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  • 1. Digitale Collectie Nederland policy, infrastructure and practice DEN Foundation
  • 2. INTRODUCTION May, 2014 2
  • 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiP79vYsfboMay, 2014 3
  • 4. Unesco Culture Cycle (2009) New media bring “a culture of mass self-communication in which people increasingly communicate to and through one another, rather than through formal media organisations like broadcasters and publishers”. “All research is becoming more interconnected, collaborative and networked. Science is increasingly driven by the analysis of large overlapping clouds of data.“ Charles Leadbeater, Cloud culture. From chain to cycle May, 2014 4
  • 5. Crowd sourcing Source: Doi:10.1145/2103354.2103373May, 2014 5
  • 6. DIGITAL COLLECTION NETHERLANDS May, 2014 6
  • 7. So far, digitisation has very much been a ‘push’ activity. The heritage institutions decide what, when and how their collections will be digitised. But how do we anticipate on and learn from the digital behaviour of our (potential) users? Offer and demand May, 2014 7
  • 8. EUROPEANA - ONLINE VISITOR SURVEY- 2011 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Trustworthiness of content Usefulness of content General look and feel of site Presentation of results Ease of access to content Navigation around the site Search functions Chart 6 - Europeana - Rating against main competitor Better Similar Worse May, 2014 8
  • 9. Source: IMLS May, 2014 9
  • 10. Reasons to digitize? 8,5 7,9 7,3 6,2 5,3 4,3 3,2 3,6 1 3 5 7 9 Academic research Educational use Reducing the use of the physical originals Personal enjoyment Creative reuse/Remix Ideological, religious and commemorative use Sales, commercial licensing Other types of use
  • 11. 42% 34% 14% 10% 5% 5% 3% 3% 2% 2% 42% 42% 21% 18% 8% 7% 5% 4% 3% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Offline Institutional website National aggregator Europeana Other aggregator Institutional API Other Social media platforms 3rd party API Other Access channels Wikipedia Now 2 years from now Estimated percentage of all the digital objects that are and/or will be accessible by access form May, 2014 11
  • 12. Digitization project of memory organisations should contribute to the Digital Collection of The Netherlands and reuse existing infrastructure. Only then digital resources will be as accessible as possible and reusable for all. Governmental policy May, 2014 12
  • 13. Raad voor Cultuur (Innoveren, participeren) Breaking down of boarders First step towards breaking down existing boarders is collaboration between the different networks of memory institutions. A prerequisite for success is the willingness to share all available Knowledge and look for valuable crossovers between domains. And above all to name collaboration as core element of all activities. May, 2014 13 Source:http://www.cultuur.nl/Upload/Docs/rvc_adv0307_compleet.pdf
  • 14. Challenge for heritage 1. Digitization 2. Innovation 3. Transformation May, 2014 14 Source:http://www.cultuur.nl/Upload/Docs/rvc_adv0307_compleet.pdf
  • 15. Raad voor Cultuur (Netwerken van betekenis) The focus shouldn’t be with large stand alone projects. In order to build sustainable networks, collaboration should be obligatory and we have to commit to standards for access and description. By doing so, available cultural information can be reused by all, be in organisations or consumers. May, 2014 15 Source:http://2008.cultuur.nl/adviezen_vervolg.php?id=4&advies=6662
  • 16. Source:www.numeric.ws How much has been digitised? May, 2014 16
  • 17. Not necessary Is done Awaiting digitization Percentage digitised (N=98) May, 2014 17 Source:http://www.den.nl/bericht/2274
  • 18. Current national policy Less government, more entrepreneurs Creating preconditions: Infrastructure Preservation Copyright Different levels: national, regional, local European Level May, 2014 18
  • 19. ORGANISATION May, 2014 19
  • 20. What is DEN? The DEN Foundation (Digital Heritage Netherlands) is the Dutch knowledge centre for digital heritage. DEN supports good digitisation practices at archives, museums and other cultural heritage institutions. DEN encourages the institutions to jointly create a future-proof national Digital Heritage Collection. DEN is sponsored by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Cultural Affairs and Science May, 2014 20
