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Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes
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Chapter 3- macromolecules, cell processes

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  • 1. Chapter 3 Cell Processes
  • 2. Nature of Matter Section 3-1 H.W pg 73. ques. 1-4 & pg. 92 ques. 4-7, 10
    • Everything around you is composed of matter and energy.
    • Matter - is anything that takes up space and has a mass.
    • Energy - is anything that brings about change. It can hold things together and also break things apart.
  • 3. Energy
    • Where do we get our energy?
    • From food. What about plants?
    • Sunlight
    • Our food contains chemical energy. When we eat it, our bodies break the bonds between the food particles.
    • Whenever a bond is broken energy is released. And this is where we get our energy from.
    • Other examples of heat are:
    • Heat & electricity
  • 4. States of Matter
    • Matter comes in four states.
    • Solid- rock
    • Liquid- water
    • Gas - oxygen
    • Plasma- the sun & stars
  • 5. Atoms
    • What are atoms?
    • - Atoms are the building blocks of matter .
    • So, what is matter?
    • - Matter is anything that has a mass and takes up space.
    • Matter surrounds us, and could take the form of solid, liquid or gas.
    • What are some examples of matter?
    • Rocks
    • Desks
    • Air
    • Water
  • 6. Atoms (continued)
    • Is fire matter?
    • No.
    • What about light?
    • No.
    • Neither one of these things is matter because they don’t take up any space.
  • 7. Atoms (continued)
    • Is all matter visible?
    • No. Air is matter as well as other colorless gasses like butane, or propane.
    • What causes matter to take these various forms and shapes?
    • Its all depends on the way their atoms are put together and also the shape that their atoms take on.
    • In your body has several types of atoms that combine in different ways. These atoms form proteins, DNA, tissues and other things that makes you a person.
  • 8.
    • Also, many other objects you see around you are composed of many different types of atoms.
    • However these are things that are only made up of one type of atom. These things are called the elements.
    • Elements are substances that are made of only one type of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
  • 9. Compounds & Mixtures
    • Combinations that are made when the atoms of more than one element combine are called compounds .
    • Water is a compound made of what 2 elements?
    • H 2 0. This way of writing water is called its chemical formula.
    • NaCl is sodium chloride. Does anyone know what NaCl’s common name is?
  • 10. Compounds & Mixtures
    • Molecular Compounds- these form when different atoms share their outermost electrons.
    • Ex: Every Hydrogen atom has 1 outermost electron. So if you have 2 H atoms, they will share its electrons with Oxygen's outermost electron and make a molecule of water.
  • 11. Compounds & Mixtures
    • Ionic Compounds- These occur when to ions of opposite charge bond to form a electrically neutral charge.
    • An ion is an atom that has lost or gained an electron.
    • - So Na + an ion of neutral Na, it lost an electron therefore it has a positive charge.
    • - Cl - is an ion of neutral Cl, it gained an electron and therefore it has a negative charge.
    • These two ions are going to be attracted to each other because of their opposite charges. Like magnets.
    • So, when they are together they bond to form an ionic compound called NaCl. And now its neutral because the opposite charges cancel each other out.
  • 12. Mixtures
    • A mixture is composed of two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
    • Two types of Mixtures:
    • 1) Heterogeneous mixture- the components of this type of mixture are not mixed evenly and each component retains its own properties .
  • 13. Mixtures
    • 2) Homogeneous Mixture- These types of mixtures are evenly mixed throughout. And individual components cannot be seen.
    • -They are also called solutions.
    • An Example would be how salt dissolves in water.
  • 14. Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds
    • Organic Compound- an organic compound is a compound that contains carbon.
    • Organic compounds are usually associated with living things.
    • However, there are some non-living things that contain carbon. But these organics are usually products of living things or things that were once living.
    • Ex: Coal- coal is an organic compound that is not living but it is produced by decaying plant material.
  • 15. Four Major Organic Compounds
    • All four of these major organic molecules are considered to be macromolecules , or large molecules and are present in all living things.
    • They are:
    • Carbohydrates- or sugar
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
  • 16. Four Major Organic Compounds
    • 1) Carbohydrates- These are organic macromolecules that are used to supply energy and could also aid in cell structure.
    • Carbohydrates store a lot of chemical energy, and are used first by our bodies when energy is needed.
    • Plant cell walls contain a chemical called cellulose which is a carbohydrate that is used to give a plant cell its sturdy structure.
    • Ex: Sugars and Starches are carbohydrates
    • Some others are:
    • - Glucose (in our blood)
    • Maltose (milk sugar)
    • OSE at the end of a scientific word usually means it’s a carbohydrate.
  • 17. Four Major Organic Compounds
    • 2) Proteins - macromolecules that have many different functions, like structure & enzyme action.
    • Proteins are largely found in our muscles and our DNA codes for proteins.
    • A sub group of proteins called enzymes are very important.
