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Nutrition, Digestion, & Excretion Chapter 18
Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrients are substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and re...
Nutrition <ul><li>Proteins- large molecules made of C,H,O,N and sometimes sulfur.  Proteins are made by the joining of ami...
Nutrition <ul><li>Carbohydrates- these are our main source of energy. Made of C,H,O.  </li></ul><ul><li>There are three ty...
Nutrition <ul><li>Lipid-hold the most energy, but we do not readily use them.  </li></ul><ul><li>They help to insulate us ...
Nutrition <ul><li>Vitamins- organic nutrients required in small amounts for growth, regulation, and disease protection. </...
Nutrition <ul><li>Water-we are about 60% water and need to have a continuous supply to allow hydration, absorb nutrients, ...
Digestive System <ul><li>Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion is the intake of f...
 
Enzymes  <ul><li>Enzymes exist in out digestive system inorder to chemically breakdown food into usable nutrients. </li></...
Organs of the Digestive System <ul><li>-Mouth- Takes solid food and mechanically breaks it down into a bolus, or ball of f...
 
Organs of the Digestive System <ul><li>Small Intestine- accepts chyme from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter. Here...
Organs of the Digestive System <ul><li>Pancreas- attached to the first section of the Small intestine and secretes amylase...
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Chapter 18- nutrition, digestion, excretion

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Transcript of "Chapter 18- nutrition, digestion, excretion"

  1. 1. Nutrition, Digestion, & Excretion Chapter 18
  2. 2. Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrients are substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy measured in foods is in Calories. A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise 1kg water 1 degree C. </li></ul><ul><li>There are six kinds of nutrients that we get in our food everyday: Carbohydrates, Proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrition <ul><li>Proteins- large molecules made of C,H,O,N and sometimes sulfur. Proteins are made by the joining of amino acids. There are 20 different amino acids, that combine to form countless different proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 8 essential amino acids, that our bodies cannot make and we get only from our food. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in eggs, milk, cheese, and meats. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nutrition <ul><li>Carbohydrates- these are our main source of energy. Made of C,H,O. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types: fiber, starch and carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple carbs are sugars like glucose and fructose. Ex: in fruit, honey </li></ul><ul><li>Complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber, which are long chains of sugars. Ex: bread, potatoes are starch. Fiber is oats, and whole grains. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nutrition <ul><li>Lipid-hold the most energy, but we do not readily use them. </li></ul><ul><li>They help to insulate us absorb vitamins like A,D,E,& K. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids are broken down into simpler molecules called Fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fat- these fats are solid at room temp. Bad fat, that is found in meat and other animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats- Liquid at room temp. Good fats found in oils like vegetable oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Diets high in Saturated fat is related to high cholesterol which could lead to heart attacks. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nutrition <ul><li>Vitamins- organic nutrients required in small amounts for growth, regulation, and disease protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones need vit D, blood needs vit K. </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble ones dissolve and are absorbed only in fats. A,D,E,& K </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals- inorganic nutrients that build cells, send nerve impulses, and carry oxygen to blood. We use about 14 minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Calcium, Potassium, Iron, Sodium. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nutrition <ul><li>Water-we are about 60% water and need to have a continuous supply to allow hydration, absorb nutrients, and excrete waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Food groups and pyramids. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg. 541 ques. 1-10 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digestive System <ul><li>Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion is the intake of food, digestion is the breakdown of these food particles into useable nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food by chewing. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion occurs in your digestive track by enzymes that break food down chemically. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption is the body taking in the nutrients into the blood stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination is the removal of food products that could not be used. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes exist in out digestive system inorder to chemically breakdown food into usable nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Amylase- breaks down carbs into simple sugars like glucose. (in mouth and stomach) </li></ul><ul><li>Lipase- breaks down Lipid into Fatty Acid. (from pancreas) </li></ul><ul><li>Protease- Breaks down proteins into amino acids. (In stomach and intestine) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Organs of the Digestive System <ul><li>-Mouth- Takes solid food and mechanically breaks it down into a bolus, or ball of food. The tongue pushes this bolus down the esophagus. </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus- flexible tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. And passes the bolus to the stomach through peristalsis, or involuntary muscle movement of the esophagus. </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach- has 2 sphincters, a cardiac and a pyloric sphincter. Food enters the stomach and is ground up by the strong walls of the stomach into a watery substance called chyme. (Chem dig) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Organs of the Digestive System <ul><li>Small Intestine- accepts chyme from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter. Here digestion of solid food occurs as well as absorption of nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>These nutrients are absorbed through the small intestines villi, or small folds in the small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine- Here water from the undigested food is absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine- </li></ul>
  12. 14. Organs of the Digestive System <ul><li>Pancreas- attached to the first section of the Small intestine and secretes amylase into the sm. Intestine for aid in break down of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver- makes bile and send it to the gall bladder which is also attached to the sm. Intestine and allows the easier breakdown of fats </li></ul>
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