  • 21. Core mission: Knowledge dissemination Share knowledge & experiences with ICT & good practise for digital heritage Support heritage institutions to improve their digital strategies and services  Quality assurance for digital heritage!  Encourage institutions to... ... invest in open technology ... create sustainable (services  Be aware of vendor lock in, (un)sustainable cloud services… ... use the same ICT-standards  Create 1 national Digital Heritage Collection What does DEN do? May, 2014 21
  • 22. Why share knowledge? Archives Museums Libraries Archaeology Monuments Audiovisual archives Information processes Collection descriptions Digital preservation Complex objects Creative front-ends Exploitation / re-use Legal issues Educational tools Object metadata IT-backoffice / Retrieval Digital preservation International standards IT-scalability Business models Multimedia / AV Exploitation Geographic systems Concepts vs. Objects Visualisation Geographic systems Local target groups Mobile media May, 2014 22
  • 23. Online dissemination Knowledgebase | Blog | Social Media (LinkedIN, Twitter, …) May, 2014 23
  • 24. QUALITY ASSURANCE May, 2014 24
  • 25. Standardisation Standardisation enables users to find and access digital heritage anywhere, anytime. Standardisation is not a process that can be forced by the government entirely. It can only last if the institutions support the decisions on standardisation and make them their policy. Quality assurance by self regulation (‘Comply or explain’) Support for both best practices and basic practices May, 2014 25
  • 26. Quality Cycle May, 2014 26
  • 27. May, 2014 27
  • 28. Minimal ICT-requirements THE BASICS is a DEN project aimed at national agreement on a set of standards: – that is considered basic practice, so all institutions can apply them – that support the entire cycle of digitisation – that can be used for all digital heritage – that assures quality, interoperability and efficiency Basic practices are considered crucial to involve smaller institutions in the national infrastructure for digital heritage. May, 2014 28
  • 29. The Heritage Essentials: Building a Succesful ICT Strategy THE BASICS defines a set of minimal requirements for digitisation. THE BASICS May, 2014 29
  • 30. Basic requirements for findability of digital information (core set of 7 standards) Basic requirements for the creation of digital data – Text – Image – AV-collections – Geospatial data Basic requirements for digital preservation – Preservation policy – Responsibilities within the institutions – Participation in national repositories Basic requirements for handling copyright (in the making) DE BASIS / The Basics May, 2014 30
  • 31. Source: Tim Berners Lee / 5stardata.info (Linked) Open data May, 2014 31
  • 32. May, 2014 32
  • 33. DIGITAL STRATEGY May, 2014 33
  • 34. Digitisation & Policy 2006-2009 Criteria: Innovative Public Access Knowledge dissimination 120 Information Plans 40 digitization projects Comply or Explain on ICT May, 2014 34
  • 35. • Helps institutions to make ICT an integral part of their overall policy. • Supports standardisation by making it a choice, a strategy, not a burden • Defines how to move from project driven digitisation to permanent services • Provides guidance for digital innovation: “always in beta”. An information plan… May, 2014 35
  • 36. Source:www.numeric.ws Information plans vs. budget May, 2014 36
  • 37. Proven workflows Strong identities Standardisation Factual services Authoritative Long term preservation Authenticity Free / Public domain Enable full access Be an expert ... Changing values Acknowledge new trends Collaborate Diversify with new media Stimulate creativity Service oriented Short term flexibility User generated content New business models Respect copyright Be media literate ... - - - - - - - - - - -May, 2014 37
  • 38. cultural heritage Audience Professions & Traditions Technology Quality Efficiency Digitisation Comfort zone May, 2014 38
