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Chapter 14 & 15- fish, anphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
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Chapter 14 & 15- fish, anphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

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  • 1. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals Chapter 14 & 15
  • 2. Chordate Characteristics
    • All chordates have a notochord, a nerve chord, postanal tail, and gill slits.
    • A notochord supports the animal and extends along the upper part of its body. It is flexible but firm.
    • It extends into the animals postanal tail, a muscular structure that develops at the end of chordates.
    • Some chordates replace the notochord with vertebrate later in their development.
  • 3. Chordate Characteristics H.W. pg 401 ques. 1-4
    • The nerve cord also runs the length of the animal and is a tube like structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord.
    • Gill slits are found between the mouth and digestive system and are used to intake food and exchange gasses like O2 and CO2.
  • 4. Vertebrate Characteristics
    • The things that set apart chordates from vertebrates are: endoskeleton which is a structural framework made of bone or cartilage.
    • The endoskeleton provides attachment points for muscles and ligaments, that support and protect organs.
    • Also, vertebrates have a protective covering around their spinal chords called vertebrae.
  • 5.  
  • 6. Vertebrate groups
    • There are seven groups of animals which are either classified as ectotherms or endotherms.
    • Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are ectotherms and are considered cold blooded. Their body temp changes with the environment.
    • Birds and mammals are endotherms and are warm blooded, or have a constant body temp.
  • 7. Fish
    • Fish are the most abundant and diverse vertebrate. They are ectoderms that have fins, or fan like structures to help them propel through the water and to steer the fish in the water.
    • They also have scales that help aid in protection.
    • Fish have a highly developed sensory system and a 2 chambered heart that pumps oxygenated blood.
  • 8. Fish
    • Gills are located on either side of the fishes head. Here water passes over the gills and blood vessels in the gills exchange CO2 for O2 in the water.
    • They reproduce sexually and is controlled by sex hormones.
    • Females will release large amounts of eggs into the water drawing over males that then release sperm. This is called spawning.
    • This is also an example of external fertilization. Some fish do perform internal fertilization.
  • 9. Types of fish
    • 1) Jawless fish- lampreys and hagfish are jawless fish with a rounded mouth, and tube like body.
    • They have flexible endoskeletons made of cartilage .
    • 2) Cartilaginous fish- sharks and rays. They have skeletons made of cartilage, with a movable jaw and well developed teeth.
    • They have scales that make their skin feel like sand paper.
  • 10.  
  • 11. Types of fish
    • Boney fish- these fish have skeletons made of bones and are 95% of all fish species.
    • They have a swim bladder, an air sac that allows a fish to adjust its density in response to the density of the surrounding water.
    • It can inflate or deflate its swim bladder by exchanging gases like nitrogen and oxygen with its blood.
    • H.W. pg 410 ques. 1-4
  • 12. Amphibians
    • These animals live both on land and in water. Frogs, toads , and salamanders.
    • They are ectotherms, and some hibernate in winter and estivate in the ground during the summer .
    • They go through respiration by exchanging gases through their skin that doesn’t have any scales and small saclike lungs.
    • They have a three chambered heart. One chamber receives oxygen filled blood from the skin and lungs.
    • The other chamber receives CO2 rich blood. All of this is pumped through the third chamber which pumps the O2 blood throughout the body and the CO2 blood back to the lungs to get O2.
  • 13. Amphibians
    • They reproduce in the water so that their eggs don’t dry out. The fertilization does occur externally usually in ponds or lakes.
    • They develop through metamorphosis. The eggs hatches into a tadpole and that tadpole grows fins, and gills and eventually grows into a toad or frog.
    • H.W. pg 415 ques 1-4
  • 14. Reptiles (lizards, snakes, crocs, turtles etc….) H.W. pg 428 ques. 1-15 loose leaf
    • They are ectotherms that have a dry, thick, waterproof skin that is covered in scales.
    • Reptiles breath with lungs and their scales prevent gas exchange.
    • Most have 3 chambered hearts that partially separate O2 rich blood from O2 poor blood.
    • Reptiles use internal fertilization, and lay eggs with a hard shell, which allows them to be laid on land.
    • The egg is called the amniotic egg, and provides protection, nutrients (yolk), and removes waste from the embryo.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Birds
    • These are very versatile animals. They live in many different environments, and eat many different diets.
    • Birds have feathers, and scales and lay amniotic eggs as well.
    • Birds have the ability to fly do to their hollow bone structure, and strong chest muscles attached to a large sternum. They have excellent eye sight, and a very efficient respiratory system.
  • 17.  
  • 18. Birds
    • Birds are the only animals with feathers. There are contour feathers which give the bird its color and down feathers which provide insulation from cold.
    • Each feather grows from a follicle like our hair, and they grow back if they fall out.
    • Birds have an oil gland that keeps their feathers water –repellent. When birds rub this oil into their feathers its called preening.
    • Birds are endotherms
  • 19.  
  • 20. Body system of Birds
    • A bird need a lot of food so it can have energy for flight. So it eat a lot of food and stores it in its crop.
    • Once the food is moistened, it moves to the gizzard where the food is ground, and then to the intestines where nutrients are absorbed.
    • A bird has a heart very similar to ours and is pretty large for such a small animal. About 1.62% of its weight. Ours is .42%.
    • H.W. pg 439 ques.1-4
  • 21. Mammals
    • All mammals are endothermic, vertebrates that have hair, nails, and produce milk to feed their young.
    • Skin called an epidermis covers the mammals endoskeleton. The skin holds hair, horns, claws, nails and hooves, as well as glands.
    • Females have mammary glands, or breast tissue that produces milk when the animal is pregnant.
    • Sweat glands remove waste and help to keep the animal cool.
  • 22. mammals
    • Mammals have specialized teeth and hair.
    • Carnivores teeth are made to tear things apart.
    • Herbivores teeth are used to grind vegetation.
    • All mammals have hair on their bodies at one point in their lives, and serve for protection and to keep the mammal warm.
    • Mammals have four chambered hearts, and advanced circulatory systems, as well as a brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
  • 23. mammals
    • Mammals digestive tracks differ because of the diet of the animal.
    • Herbivores will have longer digestive systems b/c it takes long to digest grass. Also, they will have very large appendices to digest plants.
    • Carnivores have shorter digestive track for eating meats.
  • 24. Types of mammals
    • Monotremes- mammals that lay eggs with leathery shells. (duck-billed platypus)
    • Marsupials- mammals that have pouches. (kangaroos, opossum)
    • Placentals- Have gestation periods where the embryo fully develops inside of the female uterus. In the uterus, during pregnancy, a placenta forms which nourishes the baby, and gives it oxygen.
    • The placenta is attached to the baby by the umbilical cord.
    • H.W. pg 456 ques. 1-15 on looseleaf.
  • 25. Yo Yo Yo!!!!!!! Test in one week ya'll!!! Ya Herd!!!!!