out,and some children spent the night in police stations whenshelter space was not available. The government and NGOsidentified 490 victims during the year, 315 of whom wereremoved from situations of exploitation and some of whomreceived protective services and temporary shelter. In June2011, local government officials worked with a local NGO andan international organization to rescue 175 children who hadbeen subjected to forced begging by a marabout in Agadez; thechildren were returned to their families, but did not receiveadditional services. Due to a lack of funding, an additional 175victims were not rescued during this operation and remainedin the custody of the marabout. Recent reports indicate that, as aresult of NGO awareness campaigns, additional children wereremoved from forced begging by their parents and relativesand returned to their villages, and only a small number ofchildren remain at the marabout’s school.The government did not assist any foreign victims withrepatriation to their home country during the year, and anNGO reported some repatriations were on hold due to a lackof funds or of government cooperation or both. The regionalgovernment of Agadez continued to operate a committeecomprised of police and local officials to assist in returningNigerien migrants deported from North Africa to their countriesor communities of origin, though it did not make effortsto identify trafficking victims among this population. Thegovernment reported that adult victims would be encouragedto assist in the investigation and prosecution of traffickingcases, though none were identified during the year. Therewere no reports that identified victims were detained, fined, orjailed for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of beingtrafficked; however, the government did not make adequateefforts to identify trafficking victims, which may have led tosome victims being treated as law violators. Front-line officialsdid not receive training to identify victims and refer them toprotective services, and border guards often denied entry tosuspected traffickers and victims, rather than attempting torescue victims and place them in protective care.PreventionThe Government of Niger made some efforts to preventhuman trafficking during the year. The president spokepublicly about his administration’s commitment to combatinghuman trafficking, including domestic slavery, and seniorgovernment officials provided remarks at anti-traffickingtraining sessions funded by international donors. In Mayand September 2011, the National Statistics Institute releasedstudies on forced labor it produced in partnership with aninternational organization. There was no coordinating bodyfor the government’s anti-trafficking efforts during the year;the multi-stakeholder National Commission against ForcedLabor and Discrimination discontinued its work due to a lackof funding. The National Commission for the Coordinationof the Fight against Trafficking in Persons and the NationalAgency for the Fight against Trafficking in Persons, required bythe 2010 law to develop and implement Niger’s anti-traffickingpolicies, came into existence via an implementing decree inMarch 2012. The government did not, however, appoint staffor distribute funding necessary to make these bodies fullyoperational. During the year, the government drafted a five-year action plan to combat trafficking. It took no discerniblemeasures to address the demand for forced labor or commercialsex acts. Bylaws governing Niger’s armed forces require troopsto receive anti-trafficking training prior to their deploymentabroad on international peacekeeping missions, though thereis no evidence the government implemented this training.NIGERIA (Tier 2)Nigeria is a source, transit, and destination country for womenand children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.Trafficked Nigerians are recruited from rural, and to a lesserextent urban, areas within the country: women and girls fordomestic servitude and sex trafficking, and boys for forced laborin street vending, domestic service, mining, stone quarries,agriculture, and begging. Nigerian women and children aretaken from Nigeria to other West and Central African countries,as well as South Africa, where they are exploited for the samepurposes. Children from West African countries, primarilyBenin, Ghana, and Togo, are forced to work in Nigeria, andmany are subjected to hazardous labor in Nigeria’s granitemines. Nigerian women and girls, primarily from Benin Cityin Edo State, are subjected to forced prostitution in Italy, whileNigerian women and girls from other states are subjectedto forced prostitution in Spain, Scotland, the Netherlands,Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Sweden,Switzerland, Norway, Ireland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic,Greece, and Russia. Nigerian women and children are recruitedand transported to destinations in North Africa, the MiddleEast, and Central Asia, where they are held captive in the sextrade or in forced labor. Nigerian women are trafficked toMalaysia where they are forced into prostitution