  • 39. Unesco Culture Cycle (2009) New media bring “a culture of mass self-communication in which people increasingly communicate to and through one another, rather than through formal media organisations like broadcasters and publishers”. “All research is becoming more interconnected, collaborative and networked. Science is increasingly driven by the analysis of large overlapping clouds of data.“ Charles Leadbeater, Cloud culture.May, 2014 39
  • 40. creators are consumers are creators are consumers are cr Source: meSch project May, 2014 40
  • 41. The key challenge for cultural heritage institutions is to find the sweet spot between (trustworthy) offer and demand Source: BMICE May, 2014 41
  • 42. The missing link A extra management tool May, 2014 42 Source:http://www.den.nl/art/uploads/files/Publicaties/BusModIn_eng_final.pdf
  • 43. Business Model Innovation Renewing the framework (or logic) used by an organisation for creating or increasing social and economic value May, 2014 43
  • 44. Written and published by Kennisland, DEN & Ministry of Culture (NL), December 2009 Online available at www.den.nl May, 2014 44
  • 45. New value propositions May, 2014 45 Source:http://www.den.nl/art/uploads/files/Publicaties/BusModIn_eng_final.pdf
  • 46. New propositions ...it is imperative that we find the right ways to harmonise the needs of the users with what we have on offer... How do we do that?May, 2014 46 Source:http://www.den.nl/art/uploads/files/Publicaties/BusModIn_eng_final.pdf
  • 47. Source:AlexOsterwalder Business Model Canvass May, 2014 47
  • 48. Offline activities Expertmeetings (BASIS, Digital preservation, …) workshops, conferences www.dish.nl Participation in … workgroups (e.g. Copyright) … steering committees (e.g. CATCH+) … stakeholders meetings (Persistent Identifiers) … European (research projects) (e.g. ENUMERATE) May, 2014 48
  • 49. DIGITAL PRESERVATION May, 2014 49
  • 50. OAIS May, 2014 50
  • 51. 42,4% 27,7% 25,9% 23,6% 26,0% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Other type of institution: Archive / records office Library Museum Total Does your organisation have a written Digital Preservation Strategy, which is endorsed by the management of your organisation? May, 2014 51
  • 52. Organisation of digital preservation in NL NCDD Bestuur DANS Data Archive Research Data NL (+ 3TU) EYE Film Museum CCDD Digital Art Force Nationaal Archief Archief202 0 / ACDD WVI / DTR KB UKB / DARE Beeld & Geluid AVA-net / Prestocentre Programm emanager Working groups OCW DEN International partners (DPC, OPF)
  • 53. Cultural Coalition Digital Preservation (est. 2010): Structure • Core group to set out strategies • LinkedIn group (266 members from LAM’s) • Representation on the board of The National Coalition May, 2014 53
  • 54. Tool for DP self assessment: www.scoremodel.org May, 2014 54
  • 55. NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 56. May, 2014 56
  • 57. Memory of the Netherlands, started in 2000: currently 833.928 images from 133 collectionsMay, 2014 57
  • 58. Flickr, started in 2004 May, 2014 58
  • 59. NRC 10-09-2011 May, 2014 59
  • 60. Main problems described by the researcher: Organization: Absence of a master plan what will be digitized and how; no central inventory what is available; no steering. Digitalisation: No searching through documents or OCR and metadat is poor. ICT-systems: Configuration of repositories is poor and technology has legacy. Approach: User involvement low. In practice: a disaster? May, 2014 60
  • 61. Possible improvement • Steering by a strong, neutral, cross-domain organization without operational responsibilities. • Reward not only innovation but also consolidation • Make sure there is also a stick to accompany the garrot. • Stimulate collaboration, work towards ‘shared services’ • Re-use what’s already there… May, 2014 61
  • 62. National infrastructure RCE: musea RCE: archeologie/ architectuur Beeld en Geluid: audiovisueel STAP/NA: archieven Nederlandse Digitale Collectie (Nationale aggregator) Europeana diensten KB: bibliotheken Al het digitale Nederlandse erfgoed in collecties/musea/archieven/instellingen Regionale aggregator subdomein aggregator Regionale aggregator Regionale aggregator Thema aggregator Thema aggregator Thema aggregator Subdomein aggregator diensten tools tools Bron:CollectieEuropaenterug(2011) May, 2014 62
