Bits-to-energy
or
energy-to-bits?
Dr. Paola Grosso
System and Network Engineering research group
University of Amsterdam
O...
Science and education today
•  Scientists, students, lecturers have many choices when
deciding where to process or store d...
Clouds: green or gray?
Complex question.
•  Need knowledge of the carbon footprint
•  Need knowledge of all contributing c...
The core question
Network infrastructures
Energy transport
Network
CO2 footprint;
Energy needed and lost
Energy transport
...
Collaboration
•  Funded by
•  Participants
SURFnet
Network infrastructures
Energy transport
Network
CO2 footprint;
Energy needed and lost
Energy transport
Network
Gr...
GEANT
Network infrastructures
Energy transport
Network
CO2 footprint;
Energy needed and lost
Energy transport
Network
Gree...
GLIF
Network infrastructures
Energy transport
Network
CO2 footprint;
Energy needed and lost
Energy transport
Network
Green...
Decision matrix
Scenario Variables 1 Variable2 Variable 3 … ….
Scenario1
Scenario2
Scenario3
Identify realistic scenarios
...
Scenarios
We focus on three scenarios typical
in higher education:
1.  storage as a service
2.  software as a service /
in...
PUE
Power Usage Effectiveness: PUE
PUE = Total data center power/IT equipment power
PUE:
Average PUE of your largest data ...
Efficiency vs.
sustainability
•  Energy efficiency:
Reduce the amount of energy
used to provide services, power
devices
•  S...
Bits-to-nets cost
Three components:
•  Cost of local network at source data center
•  Cost of local network at destination...
Hybrid networks
•  Internet •  Circuits/lightpaths
Costbits−to−nets = CostLAN−source−data−center +Costtransport−network +C...
Internet
Oversubscription factor: 1/5
Short distances: 1 or 2 hops
Long distance: 3 or 4 hops
Lightpaths
Oversubscription:...
Data center cost
•  Given a typical data center network:
And known power (P) and capacity (C) of the devices in the
topolo...
Summary
Just started.
Still lots of open questions:
•  What are typical networks?
•  How do we collect power information f...
SGI13 - Vergroenen ván ICT -Bits to-energy, of energy-to-bits? - Paola Grosso (UvA)
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SGI13 - Vergroenen ván ICT -Bits to-energy, of energy-to-bits? - Paola Grosso (UvA)

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SGI13 - Vergroenen ván ICT -Bits to-energy, of energy-to-bits? - Paola Grosso (UvA)

  1. 1. Bits-to-energy or energy-to-bits? Dr. Paola Grosso System and Network Engineering research group University of Amsterdam On behalf of the ‘bits-nets-energy’ collaboration.
  2. 2. Science and education today •  Scientists, students, lecturers have many choices when deciding where to process or store data. On the desk In the server room/data center In the cloud
  3. 3. Clouds: green or gray? Complex question. •  Need knowledge of the carbon footprint •  Need knowledge of all contributing components, also of the network contribution between clouds, between user and cloud center Green Cloud Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage, and Transport Baliga, J.; Ayre, R.W.A.; Hinton, K.; Tucker, R.S. Proceedings of the IEEE , vol.99, no.1, pp.149-167, Jan. 2011
  4. 4. The core question Network infrastructures Energy transport Network CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Energy transport Network Green energy sources Bits to energy! Energy to bits! CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost
  5. 5. Collaboration •  Funded by •  Participants
  6. 6. SURFnet Network infrastructures Energy transport Network CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Energy transport Network Green energy sources Bits to energy! Energy to bits! CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost
  7. 7. GEANT Network infrastructures Energy transport Network CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Energy transport Network Green energy sources Bits to energy! Energy to bits! CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost
  8. 8. GLIF Network infrastructures Energy transport Network CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Energy transport Network Green energy sources Bits to energy! Energy to bits! CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost
