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Chapter 12-Intro to animals
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Chapter 12-Intro to animals

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  • 1. Introduction to animals Chapter 12
  • 2. Animal Characteristics
    • Animals are multi-celled animals, whose cells carry out many functions.
    • Animals have specialized structures called nuclei and other organelles.
    • Animals are consumers, and rely on their environment for food.
    • Animals digest food and move the macromolecules from food into their cells.
    • Most reproduce sexually, some asexual.
    • Animals are able to move from place to place
  • 3. Adaptations for getting energy
    • Over years animals have adapted to eating whatever food is available to them in their environment.
    • Herbivores- eat only plants and plant parts. They eat more often and in greater amounts because plants don’t supply much energy.
    • Carnivores- these animals only eat other animals. Meat gives more energy and these animals do not eat as often.
    • Omnivores- are animals that that eat both plants and flowers.
  • 4. Physical & Behavioral adaptations
    • Some animals have adapted physically to their environment. This includes camouflage, armored skin and venom for protection.
    • Some animals use behavioral adaptations to avoid predators, like when a squid shoots ink to avoid a predator.
  • 5. Animal classification
    • When classifying animals we look at some major characteristics.
    • Vertebrae- this is a bone structure that supports and protects the spinal chord of animals.
    • The spinal chord connects the brain to every nerve in the body.
    • Invertebrates- are animals without a backbone. 97% of all animal species are invertebrates.
    • These animals have other protective structures, like shells and exoskeletons.
  • 6. Animal classification
    • Symmetry-this deals with the way an animals body parts are arranged.
    • An animal with an irregular shape, like a sponge is considered asymmetrical.
    • Radial symmetry- body parts are arranged around a center point. Like hydra, or sea urchins.
    • Bilateral symmetry- here body parts on either side of the body are similar.
    • H.W pg 339 ques. 1-4
  • 7.  
  • 8. Sponges & Cnidarians Invertebrates
    • Sponges play an important role in their environments.
    • They serve as food for fish and other sea creatures.
    • They also contain photosynthetic bacteria that produce oxygen in the water and removes wastes from the sponge.
    • It is being shown that sponges have medicinal values as well. They are being used to make antibiotics to fight bacteria, and also arthritis.
  • 9. Sponges
    • Sponges range in size from very small, to the size of a small car.
    • They could be symmetrical or asymmetrical, and adult sponges live in one place for a long time before they are moved by waves or strong currents.
    • These sponges that stay in one place are called sessiles, and are usually found in large colonies of sponges.
  • 10. Sponge body structure
    • A sponge has a hollow body that is open at one end and closed at the other.
    • The outside of the body contains small holes called pores. They have no tissues or organs.
    • Sponges have sharp spicules, that are spike like to held ward off predators.
    • Also, they could be made of spongin, which is a skeleton of fibrous material that also serves for protection.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Food and reproduction of Sponges
    • They obtain food by cycling bacteria, protists, and algae through their pores.
    • Most species of sponges are hermaphrodites, and produce both sperm and eggs. (sexual reproduction)
    • A sponge cannot fertilize its own egg. When an egg is fertilized it turns into a ciliated larva.
    • Some reproduce by budding. (asexual)
  • 13. Cnidarians
    • These include hydra, jellyfish, anemones, and man of wars.
    • They live in salt water and fresh water, and some live as individuals or they live in colonies.
    • They can have a polyp body form, shaped like a vase, or a medusa shape or a bell shape.
  • 14. Cnidarians
    • All of these have one body opening and radial symmetry. They have 2 body layers, where a sponge only has one.
    • They have tissues that form a digestive cavity. Each cell is able to take Oxygen from the water and convert it to CO2.
    • They have nerve systems called nerve nets, that carry impulses throughout its body.
  • 15. Cnidarians
    • Most of these have tentacles that have stinging cells for protection from predators.
    • Some organisms like small fish live symbiotically with the cnidarians in among their tentacles.
    • They are predators and can stun and poison their prey using their stinging cells.
  • 16. Cnidarians
    • They reproduce sexually and asexually.
    • Polyp forms reproduce asexually by budding and sexually by producing sperm and eggs.
    • Medusa forms release sperm or eggs into the sea. When they fertilize it drops to the ground and forms as a polyp. (sexual stage)
    • After this, a medusa buds off the polyp and the cycle begins again.( asexual stage)
    • H.W. pg 360 ques. 1-10
  • 17.  
  • 18. Worms
    • Worms are invertebrates with soft bodies and bilateral symmetry.
    • They have 3 tissue layers that are organized into tissues and organ systems.
    • Flatworms have flattened bodies, and are free living or parasitic in nature.
    • Flatworms include planarians, flukes, and tapeworms.
  • 19. Flatworm
  • 20. Planarians
    • Planarians are free living worms with triangular shaped heads that have 2 eye spots.
    • It has a one body opening, a mouth, and a pharynx that connects it to its digestive system.
    • They are covered in cilia that help it move, and range from 3-30mm in length.
    • They reproduce sexually by dividing in two, and sexually by the use of sperm and ova.
  • 21.  
  • 22. Flukes
    • All flukes are parasites, that mostly reproduce sexually.
    • The male fluke deposits his sperm in the female and the female lays the eggs inside the host.
    • The host passes the eggs in its feces or urine.
    • The newly born worms can then burrow into the skin of hosts such as humans and cause serious disease.
  • 23. Tapeworms
    • These are parasites also, but the use hooks to attach itself to the digestive track of its host.
    • They have no mouth or digestive system, but it absorbs food from the host.
    • They grow by producing a new segment that is placed immediately behind its head.
    • Each segment has both male and female organs. When a segment gets filled with fertilized eggs it breaks off and passes out of the host.
  • 24.  
  • 25.