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6th Grade  Chapter 13
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6th Grade Chapter 13


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  • 1. Electricity and Magnetism Chapter 13
  • 2. Electricity H.W pg 351 ques. 1-4
    • In today's day and age almost nothing would be possible without electricity.
    • Listening to the radio watching TV or keeping food cold or frozen would be very difficult.
    • Electricity is the change from potential electric energy to the kinetic energy of an atoms charge in motion.
  • 3. Charges
    • Everything on Earth has what we call a charge or an electrical unit.
    • These charges can be positive or negative just like in protons and electrons.
    • It is important to know that opposite charges attract each other, like a magnet to metal.
    • In an atom the nucleus is positive and the negative electrons around it are held there by the attraction between the opposite charges.
    • The electrons closer to the nucleus are held tighter than the ones further away.
  • 4. Charges
    • We saw that charges can change when something looses or gains electrons. The loos of them will make an atom positive.
    • And a gain of them will cause the atom to be negative.
    • When atoms buildup or loose electrons what is created is potential electric energy called static electricity.
    • So if your hand happen to gain a couple of extra electrons from say your cloths and you go to touch a door, the electrons leap from your hand to the door knob and give you a shock.
    • When the electrons leap from one place to another and cause a spark its called static discharge.
  • 5. Circuits
    • A circuit is a complete, unbroken pathway for electrons to follow. They can have many paths for electrons to follow.
    • Metal wires are used to make circuits because they are good conductors of electricity.
    • They are covered by rubber to protect from electrocution. So rubber is a bad conductor of electricity.
  • 6. Circuits
    • Electrons always move from an area of more to an area of less electrons. And circuits control this flow from one place to another.
    • Circuits start and stop the flow using a switch, when closed the flow stops.
    • They have a source, like a battery or generator.
  • 7. Circuits
    • The source, or the battery actually separates the positive and negative charges of a chemical. (battery acid made of zinc)
    • When they are separated they have potential energy and when the switch is flipped they are made into kinetic electricity by moving the electrons to a place with less amounts of electrons.
    • We measure electricity in volts. A volt is the amount of energy that lies between the charges or ends of a battery.
  • 8. Circuits
    • Certain machines need more volts than others. And therefore might need more batteries.
    • Like a walkman and a remote control car.
    • The currents of batteries only run in one direction. From + to -, and is called a Direct current (DC)
    • Things that don’t use batteries, like TV’s, refrigerators and computers use what we call alternating currents (AC) .
  • 9. Alternating Currents H.W. pg 359 ques 1-4
    • An alternating current has electricity running through it in one direction for a period of time, then that current turns around and runs in the opposite direction.
    • This type of electricity comes from an outlet, which is connected to a source like a generator and you plug whatever you want to be powered into it with a plug.
  • 10. Magnets
    • A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field . Due to oppositely charged ends.
    • A magnet has a North and South poles or a + or – end that are attracted to each other.
    • For something to be magnetic all of the atoms of that material have to point in the same direction.
    • This allows all of the electrons to cause a magnetic field in one direction and the protons cause the opposite charge in the other direction.
  • 11. Magnets
    • If all of the atoms pointed in different directions the protons and electrons would cancel each other out and the item would not be magnetized.
    • An electromagnet is a magnet that is made from an iron rod that is wrapped in metal wire and is hooked up to a battery.
    • These work just like regular magnets, but they have the ability to be turned on and off. Ex: doorbell.
  • 12. Sources of electricity
    • Power plants use generators to change different types of energy into electrical energy with turbines.
    • Water energy is made into hydroelectric energy with damns and turbines.
    • Solar energy with solar cells & wind energy with windmills.
    • H.W. pg. 370 ques. 1-10
  • 13. TEST IN ONE WEEK!!!!!