  9. 9. Decision matrix Scenario Variables 1 Variable2 Variable 3 … …. Scenario1 Scenario2 Scenario3 Identify realistic scenarios Identify the variables relevant to each scenarios Determine the cost of: transport of bits transport of energy Bits-to-nets Energy-to-bits Network infrastructures Energy transport Network CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Energy transport Network Green energy sources Bits to energy! Energy to bits! CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Network infrastructures Energy transport Network CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost Energy transport Network Green energy sources Bits to energy! Energy to bits! CO2 footprint; Energy needed and lost
  10. 10. Scenarios We focus on three scenarios typical in higher education: 1.  storage as a service 2.  software as a service / interactive work 3.  processing as a service / computing intensive
  11. 11. PUE Power Usage Effectiveness: PUE PUE = Total data center power/IT equipment power PUE: Average PUE of your largest data center: 2.5 or greater 9% RESPONSE PERCENTAGE 2% 2% 4% 6% 11% 9% 13% 11% 11% 7% 5% 4% 1% 2% 3% 2.4 to 2.49 2.3 to 2.39 2.2 to 2.29 2.1 to 2.19 2.0 to 2.09 1.9 to 1.99 1.8 to 1.89 1.7 to 1.79 1.6 to 1.69 1.5 to 1.59 1.4 to 1.49 1.3 to 1.39 1.2 to 1.29 1.1 to 1.19 1.09 or less How does your organization measure PUE? Doesn’t measure PUE 29% PUE Category 0: IT load measured at UPS output(s). Total data center power measured at the utility meters. Peak utilization/demand in a single snapshot measurement 15% PUE Category 1: IT load measured at UPS output(s). Total data center power measured at the utility meters. 12-month cumulative readings 20% PUE Category 2: IT load measured at PDUs supporting IT loads. Total data center power measured at the utility meters. Peak utilization/demand in a single snapshot measurement 20% PUE Category 3: IT load measured at the point of connection of IT devices to electrical system. Total data center power measured at utility meters. 12-month cumulative readings. 10% Use an alternative method for measuring PUE 6% AVERAGE PUE 1.8 - 1.89 Data from a survey of the Uptime Institute Our calculator choose for a default value of 1.9 (if unknown).
  12. 12. Efficiency vs. sustainability •  Energy efficiency: Reduce the amount of energy used to provide services, power devices •  Sustainability: Use of renewables energy sources and reduction of carbon footprint. Jevon’s paradox!
  13. 13. Bits-to-nets cost Three components: •  Cost of local network at source data center •  Cost of local network at destination data center •  Cost of transport network Costbits−to−nets = CostLAN−source−data−center +Costtransport−network +CostLAN−destination−data−center Local data center Remote data center
  14. 14. Hybrid networks •  Internet •  Circuits/lightpaths Costbits−to−nets = CostLAN−source−data−center +Costtransport−network +CostLAN−destination−data−center
  15. 15. Internet Oversubscription factor: 1/5 Short distances: 1 or 2 hops Long distance: 3 or 4 hops Lightpaths Oversubscription: none Short distance: direct connection Long distances: 1 or 2 devices in between Costbits−to−nets = CostLAN−source−data−center +Costtransport−network +CostLAN−destination−data−center Internet Short distance Lightpaths Short distance Internet Long distance Lightpaths Long distance
  16. 16. Data center cost •  Given a typical data center network: And known power (P) and capacity (C) of the devices in the topology: Costbits−to−nets = CostLAN−source−data−center +Costtransport−network +CostLAN−destination−data−center CostLAN−source−data−center = Phost Chost + Pswitch Cswitch + Pfirewall Cfirewall + Prouter Crouter
  17. 17. Summary Just started. Still lots of open questions: •  What are typical networks? •  How do we collect power information from devices? •  What is the best way to calculate the energy-to-bits cost? More information •  Email: p.grosso@uva.nl •  URL: http://staff.science.uva.nl/~grosso/ … And the final report on this research!
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