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2013 AcuityES Case Study

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  • 1. In-Situ Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium, Antimony and Nickel with Sub-Micron (Nano)-Scale Ferrous Sulfide Slurry Jim V. Rouse, Richard H. Christensen, PhD LPG, & Steven R. Irvin µg/L (AcuityES, Fishers, IN) © AcuityES 2013
  • 2. Acuity Environmental Solutions Company’s Primary Focus: • Environmental Liability Consulting (how to manage liabilities) • Site Investigation – Soil, Groundwater, Air • Remediation of contaminated Sites • Expert Witness Testimony Company’s Secondary Focus: • Environmental Permitting – Air, Water, Waste • Environmental Compliance © AcuityES 2013
  • 3. In-Situ Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium,Antimony and Nickel with Nano-Scale Ferrous Sulfide Slurry Presented At: • International Seminar on Remediation and Redevelopment of Contaminated Sites, Sao Paulo, Brazil • AEHS West Coast Conference, San Diego, CA • USEPA’s Sustainable Remediation International Conference, Amherst, MA • AWPA National Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, FL & Nashville, TN • Midwest States Environmental Consulting Assoc., Indianapolis, IN • Battelle Conference, Monterey, California © AcuityES 2013
  • 4. Case Study In…In Situ Geochemical Reduction Stabilization (i.e., immobilizing) of metal constituents by chemically reducing the metals of concern to less soluble forms through the manipulation of geochemical factors such as: • pH • Oxidation potential (Eh or ORP) • Complexation • Sorption • Ion exchange Resulting in the elimination of metallic contaminants by: • Precipitation • Dissolution • Oxidation • Complexation © AcuityES 2013
  • 5. Key Project Considerations Competitor’s Proposals for Project included: • Off-site disposal of hazardous soils • 15 - 20 year pump and treat remedy for groundwater • >$8 Million Note: original estimates based on >50% smaller source area Our Solution: • In Situ remediation of impacted soils and groundwater • Goal: 2 year total remedy - 1/8th the time - • Cost: $4.5 Million - Nearly 50% below competitor’s bids - © AcuityES 2013
  • 6. Chrome Plating Gone Wild! © AcuityES 2013
  • 7. First things first… Segregation of Waste for DisposalInterior Building Decontamination Building Demolition © AcuityES 2013
  • 8. First things first… Groundwater SamplingSoil Boring & Well Installation Soil Sampling © AcuityES 2013
  • 9. Site Location -- Muncie, IN GW Impacts Source Areas © AcuityES 2013
  • 10. Site Plan for X-Section LineSite Conditions A’First investigation – 2005AcuityES - 2009 A © AcuityES 2013
  • 11. Geologic X-Section FORMER BASEMENT SOURCE AREA © AcuityES 2013
  • 12. HydrogeologyUnconfined AquiferClay to 15 feet (w/stringers)Sands & fine gravelsStatic Water at 15’ bglSaturated thickness 5’ in SE to > 25’ in NW © AcuityES 2013
  • 13. Soil Impacts 7,900 mg/Kg maximum Cr+6 3,600 mg/Kg Cr+6 at 12’ bgl State Cleanup Goal - 38 mg/Kg• Two Adjacent Source Areas• 5,400 cubic yards of impact• Perched water sand stringers © AcuityES 2013
  • 14. GroundwaterImpacts On-Site Cr+6 800,000 µg/L 9,700,000 µg/L Groundwater COCs 66,000 sq ft (320 ft long) Plume Cr+6, Sb, As, and Ni Offsite Cr+6 at 58,800 µg/L State Cleanup Goal- 100 µg/L Cr+6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 15. In Situ Chemical Reduction BENCH TESTED CHEMICALS REDUCTANTS•Ferrous Sulfate : FeSO4·7H2O •Sodium Thiosulfate : Na2S2O3•Ferrous Sulfide : FeS •Sodium Metabisulfite : Na2S2O5•Calcium Polysulfide (CPS) : CaSx •Sodium Sulfite : Na2SO3 •Zero Valent Iron © AcuityES 2013
  • 16. Selected Ferrous Sulfide (FeS) FeS, Hybrid Form (aka precipitated pyrite) Liquid suspension of 7% FeS FeS, hybrid - With additional 2% free Sulfide to simulate CaSx Nanoscale: 98% crystals <5 microns Cationic (Iron) 4 H2O + Cr042- + 3 Fe2- + 4 OH-  3 Fe(OH)3+ Cr(OH)3 (Solid) Anionic (sulfide) 17 H2O + 8 Cr042- + 3 HS-  3 S + 8 Cr(OH)3 (Solid) + 12 OH- © AcuityES 2013
  • 17. In Situ Soil Blending GPS Grid Network – 10’ x 10’ (100’ x 70’ to 15’) & Shallow to 5’Dual Axis Blender – 15’ PlungeTotal Area – 130’ x 110’ Computerized Dosing © AcuityES 2013
