8th Grade Chapter 1- nature of science


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8th Grade Chapter 1- nature of science

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Nature Of Science
  2. 2. Science and Technology Section 1-1 H.W. pg.14 Ques. 1-4 & pg. 28 ques. 1-2, 4-9 <ul><li>What is Science </li></ul><ul><li>Science is the process of trying to understand the world around you. </li></ul><ul><li>● What do you call someone who practices science? </li></ul><ul><li>A scientist </li></ul><ul><li>● We use science to create technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is the use of knowledge learned through science </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Computers, machines, cars. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Science <ul><li>Many different types of science exist. And they are all named based on the subject matter they are studying. </li></ul><ul><li>-Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Biology = the study of life </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Science = study of Earth and Space </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry = the study of the composition and structure of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry = study of chemical composition of biological forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Physics = study of the interactions between matter and energy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Doing Science <ul><li>Whenever you do science you want to solve a problem . What are some problems that you can solve? </li></ul><ul><li>- Why does a plant grow?, How do we use oxygen? </li></ul><ul><li>In order to solve your scientific problem you must conduct an experiment , which a series of tests that you perform in order to solve your problem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conducting Experiments <ul><li>In order to conduct an experiment you must use the Scientific Method . </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific method is a series of steps taken during an experiment in order to solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>• There are four stages of the scientific method: </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Conclude and apply </li></ul>
  6. 6. Scientific Method <ul><li>1) Prepare : </li></ul><ul><li>- First Identify the problem (what you want to solve). </li></ul><ul><li>Next form a hypothesis . What's a hypothesis ? </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a statement or educated guess that can be tested about a problem. (Why you think this problem exists). </li></ul><ul><li>Lets think of some problems and hypothesis's. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Scientific Method (continued) <ul><li>2) Plan : </li></ul><ul><li>Here we design an experiment in order to test our hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Do : </li></ul><ul><li>Test our hypothesis & Observe and record the results of our experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Conclude and Apply : </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze our results (why our results occurred) </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions (what can say about our experiment. Did it work? Why, Did it fail? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>And if so, what can we do next time to make it work? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Important things to consider when using the scientific method <ul><li>Trials, variables, Controls and Data Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Trials are repeated experiments, performed in order to make sure that your results are consistent. (the more trials you perform the truer the results.) </li></ul><ul><li>Why else would you perform more than just one trial? </li></ul><ul><li>-Human error, faulty material </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Variables are factors in an experiment that can change. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variables- are variables that change during an experiment. (If you wanted to see what soap cleaned dishes the best, all the different soaps used would be independent variables.) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant variables- are the variables being measured. (So you would measure how clean the dishes are after using a specific soap. That result is dependant on the soap used to clean that dish.) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Tables- these organize your observations and results into columns and rows. </li></ul><ul><li>We make data tables in order to keep track of results and be able to communicate them to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls- Controls are variables that never change over the course of an experiment. (Here it would be the amount of soap used to clean the dishes, you would always use the same amount.) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Developing Theories Section 1-2 H.W. pg. 22 ques. 1,3 & pg. 28 ques. 3,10,11-18 <ul><li>After a scientist completes an experiment and analyzed his/her data they than can propose a scientific theory . </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is an explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge that is the result of an experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>A scientific law however, is a statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>-Ex: gravity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Science is always changing and advancing. <ul><li>Science is always changing and advancing. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Because everyday scientists conduct new experiments that discover things that had already existed but we had no knowledge of because we didn’t have the proper technology. </li></ul><ul><li>As long as technology advances science will advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Microscopes, weather instruments like barometers and hygrometers (air vapor). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Limits of Science <ul><li>Science cannot provide answers every question you can ask. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for science to solve a problem there must be variables that can be observed, measured and tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Some questions do not have these measurable variables would be moral value questions, like should animals be killed for scientific experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>These questions deal with what we call ethics and belief systems. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Limits of Science <ul><li>Another limit of science would be biases or a bias. </li></ul><ul><li>A bias is a personal opinion that could affect your observations. </li></ul><ul><li>● Instead you must be objective when conducting an experiment. Meaning you have to be open mined to all outcomes and be willing to test for all of these outcomes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Test on Chapter 1 in one Week!!!!!