  • 63. Infrastructural tools & service May, 2014 63 Source:HennieBrugman(CATCHPlus)
  • 64. Enriched object Content searchable Digital reproductions Thumbnails Relations (hierarchy, related) (Basic)des- criptions Heritage Dutch Collection (assets) Collection registration in institutions (vgl. Immix) (registration) Traditionele bibliografieën en centrale catalogi (bijv. STCN) (catalogues) Zoekindexen van metadata met links naar buiten, vgl. Europeana. (aggregation) Informatiebestanden met zoekmogelijkheid op object en centrale raadpleging van objecten, vgl. Geheugen van Nederland, WatWasWaar. (portal) Informatiebestanden met zoekmogelijkheid in zowel metadata als in volledige inhoud (niveau Google), vgl. Digitale Dagbladen, EDBO, Bibliotheek.nl (index / search) Informatiebestanden met (semantische) zoekmogelijkheid in zowel metadata als in volledige (gestructureerde) inhoud en achterliggende (data/video-) bestanden, vgl. wetenschappelijke informatie-systemen, WieWasWie etc. (knowldge system) Levels for heritage service May, 2014 64
  • 65. Collaboration Bron: Beyond the silos of the LAMs (OCLC) 1. Elkaar kennen 2. Samen werken (informeel) 3. Samen coördineren (bijv. projecten) 4. Gemeenschappelijke dienstverlening 5. ConvergentieMay, 2014 65
  • 66. Networks Collaboration at the national level Creative industry Education Government Science Topics across heritage Aggretation and access Copyright Policy making Business model innovation Digital preservation Quality assurance Training Funding Collaboration within domains Archeo- logy Archives AV Librarie s Monu- ments Museum s NL-aggregators, STAP Werkgroep Auteursrechten FOBID/JC, Digitice OCW digitaliseringsoverleg Kennisland, TNO, Erfgoed2.0 Waterwolf, HU Utrecht NCDD, CCDD Erfgoed Nederland, RCE/KVCE ‘Meten is weten’ GO, Reinwardt, UL/BDMS Fondsen, Provincies, Agentschap-NL RCE CAA-NL BRAIN ACDD STAP NA / RHC’s AVA-net B&G NIMk KB SIOB Bibliotheek. nl FOBID UKB Bijzcol RCE LEU NMV SIMIN Museum- register LCM Qmus Virtueel Platform BIS e-cultuur IIP-Create Kennisnet SURF Forum Standaardisatie CATCH / CATCH+ CLARIN-NL May, 2014 66
  • 67. Shared services Digitization - Mass digital. - On demand Aggregation - Geographical - Thematic Data management - Local - External/cloud Software development - Open source - Licences Services - Public (apps) - B2B Support - Standards - Copyrights R&D - Innovation - Knowledge Sharing - European projects - Innovation programs - Creative industry - Innovatieve instellingen - DEN -DEN -Digitice -Working group copyright -Memory institutions - (Creative) companies -Bibliotheek.nl -Beeld en Geluid / RCE / DCN -STAP -Bibliotheek.nl -Geheugen van Nederland - Provinces -NCDD (B&G/DANS/ KB/NA) -RCE - Market -CATCH / CATCH+ - Market -Memory organisations - Companies Organizing ‘shared services’ May, 2014 67
  • 68. Public Private Partnerships Networked heritage and the creation of a ‘Cultural Commonwealth’. New users and service innovation Emerge of new multidisciplinaire methods of reaserach Technology as the new intermediary CLICK// HERITAGE Collaboration between heritage, research, government and private sector. May, 2014 68 Source:http://www.click-erfgoed.nl
  • 69. EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE
  • 70. European policy “Digital versions of old works will not only guarantee survival through the ages, but reach a much wider audience without causing any risk to the original copy. Through digital libraries people will be able to visit the past virtually to find, understand and experience Europe's cultural wealth and history.” (European Commission, Augustus 2008) Preservation Access / Accessibility Value through services May, 2014 70
  • 71. Comité de Sages 1. Digitisation: organisation and funding • Planning: Metamorfoze • Monitoring: De Digitale Feiten / ENUMERATE • Economies of scale: Prestoprime & Impact Competence centres • PPP: Business Model Innovation Cultural Heritage 2. Digitisation and online accessibility of public domain material • Improve access: NL-Aggregators • PRIMA-projecten (WieWasWie, Kimomo, CATCH+) • Conditions: Werkgroep Auteursrechten i.o. • Europeana: sterk netwerk 3. Digital preservation • Nationale strategie: NCDD / ACDD / CCDD • Ontwikkeling E-depots (KB, DANS, Beeld en Geluid, Nationaal Archief) • Deelname aan internationale projecten (m.n. Planets) May, 2014 71 Source:http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/report_comite_des_sages.pdf