  • 18. In Situ Soil Blending Dual Axis Blender FeS injection/mixing © AcuityES 2013
  • 19. In Situ Soil Blending Thorough Mixing to 15’ BGL © AcuityES 2013
  • 20. In Situ Soil Blending Completed in 2 weeks Total FeS = 78,300 gallons Subsequent stabilization with aglime required © AcuityES 2013
  • 21. Confirmation Sampling © AcuityES 2013
  • 22. Groundwater Injections – FeSTHE NUMBERS155 Inject Pts15 ft ROI6 wks complete © AcuityES 2013
  • 23. Groundwater Injections Difficult InjectionsBoulder Fields 6’ caliche(calcified silt)Lodgement till © AcuityES 2013
  • 24. Groundwater Injections FeS Injection Totes 35,385 gallons injected Rotosonic Drilling Top Down Injection – 5ft intervals © AcuityES 2013
  • 25. Groundwater Injections Sensitivity tothe Community Required Residential Hours © AcuityES 2013
  • 26. Preferential Flow Paths15 – 20’ bglSand Unit © AcuityES 2013
  • 27. Preferential Flow Paths20 - 25’ bglSand Unit © AcuityES 2013
  • 28. Pre-Treatment Cr +6State Cleanup Goal of 100 µg/L © AcuityES 2013
  • 29. FeS Reductant Injection © AcuityES 2013
  • 30. 1 st Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 31. 2 nd Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 32. 3 rd Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 33. 1 st Supplemental Injection © AcuityES 2013
  • 34. 4 th Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 35. 5 th Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 36. 6 th Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 37. 7 th Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 38. 2 nd Supplemental Injection © AcuityES 2013
  • 39. 8 th – 10 th Q Post-Treatment Cr +6 © AcuityES 2013
  • 40. Antimony Treatment Antimony Concentrations: Detected in 25 monitoring wells on-Site up to 30,000 µg/L off-Site up to 4,700 µg/L State Industrial Cleanup level - 41 µg/L State Residential Cleanup Level - 6 µg/L Goal for Antimony: Fixate onto Goethite (FeO(OH)) or Precipitate as stibnite (Sb2S3) © AcuityES 2013
  • 41. Pre-Treatment AntimonyState Cleanup Goal of 6 µg/L © AcuityES 2013
  • 42. FeS Reductant Injection © AcuityES 2013
  • 43. 1 st Q Post-Treatment Antimony © AcuityES 2013
  • 44. 2 nd Q Post-Treatment Antimony © AcuityES 2013
  • 45. 3 rd Q Post-Treatment Antimony © AcuityES 2013
  • 46. 1 st Supplemental Injection © AcuityES 2013
  • 47. 4 th - 10 th Q Post-Treatment AntimonyAll results less than methoddetection level of 6 µg/L © AcuityES 2013
  • 48. Nickel Treatment Nickel Concentrations Detected in 10 wells exceeding cleanup levels off-Site up to 4,100 µg/L on-Site up to 50,000 µg/L State Industrial Cleanup level – 2,000 µg/L State Residential Cleanup Level - 730 µg/L Goal for Nickel: Fixate as: westerveldite ([FeNiCo]As) or pentlandite (FeNiS) © AcuityES 2013
  • 49. Pre-Treatment NickelState Cleanup Goal of 730 µg/L © AcuityES 2013
  • 50. FeS Reductant Injection © AcuityES 2013
  • 51. 1st Q Post-Treatment NickelAll results less than methoddetection level of 50 µg/L Nosubsequent detections © AcuityES 2013
  • 52. ArsenicArsenic – Pre-treatment As detected in 13 wells @ concentrations of 11 µg/L to 360 µg/L 10th Quarter Sampling results: only 2 wells @ 11 & 12 µg/L Goal for Arsenic Fixate as: orpiment (As2S3) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) © AcuityES 2013
  • 53. The Site Today © AcuityES 2013
  • 54. ISCR Benefits1. In situ soil blending eliminated need for off-Site hazardous waste disposal. (> 10,000 Tons)2. In situ groundwater geochemical reduction eliminated need for prolonged pump and treat.3. In situ geochemical reduction reduced time period of remediation from > 15 years to about 2 years. © AcuityES 2013
  • 55. CONTACTRichard H. Christensen, PhD, LPG – rchristensen@acuityes.com Steven R. Irvin – Irvin@acuityes.com Jim V. Rouse – jrouse@acuityes.com 317-570-4919 Past Teaming Partners CDM Smith Mundell & Associates Burns & McDonnell CALIBRE Professional Engineers MWH Global Malcom Pirnie Carndo MMA www.acuityes.com © AcuityES 2013

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