and to workas drug mules for their traffickers. Nigerian traffickers relyon threats of voodoo curses to control Nigerian victims andforce them into situations of prostitution or labor. Nigeriangangs traffic large numbers of Nigerian women into forcedprostitution in the Czech Republic and Italy, and EUROPOLhas identified Nigerian organized crime as one of the largestlaw enforcement challenges to European governments.The Government of Nigeria does not fully comply with theminimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, butis making significant effort to do so. During the reportingperiod, the government did not demonstrate sufficient progressin its anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts. Roughly athird of convicted traffickers received fines in lieu of prisontime, and despite identifying 386 labor trafficking victimsthe government prosecuted only two forced labor cases. TheNational Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons andOther Related Matters (NAPTIP), established by the 2003Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law to coordinate and facilitatethe government’s anti-trafficking agenda, did not increaseits funding for protective services and its victim sheltersoffered limited reintegration services and were not always well-maintained. Despite documentation of a staggering numberof Nigerians trafficking victims identified in countries aroundthe world, the government inconsistently employed measuresto provide services to repatriated victims. However, NAPTIPdid execute its first joint law enforcement exercise with theGovernment of Mali which led to the arrest of traffickingperpetrators and to the rescue of Nigerian trafficking victims.
NIGERIA271E E B ERecommendations for Nigeria: Ensure that the activities ofNAPTIP are funded sufficiently, particularly for prosecutingtrafficking offenders and providing adequate care for victims;increase investigations and prosecutions of labor traffickingoffenses, and convictions and punishments of labor traffickingoffenses; vigorously pursue trafficking investigations,prosecutions, and convictions and impose adequate sentenceson convicted trafficking offenders, including imprisonmentwhenever appropriate; train police and immigration officialsto identify trafficking victims among vulnerable populations,such as women in prostitution and young females travelingwith non-family members; provide mandatory training to allNAPTIP shelter counselors, specifically addressing key traumaissues unique to trafficking victims; increase the provision ofeducational and vocational training services to victims at allgovernment shelters; develop a formal system to track thenumber of victims repatriated from abroad, and uponrepatriation ensure they are aware of available protectiveservices; ensure NAPTIP productively interacts with and receivessupport from other government agencies that come in contactwith trafficking issues; and take proactive measures to investigateand prosecute government officials suspected of trafficking-related corruption and complicity in trafficking offenses.ProsecutionThe Government of Nigeria did not demonstrate adequateprogress in its anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts duringthe year. After a severe reduction in prosecutions in 2010, thepercentage of investigations of suspected trafficking offenses thatresulted in court proceedings increased slightly in 2011; howeverthe number of cases prosecuted remained low compared tothe large numbers of trafficking investigations. Furthermore,sentencing of offenders was inadequate and, despite largenumbers of identified forced labor victims, the governmentcontinued to neglect the prosecution of labor traffickingcrimes. The 2003 Trafficking in Persons Law Enforcement andAdministration Act, amended in 2005 to increase penalties fortrafficking offenders, prohibits all forms of human trafficking.The law prescribed penalties of five years’ imprisonment ora fine not to exceed the equivalent of $645 or both for labortrafficking offenses; these are sufficiently stringent, but the lawallows convicted offenders to pay a fine in lieu of prison timefor labor trafficking or attempted trafficking offenses, whichis a penalty that is not proportionate to the crime committed.The law prescribes penalties of 10 to 15 years’ imprisonment forsex trafficking offenses and a fine of the equivalent of $1,250,or both. For sentences that include only a fine, penalties arenot sufficiently stringent.NAPTIP initiated 279 new investigations during the reportingperiod, prosecuted 15 trafficking cases, and convicted 23traffickers. Despite identifying almost 400 forced labor victims,NAPTIP only prosecuted two forced labor cases, in comparisonwith 13 forced prostitution cases. All cases were tried underarticles within the 2003 Trafficking in Persons Law Enforcementand Administration Act. Sentences ranged from six months’ to14 years’ imprisonment and fines ranged from the equivalent of$63 to $316 – below the maximum fines to the equivalent of$645 to $1,250. Of the 23 offenders convicted, eight receiveda jail sentence with the