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  • Hi Steven.... enjoyed your presentation... hate to be
    picky but you need to alter slide 4. I know what you mean, but you cannot say '...there is no carbon present in minerals...'. Obviously there is in the carbonates !(calcite, dolomite etc.) and what about diamond !
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  • 1. Chapter 3 Minerals
  • 2. Section 3-1 H.W. pg 66 ques.1-4 & pg 84 ques. 2,4,8,11,12,15
    • Minerals are very important in everyday life. Minerals, bricks, and glass are some examples of how we use minerals.
    • Mineral - is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and an orderly arrangement of atoms.
    • There are about 4,000 minerals on Earth.
  • 3. Mineral Characteristics
    • All minerals are formed by natural processes. These processes occur on or inside the Earth with no human interaction.
    • Ex: Salt forms by the natural evaporation of salt water. This type of salt comes from a mineral called Halite.
    • Salt water solution made in a lab is not a mineral.
  • 4. Mineral Characteristics
    • 2) Minerals are inorganic- this means that there is no Carbon is present in minerals.
    • 3) Every mineral is an element or compound with a definite chemical composition.
    • 4) All minerals are crystalline solids . And all crystals have a definite volume and shape.
  • 5. Crystals
    • Crystal atoms are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over again.
    • Ex: Graphite atoms are arranged in layers.
    • Opal- is not a mineral because it has no repeated atom patterns.
  • 6. Structure of Minerals
    • All minerals are crystalline solids.
    • Crystalline solids - are solids in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly repeated fashion.
    • This does not mean that all minerals look like crystals.
    • Ex: Rose quartz doesn’t look like a crystal because it develops in tight spaces.
    • Clear quartz forms in open spaces and its appearance is clearly crystal shaped.
  • 7. Crystal vs. Non-Crystal
  • 8. Crystal Formation
    • Crystals form in two ways:
    • From cooling Magma
    • Could form in solution
  • 9. Mineral formation from Magma
    • Magma is hot melted rock material, that cools when it reaches the Earth’s surface.
    • However in some cases it could cool before it reaches the surface.
    • When magma cools its atoms lose heat and energy. When this happens the atoms move closer together and begin to form compounds.
    • During this cooling period is when atoms of minerals begin to form repeating patterns.
  • 10. Crystal Formation from Magma
    • The type of atoms present and the amount will determine what mineral is produced.
    • When magma cools slowly large crystals form.
    • When magma cools quickly then small crystals form.
  • 11. Crystal Formation from Solution
    • Crystals form minerals dissolved in water.
    • When water evaporates, ions are left behind that can combine to form crystals like halite. (salt)
    • Or
    • If there is too much substance in solution the crystals could form in the solution
  • 12. Silicates
    • The most common rock forming minerals belong to a group called the silicates.
    • Silicates are minerals that contain the elements O and Si (oxygen and silicon)
    • These two elements combine the rocks of the Earth’s crust and mantle.
    • Ex: of Silicates are Quartz and Feldspar
  • 13. Quartz and Feldspar Pics
  • 14. How to Identify Minerals Section 3-2 H.W. pg. 72 ques. 1-4 & pg. 84 ques. 1,3,5,7,10,13,14,16,17
    • We identify minerals by some very specific physical features and properties.
    • Color is one way to tell the difference between two minerals but color alone is not enough.
    • Ex: Gold and pyrite both have the same color, but they are two very different minerals. Pyrite has very little value compared to gold.
    • So to tell these two apart you have to look at other properties.
  • 15. Gold and Pyrite
  • 16. 5 Major properties used to distinguish between minerals
    • Hardness
    • Luster
    • Specific gravity
    • Streak
    • Cleavage/ fracture
  • 17. 5 major properties
    • Hardness- This is the measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
    • Ex: Talc, a very soft mineral can be scratched with just your finger nail.
  • 18. Hardness of Minerals
    • Diamonds, on the other hand are the hardest mineral.
    • The only this that can scratch a diamond is another diamond.
    • Remember scratch and break are not the same. If hit hard enough a diamond will shatter.