    • An enzyme - regulates all chemical reactions in a cell.
    • Enzymes usually end in ASE, like Kinase.
  • 18. Four Major Organic Compounds
    • 3) Lipids - These macromolecules are fats.
    • Fats do not dissolve in water or it is not soluble in water.
    • Out of all of the major organic compounds, fats store the most energy.
    • Our bodies do not use fats as a primary source for energy because it is easier to break a carbohydrate to release energy than it is a lipid.
    • Ex: Wax, Soap, Oils
    • Phospholipid- is a lipid with a phosphate molecule attached to it. These are very important when discussing transport because they are found in cell membranes.
  • 19. Four Major Organic Compounds
    • 4) Nucleic Acids- These are the largest of the major organic molecules, and they store coded information in cells in the form of DNA and RNA.
    • DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid- found in all cells, makes up our genetic material and controls all cell activity.
    • RNA - Ribonucleic acid- is used to make enzymes and other important protiens.
  • 20. Inorganic Compounds
    • Inorganic compounds are compounds that do not contain carbon.
    • -Inorganic compounds contain elements that living things need.
    • Ex: Plants take up inorganic compounds from the soil like Sulfur and Phosphorus which we need in our diet.
    • So when we eat the plants we in turn eat the inorganics.
    • -Is water inorganic?
    • Yes, water is the most important inorganic substance on Earth
  • 21. Importance of Water
    • Living things are composed of more than 50% water and depend on it to survive.
    • Someone can live without food for weeks but can only survive without water for days.
    • Plants, algae, and fungi need water to grow and also reproduce.
    • All chemical reactions of living things occur in water solutions.
    • Organisms use water to transport materials through their bodies. Like our blood, which is mostly water and it carries minerals and vitamins and oxygen to our cells and tissues.
  • 22.  
  • 23. Three Characteristics of Water
    • 1) Polarity - because of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds a water molecule is polar, meaning it has to oppositely charged ends.
    • One end is + and the other is - . These opposite charges allows water molecules to be attracted to one another like magnets.
  • 24.  
  • 25. Three Characteristics of Water
    • 2) Large Temperature Range- When you heat molecules they always begin to move faster.
    • Water molecules heat slowly because the attraction between two water molecules is very strong.
    • This is good because it allows water to stay a liquid over a wide range in temperature.
  • 26. Three Characteristics of Water
    • Density of water- When water is frozen it becomes less dense then when it is a liquid.
    • It becomes less dense because when you freeze the distance between its molecules shrinks.
    • This allows frozen water, ice, to float in liquid water.
    • When ice forms over a lake it actually protects the animals that live in the water underneath from bad weather conditions.
  • 27.  
  • 28. Moving Cellular Matter Section 3-2 H.W. pg. 78 ques. 1-4 & pg. 92 ques. 1-3
    • Cells take in food, oxygen and other substances from their environments.
    • They also release waste materials into their environments.
    • The movement of materials into and out of a cell is a process called transport .
    • Cells transport materials through their cell membrane which is selectively permeable , meaning it allows some things to enter or leave the cell while keeping other things out or vice versa.
  • 29.
    • The cell membrane is selective in respect to size.
    • Large molecules are rarely let into or out of a cell because of their size. However, something small like a water molecule or a drug will enter easily.
    • Things move through a cell in different ways. Which way depends on three things:
    • The size of the particle.
    • If energy is required to move the particle.
    • Which part of the membrane it wants to enter through.
  • 30. Three ways in which materials move through cells
    • Passive Transport- This is the movement of material through the cell membrane without the use energy.
    • Active Transport- This the movement of material through a cell membrane with the use of energy.
    • Endocytosis & Exocytosis- Here the cell membrane actually opens to allow material out, or engulfs material to take it in.
  • 31. Passive Transport
    • Three types of passive transport:
    • 1) Diffusion - This is the movement of material from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
    • This will continue until the amount of molecules in both areas reach equilibrium.
    • Equilibrium - means balanced or equal
    • Ex: Blood diffuses into our tissues.
  • 32. Passive Transport
    • 2) Osmosis - This kind of passive transport is simply the diffusion of water. Everything that we said about diffusion is the same for osmosis except osmosis only deals with water and nothing else.
    • 3) Facilitated diffusion- Here special molecules inside the cell membrane let materials into the cell.
    • These special molecules are called transport proteins.
  • 33. Active Transport
    • Active transport, unlike passive transport, requires the use of energy.
    • Active transport also uses transport proteins to get material into the cell.
    • However, here instead of just letting molecules pass through like in facilitated diffusion the transport proteins actually bind to a molecule and brings it into the cell.
    • Once the particle is released inside the cell the transport protein is than free to bind another molecule.
  • 34. Endocytosis & Exocytosis
    • Endocytosis - The cell membrane surrounds the particle that it wants to take into the cell.