option of a fine in lieu of time served,13 offenders received jail time with no option of a fine, andtwo received both jail time and a fine. NAPTIP officials heldworkshops with federal and state judges to educate themon the trafficking in person’s law, the particular challengesfaced in prosecuting this crime, and on the need to applystricter penalties in trafficking cases. NAPTIP proposed draftlegislation to the national assembly that would eliminate theoption of handing down only a fine in trafficking convictions.The national assembly has yet to pass these amendmentsinto law and judges continued to use fines in lieu of prisonsentences. At the conclusion of the reporting period, 118trafficking cases remained pending. NAPTIP’s funding levelshave remained static for the past few years and the limitednumber of prosecutions indicates the Government of Nigerianeeds to prioritize increased funding to the agency.Although NAPTIP demonstrated an ability to obtainconvictions from the prosecutions it initiated, a small numberof investigations conducted during the year resulted inprosecutions, suggesting a need to enhance the investigationand prosecution skills of relevant officials. NAPTIP fundedthe training of 90 senior NAPTIP officials at the NigerianDefense Intelligence School in Karu in March and July 2011,where they received training in basic security and intelligenceskills necessary for any law enforcement officer. Throughoutthe reporting period, the government reported collaboratingwith law enforcement agencies in Germany, the UnitedKingdom, Greece, Sweden, France, Slovakia, Belgium, TheNetherlands, and Italy on trafficking investigations involvingNigerian nationals. In some cases this cooperation led to thesuccessful prosecution of a suspect in the host country; however,specific details on these cases was unavailable. The governmentdid not initiate any investigations, pursue prosecutions, orobtain convictions of government officials for involvementin trafficking-related corruption during the reporting period,although such corruption was known to have occurred.ProtectionThe Government of Nigeria made limited efforts to protecttrafficking victims during the year, despite the government’sconsiderable resources. NAPTIP maintained a database oftrafficking victims identified by the government and NGOs andreported a total of 949 victims identified within the countryin 2011, including 386 victims of forced labor, 563 victimsof sex trafficking, and 467 children. The government paid amonthly stipend of the equivalent of $2,500 to a local NGO andprovided in-kind donations and services to NGOs and otherorganizations that afforded protective services to traffickingvictims. It reported spending about one fifth of its operationalbudget, or the equivalent of $671,000, on victim protectionduring 2011. NAPTIP continued to operate eight shelters withthe total capacity for 210 victims at a time; this constitutes a50 percent decrease in capacity from 2010. NAPTIP claimedthis reduction was intended to provide more comfortableaccommodations for victims. Given NAPTIP’s ongoing reporteddifficulty in adequately staffing and caring for victims in shelters,this reduction of beds is worrisome, especially because thenumber of identified Nigerian trafficking victims continues toincrease. During the reporting period, NAPTIP completed the
272NORWAYrelocation of its primary and largest shelter to a higher-capacityfacility devoted solely to trafficking victims.In November 2011, senior NAPTIP officials conducted a jointraid with Malian officials in order to rescue previously identifiedNigerian sex trafficking victims in Bamako-based brothels.While screening mechanisms in Bamako remained limited,upon arrival in Nigeria victims were referred to local NAPTIPshelters for care; most victims chose to return to their homesafter a brief stay in shelters. Within Nigeria, government officialscontinued to lack systematic procedures for identifying victimsamong vulnerable populations, such as women in prostitution.Authorities outside of NAPTIP – such as police and immigrationofficers assigned to other units – were not well-trained to identifyvictims. In one particular case, and for unknown reasons,Nigerian officials did not assist prosecutors, representing aNigerian victim in a foreign country, in locating a Nigeriantrafficker who was in Nigeria during the case proceedings.Nigerian diplomats in a neighboring West African countryreferred most of the Nigerian trafficking victims identifiedin that country to local NGOs rather than arranging for theirrepatriation to NAPTIP shelters in Nigeria. Despite the growingnumber of Nigerian trafficking victims identified abroad, thegovernment has yet to implement formal procedures for therepatriation and reintegration of Nigerian victims.Victims in NAPTIP’s shelters were offered counseling, legalservices, and basic medical treatment, and victims who requiredspecialized care received treatment from hospitals and clinicsthrough existing agreements with these institutions. Someshelter staff, however, lacked previous training or professionalexperience in treating