Cytoskeleton - Is a framework present inside the cytoplasm that maintains or changes the cells shape. It could also allow cells to move. An amoebas cytoskeleton contracts and stretches to allow it to move.
Ribosomes - The job of this organelle is to make proteins that the cell needs for chemical reactions. They receive directions from the hereditary material in the nucleus on how, when, and in what order to make specific proteins.
These can be found in two places in the cell.
1 - Freely floating in the cytoplasm.
2 - Or, attached to the Endoplasmic reticulum.
Endoplasmic Reticulum - Is a series of folded membranes that extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane and allows for the passage and processing of materials throughout the cell.
There are two types or ER:
1 - Smooth ER, has no ribosomes attached to it.
2 - Rough ER, does have many ribosomes attached to it.
Vacuoles - These are little storage areas in a cell that hold water, minerals, and food and waste.
Golgi bodies - These are stacked, flattened membranes that look like a stack of plates. Their job is to process proteins and to package them into small membrane bound vesicles. This allows the material processed by the golgi to be transported around the cell.
Lysosomes - These organelles are used to breakdown and recycle substances inside the cell. They contain digestive chemicals that aid in breaking down food, cell waste and old worn out organelles.
A plant cell contains all of the organelles that are present in an animal cell plus two more:
Cell Wall- This is found in plants, algae, and fungi and it is a thick covering that surrounds the cell membrane. It gives support to the cell and together all the cell walls of a plant gives structure to the whole organism.
Chloroplast – These organelles contain a chemical called chlorophyll, a pigment that traps sunlight and converts it into energy. It uses the sun light, water and CO2 to produce O2. This process is called photosynthesis .
A microscope is an instrument used by scientists to study cells and other microscopic material.
- Microscopes are very critical to science. They allow us to explore a world that other wise was never known.
Light microscopes use light and lenses in order to magnify the object that you are looking at.
Simple light microscope uses only one lenses, whereas a compound light microscope uses 2-4 lenses. One in the eye piece and one objective lens.
- Electron microscopes use a magnetic field in a vacuum to direct beams of electrons onto the object your looking at. These microscopes are a lot more powerful than light microscopes. Could magnify an object up to 1 million x
Active viruses enter a cell and continuously go through there life cycle numerous amounts of times without stopping.
Latent Viruses will enter a cell and not necessarily begin their life cycle right away. The virus makes its DNA part of the host but new virus particles are not put together yet. They wait until a certain physical or chemical change occurs within the cell, which triggers the viral particles to assembled.