Introduction To Web Accessibility

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Introduction To Web Accessibility

  1. 1. Introduction to web accessibility<br />Steven M. Swafford<br />Radical Development<br />
  2. 2. Why Web Accessibility?<br />It’s The Law<br />Americans with Disabilities Act, 1996<br />Rehabilitation Act, 1998<br />It’s the RIGHT thing to do.<br />Not easy; not free<br />
  3. 3. Goals of Web Accessibility<br />Improve the usability of technology for all technology users through Universal Design as an underlying approach. <br />Address accessibility challenges consistently over time. <br />Foster collaboration.<br />
  4. 4. Accessible Technology For All<br />The goal is universal design that is integrated and equal: Don’t make disabled people use a different Web structure but make it so they can use it too.<br />Dan Fruchterman, Engineer’s Focus: Accessible Technology for All<br />
  5. 5. Web Accessibility Overview<br />Web Accessibility Refers To The Inclusive Practice Of Making Websites Usable For People Of All Abilities And Disabilities<br />Well Designed And Developed Sites Provide All Users Access To Information And Functionality<br />The Assistive Needs That Web Accessibility Attempts To Address Include:<br />Visual<br />Motor/Mobility<br />Auditory<br />Seizures<br />Cognitive/Intellectual<br />
  6. 6. The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)<br />Web Accessibility Initiative<br />Guidelines for:<br /><ul><li>Aiding disabled audience
  7. 7. Aiding agent-type support</li></ul>The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is committed to promoting usability for people with disabilities<br />Universal access for everyone.<br />Must take into account user agents other than browsers: mobile phones, PDAs, screen readers and magnifiers, etc.<br />
  8. 8. W3C Accessibility Guidelines<br />Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content <br />Don't rely on color alone<br />Use markup and style sheets and do so properly <br />Clarify natural language usage <br />Create tables that transform gracefully<br />Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully<br />Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes<br />Provide context and orientation information <br />Provide clear navigation mechanisms<br />Ensure that documents are clear and simple<br />
  9. 9. Accessibility Principles<br />“Perceivable”<br />Alternative text and “text only” website equivalents<br />Supports assistive technologies (JAWS)<br />Text and audio transcripts for video and audio features<br />Remove reliance on shape, size, location, color, or sound to navigate<br />“Operable”<br />Use of keyboard alternative for site navigation<br />No action “timeouts”<br />Eliminate automatic “redirects” and other content changes<br />Eliminate blinking screen features at certain rates (seizures)<br />Alternative ways of finding other site pages (Table of Contents, Site Map)<br />
  10. 10. Accessibility Principles, cont’d<br />“Understandable”<br />Identification of multi-lingual sections<br />Glossaries for acronyms and unusual terms<br />Identified page focus points as they change (for assistive technologies)<br />Consistent functionality presented consistently across pages<br />Intuitive and clear definition of input requirements and error messages<br />“Robust”<br /> Supports plug ins, scripts, applets and other current and future user agents<br />Accessibility of PDFs and other file types to assistive technologies<br />
  11. 11. Important Facts<br />15,000,000<br />Number of visually impaired people in the United States<br />28,000,000<br />Number people in the United States with some amount of hearing loss<br />September 6, 2006<br />A federal district court judge rules that a retailer may be sued if its website is inaccessible to the blind. (NFB v. Target)<br />
  12. 12. Visual Barriers can include<br />Images (still or animated)<br />Video & Visual elements<br />“Downloadable” files w/plugins<br />Inconsistent navigation or content <br />Lack of adequate Color Contrast <br />Certain color combinations<br />
  13. 13. Sound Barriers can include<br />Video or audio<br />Lack of transcript or captioning w/narrative<br />“Downloadable” files <br />Auditory stimulus that does not provide an alternative<br />
  14. 14. the Challenge<br />In the United States, over 8 million people are blind or visually impaired <br />There were over 20 million deaf and hard of hearing people in the United States in 1994; of these about a million cannot understand any speech <br />Over a quarter of a million Americans have spinal cord injuries <br />About half a million Americans have cerebral palsy <br />A third of a million Americans have multiple sclerosis<br />
  15. 15. Investigating within<br />How many people are expected to make use of the technology? <br />Is it likely to be used again in the future, or repeatedly? <br />Is it available publicly, or only to a pre‐determined audience? <br />Is it required to be used for academic or institutional purposes?<br />
  16. 16. Checklist for building your site<br />Manual checking: how does site work with:<br />Images turned off<br />Sound turned off<br />Larger than normal font sizes<br />Small screen resolution<br />Black and white display<br />Without a mouse<br />
  17. 17. Validating your sites<br />Check with a semi-automatic accessibility checker:<br />Wave <br />Bobby<br />Syntax check HTML through W3C validators<br />Do user testing<br />
  18. 18. The effect of age<br />Physical impairments, minor and major, become more common with the passing years<br />More than half of the population in the United States over the age of 65 has some kind of impairment<br />This is a rapidly growing group; in the year 2000, there were 34.8 million people over 65, a number projected to be 53.7 million by 2020<br />
  19. 19. What is a Screen reader?<br />Narrates (reads aloud) the text on the screen<br />Important considerations:<br />HTML tables must not be used to control layout: doing so makes the narration difficult to understand<br />HTML tables used to display tabular material need additional markup to make the meaning clear<br />
  20. 20. Closed captioning<br />Common web accessibility guidelines indicate that captions should be:<br />Synchronized- the text content should appear at approximately the same time that audio would be available<br />Equivalent- content provided in captions should be equivalent to that of the spoken word<br />Accessible- caption content should be readily accessible and available to those who need<br />
  21. 21. Closed captioning example<br />
  22. 22. Accessibility In A Nutshell<br />An Accessible Website Is One That Can Be Used By Disabled People As Easily As By The Non-disabled.<br />Web Accessibility Means That People With Disabilities Can Perceive, Understand, Navigate, And Interact With The Web<br />
  23. 23. Get Plugged In<br />Keep An Eyes On The WC3 Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)<br />Review The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Section 508<br />
  24. 24. Additional Resources<br />WC3 Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)<br />Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Section 508<br />How To Meet WCAG 2.0<br />WebAIM Screen Reader Simulation<br />Guidelines for Accessible, Usable Web Sites With Screen Readers<br />Voluntary Product Accessibility Template<br />WC3 Complete List of Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools<br />Section 508: Opening Doors To IT<br />
  25. 25. Conclusion<br />

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