the trauma of trafficking victims, andthe government did not provide such specialized trainingto staff members during the reporting period. Victims wereallowed to stay in NAPTIP shelters for up to six weeks – alimit which was extended by up to four additional weeks inextenuating circumstances – during which time they receivedinformal education or vocational training; after this time,those who needed long-term care were referred to a networkof NGOs that could provide additional services, though fewlong-term options were available for adult victims. Victimswere not allowed to leave the shelters without a chaperone, apractice that is known to risk re-traumatization of traffickingvictims. Government officials adhered to the explicit provisionof the 2003 Trafficking in Persons Law Enforcement andAdministration Act, which ensures that trafficking victimsare not penalized for unlawful acts committed as a result ofbeing trafficked. Officials encouraged victims to assist in theinvestigation and prosecution of trafficking cases, and NAPTIPreported that 29 victims served as witnesses or gave evidenceduring trial in 2011. All victims were eligible to receive fundsfrom the victims’ trust fund, which was financed primarilythrough confiscated assets of convicted traffickers. Duringthe reporting period the equivalent of $21,500 was disbursedto 45 victims, although not necessarily in equal amounts andfor purposes ranging from medical costs to school tuition. Thegovernment provided a limited legal alternative to the removalof foreign victims to countries where they face hardship orretribution; short term residency that could not be extended.PreventionThe Government of Nigeria sustained modest efforts to preventhuman trafficking through campaigns to raise awareness andeducate the public about the dangers of trafficking. NAPTIP’sPublic Enlightenment Unit continued to conduct nationaland local programming through radio and print media in allregions of the country to raise awareness about trafficking,including warning about the use of fraudulent recruitment forjobs abroad. The objective of these and several related programswas to sensitize vulnerable people, sharpen public awareness oftrends and tricks traffickers used to lure victims, warn parents,and encourage community members to participate in efforts toprevent trafficking. In December 2011, NAPTIP and the Dutchnational police agency signed a memorandum of understandingto use a “train-the-trainers” format to build the capacity ofNAPTIP in combating trafficking. The government took nodiscernible steps to decrease the demand for forced labor and, infact, cut its labor inspection force from 500 to 50. Additionally,labor inspectors at headquarters lacked any vehicles with whichto monitor field conditions. In efforts to reduce participation inchild sex tourism, the government arrested Nigerian nationalsfor child sex tourism in the Philippines during the reportingperiod. The government, with foreign donor support, providedanti-trafficking training to Nigerian troops prior to theirdeployment abroad on international peacekeeping missions.NORWAY (Tier 1)Norway is a destination and, to a lesser extent, a transitand source country for women and girls subjected to sextrafficking and for men and women subjected to forced laborin the domestic service and construction sectors. Childrenare subjected to forced begging and forced criminal activity,such as shoplifting and drug sales. Most trafficking victimsidentified in Norway originate in Nigeria, while others camefrom Eastern Europe (Lithuania, Romania, Hungary, andBulgaria), Africa (Algeria, Ghana, Eritrea, Cameroon, Kenya,Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo), Brazil, China,and the Philippines. These victims usually travel to Norway onSchengen visas issued by other European countries, and transitseveral countries, such as Italy, Spain, and Morocco. Africantrafficking offenders often coerce victims into prostitutionthrough threats to family at home and threats of voodoo.Traffickers from Eastern Europe are typically members of smallfamily mafias; offenders seduce young women in their homecountries and convince them to come to Norway, where theyare forced into prostitution. Men from the United Kingdomhave been forced to work in construction in Norway. Someforeign au pairs, including those from the Philippines, werevictims of trafficking in Norway.The Government of Norway fully complies with the minimumstandards for the elimination of trafficking. The Norwegiangovernment has adopted a victim-centered approach to victimprotection, offering generous and diverse victim servicesthrough specialized NGOs and local governments. Norwegianlaw obligates municipalities to offer trafficking victims shelter,regardless of residence status and the victim’s willingness totestify in court. The government successfully concluded labortrafficking prosecutions involving atypical trafficking scenarios.Nevertheless, services to and identification of male victims oftrafficking remain less developed than those for women. NGOsreport that referrals to care by the police reduced this year.