  • 72. European Data Model May, 2014 72 Source:http://www.europeana.eu/schemas/edm/
  • 73. European legal approach May, 2014 73 Source:http://pro.europeana.eu
  • 74. Advice of DEN foundation about metadata and licenses Objective Metadata can be derived immediately from the cultural heritage object. Subjective Metadata are based on expertise or opinion Metadata created by the cultural heritage institution Metadata created by the user This categorie entails data that are needed for identification and/or localisation of cultural heritage (objects). It regards data about the creator, publisher, the name or title, a short generic description, information about place and time of creation, geo-location, time periode or physical characteristics. Advice: these metadata should be available under the Creative Commons Zero Public Domain Dedication (or similar license). This counts for all metadata of institutions with a public mission. N.B. Objective data resulting from ownership or management are excluded (e.g. data about acquisition, provenance, insurance, storage etc.) This category entails data that provide a context for (the interpretation of) cultural heritage (objects). This context can be information acquired through knowledge or research, but it could also be a personal observation of a heritage professional . Subject description using ontologies, thesauri or knowledge systems are included in this category. Advice: for public institutions, there are two options to choose from: CC0 or CC- BY (or similar). Institutions that rely for > 50% on government funding, are urged to choose CC0. The next preferred license is CC-BY (Attribution). This category entails data that are contributed by users that can be objectively verified, such as the identification of persons, buildings or events portrayed or represented by cultural heritage objects, or corrections to descriptions made by the cultural heritage institutions. Advice: this information should be available under the CC0-Dedication. This should be formally announced in user agreements. This category entails personals responses or observations by users, such as stories, anecdotes, tags, additional photographs, etc. Advice: there is no preferred licence for this category. It depends very much on the content and context of the user’s contribution. Tags may be published as CC0, while for a personal story of a war survivor CC BY-NC-ND Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivates) may be the most appropriate.
  • 75. DEN in Europe Europeana: Europeana Network, WP7, task forces CIP ICT PSP D-Content: eNumerate (TN), Europeana Inside (BPN) FP7-DigiCult: V-MUST, MESCH EACEA culture program: CEMEC CLARIN ERIC: clarin-NL DARIAH  ERIC JPI  Horizon 2020 May, 2014 75
  • 76. Build the open trusted source for European cultural heritage content Make heritage available to users wherever, whenever Cultivate new ways for users to participate in their cultural heritage May, 2014 76
  • 77. Domain oriented approach “Digitisation is a process, and as with any process the actual cost depends both on the organisational context, the complexity of the material and the sophistication of the output.” “The estimated total cost of digitising the collections of Europe’s museums, archives and libraries, including the audiovisual material they hold is approximately €100bn” “The cost of preserving and providing access to this material over a 10-year period after digitisation would be in the order of €10bn to €25bn, provided that centralised repository infrastructure is made available for the purpose.”May, 2014 77
  • 78. Measuring digital heritage ENUMERATE is the European Thematic Network on Statistics for Digitisation, Digital Preservation and Online Access to Digital Cultural Heritage. May, 2014 78
  • 79. May, 2014 79
  • 80. May, 2014 80
  • 81. May, 2014 81
  • 82. May, 2014 82
  • 83. Let’s share our knowledge on digitization! www.den.nl den@den.nl May, 2014 83