Chapter 17-human structure
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Chapter 17-human structure






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    Chapter 17-human structure Chapter 17-human structure Presentation Transcript

    • Animal Structure Chapter 17
    • Human Systems
      • Human beings are made up of 11 different body systems.
      • Skeletal system- Structure, support, protection
      • Muscular system- ability to move our skeleton
      • Respiratory system- gas exchange ( CO2 for O2)
      • Cardiovascular system - brings the O2 to the rest of our tissues and organs.
      • Integumentary system - Protection for our organs, muscles, and bones
      • Immune system- Made of cells that help fight against antigens
    • Human systems
      • 7. Nervous system - Carries electrical impulses throughout the body
      • 8. Endocrine system - produce hormones that allow for many different body functions.
      • 9. Lymphatic system- circulation of the immune system cells through the body.
      • 10. Digestive system- intake and breakdown of food particles to get nutrients.
      • 11. Reproductive system- production of sex cells in order to reproduce offspring.
      • 12. Excretory system- allows waste to be removed from the body.
    • Skeletal System
      • The human body consists of 206-208 bones depending on the person.
      • It gives shape and support to the body.
      • Protects vital organs like the lungs and heart.
      • Allows for the attachment of major muscles
      • Bones form blood and immune cells in bone marrow.
      • And is a major source of our bodies calcium and phosphorous.
    • Bone structure
      • Compact bone- Thick hard, center shaft of any bone. It is rich in yellow marrow, blood vessels and calcium.
      • Spongy bone- this is the porous ends of bones. This contains the epiphyseal plates or the growth plates. This part contains red marrow, which creates red blood cells.
    • Bone structure
      • Diaphysis- This is the also called the shaft a bone.
      • Epiphysis- these are the ends of bones, which have the epiphyseal plates and are covered in articular cartilage.
      • Periosteum- this is a thin, tough fibrous membrane that covers all bone and allows blood vessels and muscles to attach to bone.
    • Bone formation
      • During human development bone begins as cartilage.
      • As the fetus develops the bones become vascular, meaning that they grow blood vessels.
      • They also start to become hard and calcify. This means that calcium starts become concentrated and causes the bones to harden.
      • These bones then fuse together years after birth.
      • Skull- encases brain
      • Cervical Vertebrae
      • Clavicle- or collar bone
      • Humerus or upper arm
      • Pelvis
      • Sternum
      • Rib cage
      • Lumbar
      • Radius
      • Ulna
      • Metacarpals
      • Phalanges
      • Femur
      • Patella
      • Tibia
      • Fibula
      • Metatarsals
      • Phalanges
    • Joints
      • Bones articulate or touch, at joints. The ends of bones are covered in cartilage so when the ends of two bones touch there is less friction.
      • Bones are held to together at joints by ligaments, tough fibrous tissue. And tendons attach muscles to bones.
      • Moveable joints- are joints like knees and elbows. Here bones move and rub against each other.
      • Immoveable joints- are joints where touching bones do not move and rub together. Ex: bones of the skull & ribcage.
    • Integument system
      • This system contains your skin and everything contained in your skin.
      • Our skin function to protect our internal organs against injury and disease.
      • It also helps to insulate us and keep us warm with a thin layer of lipid.
      • Contained in our skin are hairs, glands, muscles, and many types of nerves.
      • Skin is made of 2 large layers called the epidermis and dermis.
      • These layers contain melanin, which is a pigment that gives skin its color.
    • Integument system
      • Epidermis- The upper most layer of the skin, which is made of 5-6 smaller layers.
      • The top layer of the epidermis, which is exposed to the outside, is made of keratinized, or dead cells.
      • The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
      • The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also has many nerve endings that provide the sense of touch and heat.
      • It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands and blood vessels.
    • Muscular system
      • The muscular system allows animals to move internally and externally. The consists of three different types of muscles: cardiac, skeletal and smooth.
      • Cardiac muscle is muscle that makes up the heart. It is the only type of muscle consisting of branching fibers.
      • Skeletal muscle consists of voluntary muscles attached to the skeletal system enabling bodily movement.
      • Smooth muscle is the involuntary muscle that enables the movement of internal organs. Movement of most muscles is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles (such as cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous.
      • There are about 70,000 muscles in the human body