    • Exocytosis - Contents inside the cell are packaged in a vesicle made from the cell membrane and released into the surrounding environment.
    • This is how bacteria enter and leave a cell.
  • 35. Energy of Life Section 3-3 H.W. pg 85 ques. 1-4 & pg.92 7-10
    • Whenever you run or walk or move you use energy. And we said that we get our energy from the food that we eat.
    • In the food we eat there is stored chemical energy that we release and use when we digest our food.
    • This change from stored energy to used energy is called a chemical reaction.
    • In our bodies we have many chemical reactions that go on all the time. The total of all the chemical reactions in an organism is called metabolism .
  • 36. Enzymes
    • We said that enzymes were proteins that regulate chemical or metabolic reactions.
    • So this means for any metabolic reaction an enzyme must be present for it to work.
    • - Lets use you trying to open a can of soup for an example. For you to do this properly you would need a can opener, you would not be able to do it with just your hands.
    • - Enzymes basically take the place of the can opener in a metabolic reaction. Without the enzyme the metabolic reaction would not occur.
  • 37. Enzymes
    • Enzymes can do two different things:
    • They can take two different compounds and make them one.
    • Or it can take one compound and break it down into two different compounds.
                                                     
  • 38. Enzymes
    • Enzymes have the ability to make these changes to molecules by binding to them and either creating bonds between them or breaking bonds between them.
    • The molecules that an enzyme binds to change is called a substrate .
    • After an enzyme alters the substrate it then releases it as a product .
                                                      )
  • 39. Enzymes
  • 40. Photosynthesis
    • Living things are divided into two broad groups:
    • Consumers - organisms that can’t make their own food.
    • Producers - organisms that can make their own food.
    • What are some examples of producers & consumers?
  • 41. Photosynthesis
    • Plants and many other producers convert energy, in the form of sunlight, into chemical energy in the form of sugars or carbohydrates that they use for food.
    • Producers that use photosynthesis are usually green, why?
    • Chlorophyll- a green pigment that traps sunlight so that its energy can be used to make carbohydrates.
    • Do you know what plant organelle chlorophyll is found?
    • The chloroplast.
  • 42. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis is the use of water, light and CO 2 and making O 2 and carbs for the plant to use.
  • 43. Photosynthesis
    • Along with making carbohydrates plants also can store them in their cells.
    • During Photosynthesis plants always make sugar, even if the plant already has enough sugar already.
    • So excess carbs or sugars are stored in plants, and are used for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 44. Why is Photosynthesis important
    • We need oxygen that plants produce
    • Photosynthesis allows plants that we eat to grow, like apple trees.
    • We eat cheese which comes from milk which comes from cows who eat the grass as part of their diet.
    • So no matter what you eat photosynthesis has both indirect and direct involvement in its production.
  • 45. Respiration
    • Respiration - is the process in which chemical reactions breakdown food molecules into simpler substances with the use of oxygen and in turn release their stored energy.
    • When we eat food our bodies use oxygen that we get from the air to break down food molecules and release their energy.
    • Respiration occurs in the cells of all living things.
  • 46. Breaking down Carbohydrates
    • The easiest type of food for our cells break down are carbohydrates.
    • -Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the cytoplasm of a cell.
    • Here carbohydrates are broken down into a simpler form of sugar called glucose.
    • Then these glucose molecules are broken down inside the cells mitochondria where energy is released.
    • Inside the mitochondria, oxygen is needed to breakdown glucose for energy.
    • After the glucose is broken down in the mitochondria, with the use of oxygen, water and CO 2 are released as waste.
  • 47. Fermentation
    • When cells do not have enough oxygen to undergo respiration, they use a process called fermentation to release energy stored in glucose molecules.
    • Just like respiration, fermentation begins in the cytoplasm of a cell and carbohydrates are broken down into glucose.
    • However, in fermentation, glucose does not move into the mitochondria and glucose must be broken down in the cytoplasm instead.
  • 48. Fermentation
    • The waste products of fermentation are CO 2
    • and lactic acid.
    • Our muscles use fermentation to release energy when we run out of oxygen to run respiration.
    • The production of lactic acid causes our muscles to become sore and stiff.
  • 49. Fermentation
    • We are not the only organisms to use fermentation. Bacteria use fermentation to produce lactic acid also. And they are sometimes added to milk to make cheese.
    • Have you ever made bread and put yeast into the dough. The yeast is a fungi that uses fermentation to breaks down sugar in the bread dough.
    • This break down of sugar releases CO 2 and makes the dough rise.
  • 50. How are photosynthesis and respiration related
    • Photosynthesis- uses sunlight, water and CO 2 to make sugar and oxygen.
    • Respiration uses these products of photosynthesis to then make CO 2 and sugar.
    • The CO 2 and sugar from respiration are used by plants during photosynthesis.
  • 51. Test on Chapter 3 in one week!!!!!!!

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