  • 19. Mohs Scale
    • In 1812 the Mohs scale of mineral hardness was devised by the German mineralogist Frederich Mohs (1773-1839), who selected the ten minerals because they were common or readily available. The scale is not a linear scale, but somewhat arbitrary.
    • Hardness of some other items:
    • 2.5 Fingernail
    • 2.5–3 Gold, Silver
    • 3 Copper penny
    • 4-4.5 Platinum
    • 4-5 Iron
    • 5.5 Knife blade
    • 6-7 Glass
    • 6.5 Iron pyrite
    • 7+ Hardened steel file
  • 20. 5 major properties
    • 2) Luster - This is the way a mineral reflects light.
    • This reflection could be metallic, meaning it shines like a metal, or non-metallic or dull or glassy looking.
  • 21. Luster
  • 22. 5 major properties
    • 3) Specific Gravity- This is the ratio of the minerals weight compared to the weight of an equal volume of water.
    • Ex: Specific Gravity of Gold is 19:1 or 19.
    • This means that gold is 19x heavier that water.
    • How could you find out the volume of a solid?
  • 23. 5 major properties
    • 4) Streak - Is the color of a mineral when it is in powder form.
    • So if we have a solid mineral we would streak it across a piece of porcelain to see what color is left behind.
  • 24. 5 major properties
    • 5) Cleavage/ Fracture- this is the way a mineral breaks.
    • Minerals that break along a smooth flat surface have cleavage.
  • 25. 5 major properties
    • Cleavage/ Fracture- Minerals that break unevenly, or with rough jagged surfaces have fracture.
  • 26. Other unique properties
    • Magnetite- is attracted to metal like a magnet.
  • 27. Other unique properties
    • Calcite - When light passes through this mineral 2 rays form and it allows you to see a double image.
    • Also when you add HCl to it fizzes.
  • 28. Uses of Minerals Section 3-3 H.W. pg 84 ques. 6,9 & pg. 86 ques. 6,7-10
    • Gems - Gems are highly prized minerals due to their rareness and beauty.
    • They are clearer brighter and more colorful then common minerals.
    • Gems always come from other minerals.
    • Ex: Amethyst is a gem that comes from Quartz. Because it has less iron in it than quartz does it has a beautiful purple color.
  • 29. Some important gems Taken from Minerals are:
    • Emeralds from Beryl
    • Ruby from Spinel
    • Blue Sapphire from Corundum
    • More are on the chart on pg. 75
    • Some gems are more prized than others.
    • Cullinan Diamond- The largest diamond ever found. (3,106 karats)
    • Hope Diamond- Owned by Henry Philip Hope. (45.5 karats)
  • 30. Useful Gems
    • Some gems are very useful like diamonds.
    • They are not only used to make beautiful jewelry but since they are the hardest mineral on Earth they are also used for cutting tools like saw blades.
    • Rubies are used to create lasers.
    • Quartz is used in watches and clocks.
  • 31. Useful elements that are found in minerals
    • Gems are the most popular use of minerals but they are not the most important. We use minerals for other very important uses.
    • Ores- An ore is a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined.
    • Iron ore is used in almost everything from frying pans to ships and it comes from the mining of the minerals Hematite & Magnetite.
  • 32. Useful elements that are found in minerals
    • Aluminum - is mined from Bauxite as aluminum oxide powder.
    • We make the powder in things like aluminum sheets by a process called smelting or melting at very high temps.
    • We use aluminum in soda cans, siding for homes, air planes, baseball bats.
  • 33. Useful elements that are found in minerals
    • 2) Vein Minerals- mineral deposits left behind that fill the open spaces of rocks.
    • Under certain conditions minerals dissolve in solution. This mineral/water mixture will travel through weak cracks in rocks and be deposited in these spaces.
  • 34. Vein Minerals
    • Sometimes vein mineral deposits fill in empty spaces after rocks collapse.
    • Ex: Sphalerite, which comes from zinc and is used in batteries.
  • 35. Useful elements that are found in minerals
    • 3) Minerals that contain Titanium- Titanium is a durable, light weight, metallic element that derived from rutile and ilmenite.
    • We use titanium in car bodies planes, eyeglass frames, tennis rackets, bikes and wheel chairs.
  • 36. Test on Chapter 3 in one week!!!!!!